e-governance implementation of e-governance include the following (UNESCO, 2011): Kelly L. Page Governance refers to the exercise of political, economic, and administrative authority in the management of a country’s affairs, including citizens’ articulation of their interests and exercise of their legal rights and obligations. Similarly, e-governance is the performance of this governance via electronic technologies. The formal definition is the application of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) for delivering government services, exchange of information communication transactions, integration of various stand-one systems and services between government-to-citizens (G2C), government-to-business (G2B), governmentto-government (G2G), and back office processes and interactions within the entire government framework (Saugata and Masud, 2007; Rossel and Finger, 2007). The aim of e-governance is for electronic technology to facilitate efficient, speedy, and transparent processes for delivering better services, improving government efficiency and effectiveness, achieving transparency and accountability, and facilitating direct citizen participation (Garson, 2006). e-Governance is generally considered as a wider concept than e-government, as it can bring about change in the way how citizens relate to governments and to each other. Advances in ICT and the Internet provide opportunities to transform the relationship between governments and citizens in a new way, thus contributing to the achievement of good governance goals. The fields of • e-Administration: improving government processes and the internal workings of the public sector with new ICT-executed information processes; • e-Services: improving delivery of public services to citizens. Some examples of interactive services include requests for public documents, requests for legal documents and certificates, issuing permits and licenses; and • e-Democracy: is greater and more active citizen participation and involvement enabled by ICTs in the decision-making process. See also corporate governance; IT governance Bibliography Garson, D.G. (2006) Public Information Technology and EGovernance, Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Sudbury, MA. Rossel, P. and Finger, M. (2007) Conceptualizing egovernance. ICEGOV ’07 Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Theory and Practice of Electronic Governance, 399–407. Saugata, B. and Masud, R.R. (2007) Implementing e-governance using OECD model (modified) and Gartner model (modified) upon agriculture of Bangladesh. IEEE. 1-4244-1551-9/07. UNESCO (2011) Unesco e-Governance capacity building http://portal.unesco.org/ci/en/ev.phpURL_ID=2179&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_ SECTION=201.html (accessed 8 July 2013). Wiley Encyclopedia of Management, edited by Professor Sir Cary L Cooper. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.