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Маневрирование ТБС типа «Нефтегаз» при швартовых операциях..pdf

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Ʌɵɯɢɧ Ƚ.ȼ., ɉɚɫɟɱɧɢɤɨɜ Ɇ.Ⱥ. Ɇɚɧɟɜɪɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɌȻɋ ɬɢɩɚ "ɇɟɮɬɟɝɚɡ"…
Ɇɚɧɟɜɪɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɌȻɋ ɬɢɩɚ "ɇɟɮɬɟɝɚɡ" ɩɪɢ ɲɜɚɪɬɨɜɵɯ
ɨɩɟɪɚɰɢɹɯ
Ƚ.ȼ. Ʌɵɯɢɧ1, Ɇ.Ⱥ. ɉɚɫɟɱɧɢɤɨɜ2
1
ɋɭɞɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɶɫɤɢɣ ɮɚɤɭɥɶɬɟɬ ȽɆȺ ɢɦ. ɋ.Ɉ. Ɇɚɤɚɪɨɜɚ, ɤɚɮɟɞɪɚ
ɫɭɞɨɜɨɠɞɟɧɢɹ, ɋɚɧɤɬ-ɉɟɬɟɪɛɭɪɝ
2
ɋɭɞɨɜɨɞɢɬɟɥɶɫɤɢɣ ɮɚɤɭɥɶɬɟɬ ɆȽɌɍ, ɤɚɮɟɞɪɚ ɫɭɞɨɜɨɠɞɟɧɢɹ
Ⱥɧɧɨɬɚɰɢɹ. Ɋɚɫɫɦɚɬɪɢɜɚɸɬɫɹ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɦɚɧɟɜɪɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ, ɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɵɟ ɫ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɦɢ ɡɚɞɚɱɚɦɢ
ɬɪɚɧɫɩɨɪɬɧɨ-ɛɭɤɫɢɪɧɨɝɨ ɫɭɞɧɚ ɬɢɩɚ "ɇɟɮɬɟɝɚɡ": ɩɨɞɯɨɞ ɤ ɛɭɪɨɜɨɣ ɩɥɚɬɮɨɪɦɟ, ɬɚɧɤɟɪɭ ɢ ɛɟɡɨɩɚɫɧɚɹ
ɫɬɨɹɧɤɚ ɜ ɪɚɛɨɱɟɦ ɪɟɠɢɦɟ ɭ ɷɬɢɯ ɫɭɞɨɜ.
Abstract. The paper considers the peculiarities of manoeuvring occurring due to the production objects of the
transport-tugboat (the "Neftegaz" type): approaching to drilling platforms, tankers, safety anchorage in operative
mode.
1. ȼɜɟɞɟɧɢɟ
ɋɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɟ ɫɭɞɚ ɧɟɮɬɟɝɚɡɨɜɨɝɨ ɮɥɨɬɚ ɢɦɟɸɬ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɧɨɫɬɢ ɜ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɟɧɢɢ, ɫɜɹɡɚɧɧɵɟ ɫ
ɜɵɩɨɥɧɟɧɢɟɦ ɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɱɟɫɤɢɯ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɫɬɜɟɧɧɵɯ ɡɚɞɚɱ – ɛɟɫɩɟɪɟɛɨɣɧɵɦ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɟɦ ɛɭɪɨɜɵɯ
ɩɥɚɬɮɨɪɦ. Ʉɨɥɢɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɲɜɚɪɬɨɜɧɵɯ ɨɩɟɪɚɰɢɣ ɡɚ ɜɚɯɬɭ (ɱɟɬɵɪɟ ɱɚɫɚ) ɦɨɠɟɬ ɞɨɫɬɢɝɚɬɶ ɜɨɫɶɦɢ, ɱɬɨ
ɧɚɤɥɚɞɵɜɚɟɬ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɵɟ ɬɪɟɛɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɤ ɫɨɨɬɜɟɬɫɬɜɭɸɳɟɣ ɩɨɞɝɨɬɨɜɤɟ ɲɬɭɪɦɚɧɫɤɨɝɨ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɚ.
ɉɨɥɧɨɫɬɶɸ ɞɨɥɠɧɵ ɛɵɬɶ ɢɫɤɥɸɱɟɧɵ ɚɜɚɪɢɣɧɵɟ ɫɢɬɭɚɰɢɢ (ɫɬɨɥɤɧɨɜɟɧɢɹ, ɧɚɜɚɥɵ) ɜɜɢɞɭ ɧɟ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ
ɜɵɫɨɤɨɣ ɫɬɨɢɦɨɫɬɢ ɨɛɨɪɭɞɨɜɚɧɢɹ, ɧɨ ɢ ɩɨɠɚɪɨɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɝɨ ɧɚɧɟɫɟɧɢɹ ɷɤɨɥɨɝɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ
ɭɳɟɪɛɚ (Ʉɚɰɦɚɧ, Ⱦɨɪɨɝɨɫɬɚɣɫɤɢɣ, 1979).
2. Ɍɪɚɧɫɩɨɪɬɧɨ-ɛɭɤɫɢɪɧɨɟ ɫɭɞɧɨ "ɇɟɮɬɟɝɚɡ"
Ɍɪɚɧɫɩɨɪɬɧɨ-ɛɭɤɫɢɪɧɨɟ ɫɭɞɧɨ (ɌȻɋ) "ɇɟɮɬɟɝɚɡ"
ɩɪɟɞɧɚɡɧɚɱɟɧɨ ɞɥɹ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɛɭɪɨɜɵɯ ɩɥɚɬɮɨɪɦ ɧɚ ɲɟɥɶɮɟ
ɧɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɵɦ ɫɧɚɛɠɟɧɢɟɦ (ɬɪɭɛɵ, ɩɢɬɶɟɜɚɹ ɢ ɬɟɯɧɢɱɟɫɤɚɹ
ɜɨɞɚ, ɬɨɩɥɢɜɨ, ɦɚɫɥɚ, ɰɟɦɟɧɬ, ɛɚɪɢɬ, ɩɪɨɞɭɤɬɵ ɩɢɬɚɧɢɹ ɢ
ɩɪɨɱɟɟ) ɢ ɛɭɤɫɢɪɨɜɤɢ ɩɥɚɜɭɱɢɯ ɛɭɪɨɜɵɯ ɫɭɞɨɜ (ɉɉȻɍ –
ɩɥɚɜɭɱɚɹ ɩɨɥɭɩɨɝɪɭɠɧɚɹ ɛɭɪɨɜɚɹ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɚ, ɋɉȻɍ –
ɫɚɦɨɩɨɞɴɟɦɧɚɹ ɩɥɚɜɭɱɚɹ ɛɭɪɨɜɚɹ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɚ, ɉȻɍ – ɩɨɝɪɭɠɧɚɹ
Ɋɢɫ. 1. ɍɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟ ɌȻɋ ɭ ɛɨɪɬɚ ɬɚɧɤɟɪɚ
ɛɭɪɨɜɚɹ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɚ), ɧɟɫɚɦɨɯɨɞɧɵɯ ɫɭɞɨɜ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɹ (ɛɚɪɠɢ).
ɤɨɪɦɨɣ ɧɚ ɜɟɬɟɪ
ɋɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɟ ɌȻɋ ɬɢɩɚ "ɇɟɮɬɟɝɚɡ" ɢɦɟɸɬ ɦɨɳɧɨɫɬɶ ɨɬ
5 ɞɨ 12 ɬɵɫ. ɥ.ɫ. Ʉɚɤ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɨ, ɨɧɢ ɢɦɟɸɬ ɧɨɫɨɜɨɟ ɩɨɞɪɭɥɢɜɚɸɳɟɟ
ɭɫɬɪɨɣɫɬɜɨ (ɇɉɍ), ɞɜɚ ɜɢɧɬɚ ɜ ɩɨɜɨɪɨɬɧɵɯ ɧɚɫɚɞɤɚɯ ɫ ɭɝɥɨɦ
ɩɟɪɟɤɥɚɞɤɢ 35q ɢ ɛɨɥɟɟ (ɧɟɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɢɡ ɫɭɞɨɜ ɢɦɟɸɬ ɧɟɡɚɜɢɫɢɦɵɟ
ɩɨɜɨɪɨɬɧɵɟ ɧɚɫɚɞɤɢ), ɢɧɵɟ ɫɭɞɚ ɢɦɟɸɬ ɜɢɧɬɨɪɭɥɟɜɵɟ ɤɨɥɨɧɤɢ.
ɋɭɞɚ ɨɛɨɪɭɞɨɜɚɧɵ ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɦɢ ɧɚɜɢɝɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɦɢ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɚɦɢ
GPS. Ɋɹɞ ɫɭɞɨɜ ɨɛɨɪɭɞɨɜɚɧ ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɦɢ ɧɚɜɢɝɚɰɢɨɧɧɵɦɢ
ɤɨɦɩɥɟɤɫɚɦɢ ɞɢɧɚɦɢɱɟɫɤɨɝɨ ɩɨɡɢɰɢɨɧɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ, ɫɩɨɫɨɛɧɵɦɢ
ɭɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɬɶɫɹ ɧɚ ɦɟɫɬɟ ɩɪɢ ɜɨɥɧɟɧɢɢ ɦɨɪɹ 3-4 ɛɚɥɥɚ.
ɉɟɪɟɜɨɡɤɚ ɝɪɭɡɨɜ ɩɪɟɞɭɫɦɨɬɪɟɧɚ ɧɚ ɩɚɥɭɛɟ, ɩɨɷɬɨɦɭ
ɧɚɞɫɬɪɨɣɤɚ ɫɦɟɳɟɧɚ ɜ ɧɨɫɨɜɭɸ ɱɚɫɬɶ. Ɉɬɫɸɞɚ ɫɥɟɞɭɟɬ, ɱɬɨ Ɋɢɫ. 2. ɍɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟ ɌȻɋ ɭ ɛɨɪɬɚ ɬɚɧɤɟɪɚ
ɧɨɫɨɦ ɧɚ ɜɟɬɟɪ
ɰɟɧɬɪ ɩɚɪɭɫɧɨɫɬɢ ɧɚɯɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɜ ɧɨɫɨɜɨɣ ɱɚɫɬɢ. ɂɦɟɹ ɞɨɫɬɚɬɨɱɧɵɣ
ɡɚɩɚɫ ɦɨɳɧɨɫɬɢ, ɫɭɞɧɨ ɯɨɪɨɲɨ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɩɪɢ ɞɜɢɠɟɧɢɢ ɧɨɫɨɦ ɢ ɤɨɪɦɨɣ, ɦɨɠɟɬ ɞɜɢɝɚɬɶɫɹ ɥɚɝɨɦ.
ɉɪɢ ɧɟɛɨɥɶɲɨɦ ɜɟɬɪɟ ɢ ɜɨɥɧɟɧɢɢ ɫɭɞɧɨ ɥɭɱɲɟ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɹɟɬɫɹ ɤɨɪɦɨɣ ɧɚ ɜɟɬɟɪ, ɭɱɢɬɵɜɚɹ, ɱɬɨ
ɰɟɧɬɪ ɩɚɪɭɫɧɨɫɬɢ ɜ ɧɨɫɨɜɨɣ ɱɚɫɬɢ. Ⱦɜɢɝɚɬɶɫɹ ɤɨɪɦɨɣ ɧɚ ɜɟɬɟɪ ɫɥɟɞɭɟɬ ɦɚɥɨɣ ɫɤɨɪɨɫɬɶɸ, ɢɡɛɟɝɚɹ ɭɞɚɪɨɜ
ɨɬ ɧɚɛɟɝɚɸɳɢɯ ɜɨɥɧ (ɫɥɟɦɦɢɧɝ), ɚ ɬɚɤɠɟ ɡɚɯɨɞɚ ɜɨɥɧɵ ɧɚ ɩɚɥɭɛɭ. ɇɨ ɞɚɠɟ ɜ ɫɜɟɠɭɸ ɩɨɝɨɞɭ ɭɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟ
ɌȻɋ ɭ ɛɨɪɬɚ ɬɚɧɤɟɪɚ ɤɨɪɦɨɣ ɧɚ ɜɟɬɟɪ ɛɨɥɟɟ ɛɟɡɨɩɚɫɧɨ, ɱɟɦ ɧɨɫɨɦ ɧɚ ɜɟɬɟɪ. ɂɡ ɪɢɫ. 1 ɜɢɞɧɨ, ɱɬɨ ɫɢɥɚ Fɜ
ɜɟɬɪɚ ɨɬɨɠɦɟɬ ɌȻɋ ɨɬ ɛɨɪɬɚ ɬɚɧɤɟɪɚ. ɂɦɟɹ ɡɚɩɚɫ ɦɨɳɧɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɯɨɪɨɲɭɸ ɭɩɪɚɜɥɹɟɦɨɫɬɶ, ɞɥɹ ɌȻɋ ɧɟ
ɩɪɟɞɫɬɚɜɥɹɟɬ ɛɨɥɶɲɨɝɨ ɬɪɭɞɚ ɩɟɪɟɜɚɥɢɬɶ ɤɨɪɦɨɣ ɱɟɪɟɡ ɜɟɬɟɪ ɢ ɩɨɞɫɬɚɜɢɬɶ ɞɪɭɝɨɣ ɛɨɪɬ ɜɟɬɪɭ.
ɉɪɢ ɧɚɥɢɱɢɢ ɨɩɵɬɚ ɩɨɞɯɨɞ ɌȻɋ ɤ ɛɭɪɨɜɨɣ ɩɥɚɬɮɨɪɦɟ ɫɬɚɧɨɜɢɬɫɹ ɨɛɵɱɧɵɦ ɞɟɥɨɦ ɢ
ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɬɫɹ, ɤɚɤ ɩɪɚɜɢɥɨ, ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɦɢ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɚɦɢ:
398
ȼɟɫɬɧɢɤ ɆȽɌɍ, ɬɨɦ 7, ʋ3, 2004 ɝ.
ɫɬɪ.398-399
– ɫ ɨɬɞɚɱɟɣ ɹɤɨɪɹ ɢ ɩɨɞɚɱɟɣ ɲɜɚɪɬɨɜɵɯ;
– ɫ ɨɬɞɚɱɟɣ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɹɤɨɪɹ ɢɥɢ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɲɜɚɪɬɨɜɵɯ;
– ɛɟɡ ɩɨɞɚɱɢ ɹɤɨɪɹ ɢ ɲɜɚɪɬɨɜɵɯ.
ɋɬɚɰɢɨɧɚɪɧɵɟ ɛɭɪɨɜɵɟ ɩɥɚɬɮɨɪɦɵ ɨɛɨɪɭɞɭɸɬɫɹ ɲɜɚɪɬɨɜɧɵɦɢ ɛɨɱɤɚɦɢ, ɫɧɚɛɠɟɧɧɵɦɢ
ɲɜɚɪɬɨɜɧɵɦ ɫ ɝɚɲɟɣ ɢ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɧɢɤɨɦ 10-15 ɦ, ɫ ɛɭɟɦ ɫɨ ɫɜɟɬɨɨɬɪɚɠɚɸɳɟɣ ɩɨɥɨɫɨɣ.
3. ɋɩɨɫɨɛɵ ɦɚɧɟɜɪɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ
1) ɋɩɨɫɨɛ ɭɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɹ ɛɟɡ ɩɨɞɚɱɢ ɲɜɚɪɬɨɜɵɯ ɢ ɨɬɞɚɱɢ
ɹɤɨɪɹ, "ɭɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟ". ɉɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɩɪɢ ɤɪɚɬɤɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɣ
ɪɚɛɨɬɟ ɌȻɋ ɭ ɩɥɚɬɮɨɪɦɵ, ɩɪɢ ɪɚɡɨɜɨɦ (2-3 ɩɨɞɴɺɦɚ) ɫɧɹɬɢɢ
ɫɪɚɜɧɢɬɟɥɶɧɨ ɧɟɛɨɥɶɲɢɯ ɩɨ ɜɟɫɭ ɢ ɨɛɴɺɦɭ ɝɪɭɡɨɜ.
2) ɉɪɢ ɩɪɢɠɢɦɧɨɦ ɜɟɬɪɟ ɢ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɢ ɪɟɤɨɦɟɧɞɭɟɬɫɹ
ɨɬɞɚɬɶ ɹɤɨɪɶ, ɥɢɛɨ ɜɫɬɚɬɶ ɧɚ ɲɜɚɪɬɨɜɧɭɸ ɛɨɱɤɭ. ɉɨɞɯɨɞɹ ɤ
ɲɜɚɪɬɨɜɧɨɣ ɛɨɱɤɟ, ɌȻɋ ɥɨɜɢɬ ɩɪɨɜɨɞɧɢɤ ɩɪɢ ɩɨɦɨɳɢ ɤɨɲɤɢ,
ɜɵɛɢɪɚɟɬ ɧɚ ɫɟɛɹ ɲɜɚɪɬɨɜ (ɛɪɚɲɩɢɥɟɦ) ɢ ɡɚɤɪɟɩɥɹɟɬ ɟɝɨ ɧɚ
ɛɚɤɟ. Ɇɚɧɟɜɪɢɪɭɹ ɤɨɪɦɨɣ, ɌȻɋ ɩɨɞɯɨɞɢɬ ɤ ɩɥɚɬɮɨɪɦɟ,
ɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɟɬ ɲɜɚɪɬɨɜɵɣ ɧɚ ɤɨɪɦɟ, ɩɪɢɫɬɭɩɚɟɬ ɤ ɩɟɪɟɞɚɱɟ ɝɪɭɡɚ.
Ɋɢɫ. 3. ɉɨɞɯɨɞ ɫ ɨɬɞɚɱɟɣ ɹɤɨɪɹ
3) ɉɨɞɯɨɞ ɌȻɋ ɤ ɉȻɍ ɫ ɨɬɞɚɱɟɣ ɹɤɨɪɹ.
ɉɨɞɯɨɞ ɌȻɋ ɤ ɉȻɍ ɫ ɨɬɞɚɱɟɣ ɹɤɨɪɹ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɩɪɢ
ɤɪɚɬɤɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɨɣ ɫɬɨɹɧɤɟ, ɩɪɢ ɩɪɢɠɢɦɧɨɦ ɜɟɬɪɟ ɢ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɢ. Ɇɚɧɟɜɪɢɪɭɹ ɦɚɲɢɧɚɦɢ, ɌȻɋ ɭɜɟɪɟɧɧɨ
ɭɞɟɪɠɢɜɚɟɬɫɹ ɭ ɉȻɍ.
Ⱦɥɢɧɚ ɹɤɨɪɶ-ɰɟɩɢ ɡɚɜɢɫɢɬ ɨɬ ɝɥɭɛɢɧɵ ɦɨɪɹ ɢ ɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɟɬɫɹ 2 ɝɥɭɛɢɧɵ ɦɨɪɹ ɩɥɸɫ 2 ɫɦɵɱɤɢ,
ɪɚɫɱɺɬ ɬ. Ⱥ (ɬɨɱɤɢ ɨɬɞɚɱɢ ɹɤɨɪɹ – ɪɢɫ. 3) ɫɜɨɞɢɬɫɹ ɤ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɸ ȾȺȻ – ɪɚɫɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ ɨɬ ɬ. Ⱥ ɞɨ ɉȻɍ ɬ. Ȼ.
ȾȺȻ = ȾɉȻɍ + Lɋ + (L2 – H2)0,5,
ɝɞɟ ȾɉȻɍ – ɪɚɫɫɬɨɹɧɢɟ ɨɬ ɉȻɍ ɞɨ ɤɨɪɦɵ ɫɭɞɧɚ, ɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɟɦɨɟ 10-20 ɦ (ɡɚɜɢɫɢɬ ɨɬ ɜɵɥɟɬɚ ɫɬɪɟɥɵ ɤɪɚɧɚ
ɛɭɪɨɜɨɣ ɩɥɚɬɮɨɪɦɵ); ɇ – ɝɥɭɛɢɧɚ ɦɨɪɹ, ɫ ɭɱɟɬɨɦ ɜɨɡɜɵɲɟɧɢɹ ɹɤɨɪɧɨɝɨ ɤɥɸɡɚ ɧɚɞ ɦɨɪɟɦ; Lɋ – ɞɥɢɧɚ
ɫɭɞɧɚ; L – ɞɥɢɧɚ ɹɤɨɪɶ-ɰɟɩɢ (ɛɟɡ ɩɪɨɜɢɫɚ, ɞɥɢɧɚ ɯɨɪɞɵ); (L2 – H2) 0,5 – ɩɪɨɟɤɰɢɹ ɹɤɨɪɶ-ɰɟɩɢ ɧɚ ɝɪɭɧɬ.
ȼ ɫɜɟɠɭɸ ɩɨɝɨɞɭ (ɞɨ 20 ɦ/ɫ) ɨɬɞɚɟɬɫɹ ɞɨ 4 ɫɦɵɱɟɤ ɹɤɨɪɶ-ɰɟɩɢ ɧɚ ɝɪɭɧɬ + 2 ɝɥɭɛɢɧɵ. ɇɚɩɪɢɦɟɪ,
ɩɪɢ ɝɥɭɛɢɧɟ ɦɨɪɹ 50 ɦ ɨɬɞɚɟɬɫɹ 8-9 ɫɦɵɱɟɤ ɹɤɨɪɶ-ɰɟɩɢ (1 ɫɦɵɱɤɚ – 25-27.5 ɦ).
Ⱦɥɹ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢɹ ɞɢɫɬɚɧɰɢɢ ɩɪɢ ɩɨɞɯɨɞɟ ɤ ɛɭɪɨɜɨɣ ɭɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɟ ɧɚ ɩɪɚɤɬɢɤɟ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɟɬɫɹ ɊɅɋ,
ɱɬɨ ɧɟɛɟɡɨɩɚɫɧɨ ɞɥɹ ɪɚɛɨɬɧɢɤɨɜ ɉȻɍ, ɧɚɯɨɞɹɳɢɯɫɹ ɩɪɢ ɩɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɟ ɹɤɨɪɹ ɧɚ ɨɬɤɪɵɬɨɣ ɩɚɥɭɛɟ
(ɨɛɥɭɱɟɧɢɟ ɚɧɬɟɧɧɨɣ ɥɨɤɚɬɨɪɚ ɧɚ ɛɥɢɡɤɨɦ ɪɚɫɫɬɨɹɧɢɢ). ɇɟɨɛɯɨɞɢɦɨ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɨɜɚɬɶ ɫɨɜɪɟɦɟɧɧɵɟ
ɞɚɥɶɧɨɦɟɪɵ ɢ ɤɚɪɬɨɝɪɚɮɢɱɟɫɤɢɟ ɫɢɫɬɟɦɵ, ɢɫɤɥɸɱɚɸɳɢɟ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɨɫɬɶ ɨɛɥɭɱɟɧɢɹ ɩɟɪɫɨɧɚɥɚ.
4) ɉɨɞɯɨɞ ɫ ɨɬɞɚɱɟɣ ɹɤɨɪɹ ɢ ɩɨɞɚɱɟɣ ɲɜɚɪɬɨɜɵɯ.
ȼ ɷɬɨɦ ɫɥɭɱɚɟ ɜ ɩɟɪɜɭɸ ɨɱɟɪɟɞɶ ɨɬɞɚɟɬɫɹ ɹɤɨɪɶ. Ɋɚɫɱɟɬ ɦɟɫɬɚ ɨɬɞɚɱɢ ɹɤɨɪɹ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɢɬɫɹ, ɤɚɤ ɜ
ɩɭɧɤɬɟ 3. Ɂɚɬɟɦ ɩɪɢɧɢɦɚɸɬɫɹ ɢ ɤɪɟɩɹɬɫɹ ɲɜɚɪɬɨɜɵ, ɤɨɬɨɪɵɟ ɡɚɤɪɟɩɥɹɸɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɲɬɚɬɧɨɦ ɦɟɫɬɟ ɧɚ ɉȻɍ ɢ
ɩɨɞɚɸɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɌȻɋ ɤɪɚɧɨɦ ɉȻɍ. Ɉɧɢ ɧɟ ɞɨɥɠɧɵ ɢɦɟɬɶ ɝɚɲɢ ɞɥɹ ɷɤɫɬɪɟɧɧɨɣ ɨɬɞɚɱɢ. ɉɪɢ ɩɟɪɜɨɦ ɩɨɞɯɨɞɟ
ɲɜɚɪɬɨɜɵ ɦɚɪɤɢɪɭɸɬɫɹ ɞɥɹ ɬɨɱɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɨɞɯɨɞɚ ɜ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɢɣ ɪɚɡ. ɉɨɫɥɟ ɡɚɤɪɟɩɥɟɧɢɹ ɲɜɚɪɬɨɜɵɯ
ɜɵɛɢɪɚɟɬɫɹ ɫɥɚɛɢɧɚ ɹɤɨɪɶ-ɰɟɩɢ.
ȼ ɛɥɚɝɨɩɪɢɹɬɧɭɸ ɩɨɝɨɞɭ, ɭɛɟɞɢɜɲɢɫɶ, ɱɬɨ ɲɜɚɪɬɨɜɵ ɢ ɹɤɨɪɶ-ɰɟɩɶ ɨɛɬɹɧɭɬɵ, ɨɫɬɚɧɚɜɥɢɜɚɸɬ
ɝɥɚɜɧɵɣ ɞɜɢɝɚɬɟɥɶ ɢ ɩɪɢɫɬɭɩɚɸɬ ɤ ɝɪɭɡɨɜɵɦ ɨɩɟɪɚɰɢɹɦ.
5) ɉɨɞɯɨɞ ɫ ɩɨɫɬɚɧɨɜɤɨɣ ɧɚ ɲɜɚɪɬɨɜɵ.
ɉɪɢ ɨɬɠɢɦɧɨɦ ɜɟɬɪɟ ɩɪɢ ɪɚɡɨɜɵɯ ɩɨɞɴɟɦɚɯ ɝɪɭɡɚ (ɩɨɝɪɭɡɤɚ-ɜɵɝɪɭɡɤɚ), ɧɨ ɬɪɟɛɭɸɳɢɯ
ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɧɨɣ ɬɨɱɧɨɫɬɢ (ɛɨɥɶɲɢɟ ɝɚɛɚɪɢɬɵ, ɜɟɫ ɝɪɭɡɚ 20-40 ɬ), ɫɬɚɧɨɜɹɬɫɹ ɧɚ ɨɞɢɧ-ɞɜɚ ɲɜɚɪɬɨɜɚ,
ɝɥɚɜɧɵɣ ɞɜɢɝɚɬɟɥɶ – ɜ ɪɚɛɨɬɟ. ɋɯɟɦɚ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ ɫɥɟɞɭɸɳɚɹ: ɩɨɞɨɲɥɢ ɤɨɪɦɨɣ, ɩɪɢɧɹɥɢ ɲɜɚɪɬɨɜɵ, ɨɬɞɚɥɢ
ɝɪɭɡ, ɨɬɞɚɥɢ ɲɜɚɪɬɨɜɵ, ɨɬɨɲɥɢ.
4. Ɂɚɤɥɸɱɟɧɢɟ
Ʉ ɫɩɟɰɢɮɢɤɟ ɪɚɛɨɬɵ ɌȻɋ ɨɬɧɨɫɢɬɫɹ ɢɧɬɟɧɫɢɜɧɨɟ ɦɚɧɟɜɪɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɟ ɜ ɬɟɱɟɧɢɟ ɜɫɟɝɨ ɜɪɟɦɟɧɢ
ɪɚɛɨɬɵ ɭ ɩɥɚɬɮɨɪɦɵ. Ɋɟɤɨɦɟɧɞɭɟɦɵɟ ɜɚɪɢɚɧɬɵ ɦɚɧɟɜɪɢɪɨɜɚɧɢɹ ɭ ɩɥɚɬɮɨɪɦɵ (ɩɨɞɯɨɞɵ, ɭɞɟɪɠɚɧɢɟ,
ɨɬɯɨɞɵ) ɩɨɡɜɨɥɹɸɬ ɫɷɤɨɧɨɦɢɬɶ ɪɚɛɨɱɟɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɛɭɪɨɜɨɣ ɩɥɚɬɮɨɪɦɵ ɢ ɜ ɬɨ ɠɟ ɜɪɟɦɹ ɫɩɨɫɨɛɫɬɜɭɸɬ
ɫɨɛɥɸɞɟɧɢɸ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɚɥɶɧɨɝɨ ɨɛɟɫɩɟɱɟɧɢɹ ɛɟɡɨɩɚɫɧɨɫɬɢ ɦɨɪɟɩɥɚɜɚɧɢɹ.
Ʌɢɬɟɪɚɬɭɪɚ
Ʉɚɰɦɚɧ Ɏ.Ɇ., Ⱦɨɪɨɝɨɫɬɚɣɫɤɢɣ Ⱦ.ȼ. Ɍɟɨɪɢɹ ɫɭɞɧɚ ɢ ɞɜɢɠɢɬɟɥɢ. Ʌ., ɋɭɞɨɫɬɪɨɟɧɢɟ, 280 ɫ., 1979.
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