close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

pho.2017.4278

код для вставкиСкачать
Review
Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
Volume XX, Number XX, 2017
ª Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
Pp. 1–11
DOI: 10.1089/pho.2017.4278
Downloaded by Tufts University package NERL from online.liebertpub.com at 10/28/17. For personal use only.
The Effect of Low Level Laser Therapy on Bone
Healing After Rapid Maxillary Expansion:
A Systematic Review
Foteini G. Skondra, DDS, MSc (Cand.),1 Despina Koletsi, DDS, MSc Ortho, Dr. med. dent,2
Theodore Eliades, DDS, Dr. Orth, PhD,2 and Eleftherios Terry R. Farmakis, DDS, MDSc, PhD3
Abstract
Purpose: The study aimed to systematically appraise the evidence on the effects of low level laser therapy
(LLLT) on bone healing following rapid maxillary expansion (RME). Methods: Electronic search was performed in MEDLINE, Scopus, and Embase databases using appropriate Medical Subject Heading terms, with
no time restriction. ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) was also searched using the terms ‘‘low level
laser therapy’’ and ‘‘maxillary expansion.’’ Selection criteria: Original research articles on human clinical trials
that involved both RME and LLLT were included. Animal studies were also assessed on an exploratory basis.
Results: The search strategy resulted in 12 publications (4 randomized controlled trials, 8 animal studies). In
human studies, bone density was assessed radiographically (either two-dimensional or three-dimensional imaging). Regardless of the discrepancies in the intervention protocols, the total of the trials revealed that LLLT
had stimulatory effects on bone regeneration after RME. The studies in animal models measured the formation
and maturation of new bone qualitatively or quantitatively. Conclusions: Despite the limited evidence, LLLT
seems to be a promising intervention for stimulating immediate bone regeneration and healing after midpalatal
suture expansion. Long-term, randomized clinical trials are needed to formulate safe results and establish a
reliable clinical protocol, rendering the method clinically applicable.
Keywords: low level laser therapy, LLLT, orthodontics, rapid maxillary expansion, systematic review
niques. They differ in the expansion rate and the force
exerted, while the findings about their clinical superiority–
comparability remain controversial, especially in maxillary
anterior region.2
RME is considered a safe and reliable procedure, for
which modern orthodontics uses a variety of appliances, the
Hyrax being the standard tool. Bone density is a crucial
limitation in obtaining a satisfactory clinical outcome regardless of the expansion technique. Quick bone regeneration and healing of trauma and defects that arise in the
midpalatal area as a result of the opening of the suture are
likely to minimize the risk for short-term relapse.3,4
Low-level laser therapy (or low-level laser treatment,
LLLT) has been suggested as an adjunct tool for a wide range
of clinical applications in dentistry.5 LLLT seems to be effective for the treatment of oral mucositis following radiotherapy treatment for head and neck cancer and seems to
improve gingival healing and myofascial and dental pain.6
Introduction
E
veryday clinical orthodontic practices are often
called to treat crossbites, which are discrepancies in the
buccolingual relationship between the upper and the lower
jaws.1 Anterior and posterior crossbites may present different
skeletal or local causes, the former of which constitute the
most severe clinical cases. When maxilla is diagnosed as
constricted and being responsible for the abnormal transverse
skeletal relationship, the orthodontic treatment involves
maxillary expansion in the majority of the cases. This therapeutic intervention comprises the separation and opening of
the midpalatal suture through the use and activation of an
intraoral fixed appliance following a personalized protocol.
Patient’s age is a pivotal factor that determines the ultimate selection of the most suitable expansion method.
Slow maxillary expansion and rapid maxillary expansion
(RME) are the most commonly applied expansion tech1
2
3
Medical School, University of Patras, Rio, Greece.
Clinic of Orthodontics and Paediatric Dentistry, Center of Dental Medicine, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
Department of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.
1
Downloaded by Tufts University package NERL from online.liebertpub.com at 10/28/17. For personal use only.
2
LLLT has also been suggested in the field of orthodontics.
As laser treatment is characterized by relative simplicity and
brevity, it has been applied and tested in solving issues in
clinical orthodontics, which might otherwise be related with
complications or delays in the orthodontic treatment per se.
Such potentially beneficial applications of laser therapy in
Orthodontics may be the acceleration of the velocity of
tooth movement,7 the reduction of pain during the active
phase of the orthodontic treatment,7,8 the management of
soft tissue problems,9 and bracket bonding—debonding
procedures.10 Still, in a systematic review a poor to very
poor score for pain palliation and the acceleration of orthodontic tooth movement is noted.7
Previous in vitro and in vivo research has also examined
the capacity of LLLT to accelerate bone healing after a
trauma or defect.11–13 The expression profile of both angiogenic and inflammatory genes seems to be modulated by the
laser therapy.11 Although their results are promising, the
heterogeneity of the intervention protocols and evaluation
methods has prevented reliable conclusions from being
drawn. LLLT appears to stimulate osteoblast proliferation,
collagen deposition, and early bone maturation, leading to
bone neoformation.11–13 Based on the best available evidence
on this field, interest has been raised on the possible application of LLLT on RME to facilitate faster bone healing,
which would lead to more stable long-term outcomes.
As far as the effect of LLLT on bone repair after
midpalatal suture opening is concerned, the level of evidence remains limited. The lack of a systematic approach
and gathering of the related data may be one possible
reason for withholding the intensity of the ongoing research. Therefore, the present review was conducted with
the objective of gathering and critically assessing data
derived from studies in the field, aiming to elucidate
whether the LLLT has ultimately positive effects on bone
healing after RME.
Materials and Methods
The preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and
meta-analyses (PRISMA) were followed for reporting of
this systematic review.14,15
SKONDRA ET AL.
thors decided to include all related scientific articles that
could assess and provide ground evidence on the topic.
Thus, the inclusion and the exclusion criteria were formed
as following.
Inclusion criteria
The articles included in this study were as follows:
1. Randomized controlled trials
2. Controlled clinical trials in which the intervention
comprised surgically assisted RME
3. Original research articles on animal studies. These
studies will be included on an exploratory basis and
presented as secondary sources of information.
The type of the appliance used was not a limiting factor in
the selection of a study.
The criteria for excluding articles from this review were
as follows:
1. Studies irrelevant to LLLT
2. Case reports
3. Clinical trials in which patients suffered from craniofacial deformities (e.g., cleft palate)
4. Studies that used expansion appliances in the context
of distraction osteogenesis of the mandible
Data collection
The systematic search was conducted by one of the authors (F.G.S.) and a list, including the titles of the articles
gathered, was created. Per our criteria, each reviewer
(F.G.S. and D.K.) examined the list independently and
decided upon the articles to be included. Articles that apparently did not meet the inclusion criteria were further
examined based on their abstracts. Discrepancies between
the two investigators (F.G.S. and D.K.) were settled by a
thorough reading of the full-text article and discussion. The
final list of the selected articles was examined further by a
well-trained and experienced researcher (E.T.R.F.) to
avoid possible systematic errors. The three examiners also
performed a quality assessment of the included studies,
after the removal of the duplicates, and reached a consensus through discussion.
Search strategy
A systematic search was conducted using the MEDLINE
(through PubMed) database, the Embase, and Scopus with
no restriction on year of publication. In addition, the ClinicalTrials.gov registry was searched for unpublished literature. The electronic search was repeated during the first
week of February 2017, so as to retrieve current data.
The Medical Subheading terms (MeSH terms) related to
maxillary expansion and LLLT, as well as the search
strategy built for the abovementioned databases, are depicted in the Appendix. Free text words, such as ‘‘orthodontics,’’ ‘‘rapid maxillary expansion,’’ ‘‘low-level laser
treatment,’’ and ‘‘LLLT,’’ were also used during a second
search in the MEDLINE.
Eligibility criteria and study selection
Taking into consideration the limited evidence of the
effect of laser therapy on midpalatal bone healing, the au-
Data extraction
The protocol data of laser therapy from the studies were
organized into four tables (Tables 1–4). The first two tables
summarized the information on the clinical trials. Data on
the animal studies were listed in the third and fourth table.
Animal studies were assessed on an exploratory and descriptive basis. The two investigators (F.G.S., D.K.) collected independently the data from the related articles and
any disagreements raised were arranged by the third investigator (E.T.R.F.).
Risk of bias within studies
Risk of bias in individual studies was assessed according to the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool for both randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical
trials (CCTs).16 In particular, the following domains were
considered:
3
Region evaluated
CBCT imaging
Anterior region
of the maxilla
Digital periapical Incisor region and
radiographs
the anterior region
of the midpalatal
suture
Midpalatal suture
Standardized
occlusal
radiographs
CBCT imaging
Inferior and superior
suture of the maxilla
Measure
method
Stimulation
of bone repair
Stimulation
of bone repair
Stimulation
of bone repair
Relapse in the
7-month follow-up
Stimulation
of bone repair
Outcome
780
660
780
Diode
Diode
Diode
MPAS, midpalatal anterior suture.
830
Diode
Angeletti et al.
(2010)23
Cepera et al.
(
2012)24
Garcia et al.
(2016)33
Fereira et al.
(2016)32
Wavelength
(nm)
Laser
type
Authors and
publication year
70
100
40
100
Output
power (mW)
12 Applications (twice a
week for the first month,
once for the second)
8 Irradiations with
48 h interval
Different interventions
among groups
7 Applications
Number of
interventions
23 (Point A)
12 (Point B)
35
10
140 per point
Dosage
( J/cm2)
20 sec
84 sec per
point
10 sec per
point
60 sec
Irradiation
time
4 Points along MPAS (points A) plus a point
on either side of the suture (point B)
In contact with the mucosa (incisal papilla, right a
nd left of MPAS, posterior)
10 Points near MPAS
3 Points near MPAS
Method of irradiation
Table 2. Additional Data Focusing on the Protocol of Low Level Laser Therapy Applied in the Randomized Controlled Trials
CBCT, cone beam computed tomography; PA, periapical radiograph; RCT, randomized clinical trial; SARME, surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion.
Fereira et al.
(2016)32
Garcia et al.
(2016)33
4 Months
Consolidation
period
90 Days
27 Patients aged Nonlased (13 patients) 8 Days Hyrax
following SARME
8–12 years
Laser group
(14 patients)
39 Patients aged Nonlased (19 patients) Twice daily Hyrax
6 Months
6–12 years
Laser group
activation until 50%
(20 patients)
transversal overcorrection
14 Patients aged Nonlased (4 patients) Hyrax expander
4 Months
8–14 years
Laser group
(twice daily activation)
(10 patients)
for 14 days approximately
7 Days Hyrax
following SARME
Expansion period
Cepera et al.
(2012)24
Groups
13 Patients aged Nonlased (6 patients)
18–33 years
Laser group
(7 patients)
Number of
participants
Angeletti et al.
(2010)23
Authors and
publication year
Table 1. Information on the Randomized Clinical Trials Concerning Authors, Publication Year, Type of Study, Number of Participants, Groups,
Expansion and Consolidation Period, Measure Method, Region Evaluated, and Outcome
Downloaded by Tufts University package NERL from online.liebertpub.com at 10/28/17. For personal use only.
4
30
20
Rats
Rats
Rats
Rats
Ekizer et al. (2013)27
Altan et al. (2015)29
Amini et al. (2015)34
Aras et al. (2015)31
Expansion
period
4 Groups: Nonirradiated,
high, medium,
and low dose group
4 Groups: Nonirradiated,
Treated
for 7, 14, and 30 days
2 Groups Nonirradiated
group, Irradiated group
2 Groups Nonirradiated
group, Irradiated group
10 days
10 days
33 days
None
None
None
Consolidation
period
7 Days
10 days
3 Groups: 7 days None
14 days 30 days
5 Days
5 Days
4 Groups Nonirradiated, 1/3/ 7 Days
7 days irradiated
2 Groups Nonirradiated
Immediate
group, Irradiated group
palatal
expansion
4 Groups No treatment, only 8 Days
expansion,
expansion and LED
Expansion, and LLLT
2 Groups Nonirradiated
7 Days
group, Irradiated group
Groups
HA, hydroxyapatite; LLLT, low level laser therapy; PCR, polymerase chain reaction.
32
78
28
11
Santiago et al. (2012)26 Dogs
30
76
20
Rats
Rats
Number
Species of animals
Rats
Rosa et al. (2014)28
da Silva et al.
25
Saito et al. (1997)
Authors and year
of publication
Increased deposition of HA
Stimulation of osteoblastic
phenotype
Stimulation of bone repair
Outcome
Histological measurement of
the number
Histological evaluation of
bone regeneration
Stimulation of bone repair
Stimulation of bone repair,
Late effects of LLLT
Histological evaluation, con- Stimulation of bone repair
nective tissue, bone, blood
vessels, cells
Histological measurement of Stimulation of bone repair
osteoclasts, osteoblasts,
vessels in 1.5 mm2 area.
Immunostaining with antiDosage-dependant StimulaTGF-b
tion of bone repair
Histologic evaluation Fluorescent microscopy
Real time PCR Runx-2, osteocalcin, type-1 collagen,
ALP
Raman spectroscopy of rat’s
Maxilla
Measure method
Table 3. Data on the Animal Studies Concerning Authors and Year of Publication, Species of the Animals Used, Experimental Groups, Expansion Period,
Consolidation Period, Measure Method, and Outcome
Downloaded by Tufts University package NERL from online.liebertpub.com at 10/28/17. For personal use only.
5
LED
Diode
Diode
Diode
Santiago et al. (2012)26
Ekizer et al. (2013)27
Altan et al. (2015)29
Amini et al. (2015)34
Aras et al. (2015)31
808
810
820
618
126
420
160
Single irradiation group
Single application
after expansion
Dosage ( J/cm2)
7-Day irradiation group
3-Day irradiation group
Number of
interventions
250
Daily between day 4–7
5
3 Interventions on
54
day 1, 3, 5
20 Interventions with
90–120
48-h intervals
20
10 Daily interventions
24
from days 0 to 10
LD Group: 50 4 Treatment sessions
LD group: 5
MD group: 20
MD group: 50
HD group: 100
HD group: 6.300
NR
3 Sessions on day 7, 14, 30
4
70
150 – 10
NR
30
100
Output
power (m W)
HD, high dosage; LD, low dosage; LED, light-emitting diode; MD, medium dosage, NR, not reported.
Diode
LED
Photon
780
850
790–904
830
da Silva et al. (2012)25 Diode
Rosa et al. (2014)28
830
30
Laser Wavelength
type
(nm)
Diode
Saito et al. (1997)
Authors and year
of publication
Method of irradiation
20 sec
LD group: 3 sec
MD group: 13 sec
HD group: 1.98 sec
NR
3 Points palatally, one point
buccally
Premaxillary regions
Around midpalatal suture
Group 1: 3 or 10 min/day Around midpalatal suture
Group 2: 7 min/day
for days 0–2
Group 3: 21 min on day 0
0.42 sec
In contact with and aligned
perpendicular to the palatal
mucosa at the median points
between the anterior edges of
incisors and papilla
257 sec
Midpalatal suture and the cortical
120 sec
area close to it
NR
4 Points bilaterally and parallel
to the suture
20 min
Intermaxillary suture
Irradiation time
Table 4. Additional Data Focusing on the Protocol of Low Level Laser Therapy Applied in the Animal Studies
Downloaded by Tufts University package NERL from online.liebertpub.com at 10/28/17. For personal use only.
Downloaded by Tufts University package NERL from online.liebertpub.com at 10/28/17. For personal use only.
6
(1) Random sequence generation, (2) allocation concealment, (3) blinding of participants and/or personnel involved
in the study, (4) blinding of assessors, (5) incomplete outcome data reporting, (6) selective reporting of outcomes,
and (7) other sources of bias. An overall assessment of the
risk of bias was made for each included study (high, unclear,
low). Trials with at least one item designated to be at high
risk of bias were regarded as having an overall high risk of
bias. Trials with unclear risk of bias for one or more key
domains were considered to be at unclear risk, and trials
with low risk of bias in all domains were rated as low risk of
bias. By convention it was regarded that CCTs were to be
rated as of high risk of bias for the first two domains pertaining to the risk for selection bias.
Summary measures and data synthesis
Clinical heterogeneity of included studies was assessed
through the examination of individual trial settings, eligibility criteria, appliances used, and data collection methods.
Statistical heterogeneity was to be examined through visual
inspection of the confidence intervals (CIs) for the estimated
treatment effects on forest plots. In addition, a chi-square
test was to be applied to assess heterogeneity; a p-value
below the level of 10% ( p < 0.1) was considered indicative
of significant heterogeneity. I2 test for homogeneity was also
to be undertaken to quantify the extent of heterogeneity.17
Only studies of unclear or low risk of bias overall were
intended to be included in meta-analyses. Random effects
meta-analyses were to be conducted as they were considered
more appropriate to better approximate expected variations
in trial settings. Treatment effects were calculated through
pooled standardized mean differences along with associated
95% CIs and prediction intervals where applicable (at least
three trials needed).
Risk of bias across studies
If more than 10 studies were included in meta-analysis,
publication bias was to be explored through standard funnel
plots.18
Additional analyses
Sensitivity analyses were predetermined to explore and
isolate the effect of studies with unclear risk of bias on the
overall treatment effect if both low and unclear risk of bias
studies were included.
SKONDRA ET AL.
case,21 and one clinical trial offered insufficient data about
the expansion and the laser’s intervention protocol.22
The abovementioned studies were excluded from our
review.
Following the inclusion criteria that were set for the
present review, seven articles from the PubMed,23–29 4 articles from Scopus,30–33 and the one additional article34 were
finally included in our study. The number of articles that
were finally included for data analysis was 12 after duplicate
removal.
The study flow diagram is presented in Fig. 1.
Study samples
The articles included controlled clinical trials and laboratory studies on animal models. Specifically, four reports of
randomized controlled trials, involving surgically assisted
rapid maxillary expansion (SARME) in the two studies23,24
and RME with a Hyrax expander in the remaining publications.32,33 In all aspects of the article, animal studies have
been explicitly stated as such and there is clear discrimination from human research to avoid possible extrapolation
of the observed findings by the readership.
Controlled clinical trials
Study sample. The study sample of all clinical trials
involved in the present review consisted mainly of adolescents and young adults.23,24,32,33 The number of participants
ranged from 13 to 27 patients,23,24,32 while only the findings
of Garcia were based on a greater sample of 39 patients.33
Laser type. As far as the clinical trials are concerned,
diode laser was applied in all the four of them.23,24,32,33 The
wavelength of diode laser used was in the range 660–
830 nm, while both Cepera et al.24 and Fereira et al.32 preferred diode laser 780 nm for their intervention.
Orthodontic method and expansion period. The Hyrax
expander was used in the four RCTs.23,24,32,33 The onset of
Hyrax application was set *1 week after the SARME in the
studies that involved both expansion techniques.23,24 In the
studies of Garcia et al. and Fereira et al., Hyrax was activated
twice daily until the observation of the correction of the skeletal
discrepancy in the first one and for 14 days in the latter.32,33
The consolidation period did not differ greatly among the
studies and ranged from 4 to 6 months.23,24,32,33
Results
Methodology for outcome assessment and study results. The effect of laser treatment on bone regeneration
A total of 254 scientific articles were retrieved from the
electronic search we conducted. More specifically, our
electronic search strategy in the MEDLINE database resulted in nine articles, while 236 and nine articles were
gathered from Scopus and Embase, respectively. Hand
search in PubMed and Google Scholar using related keywords yielded one additional scientific article. Clinicaltrials.gov did not yield any additional article. The
duplicates, which counted six, were removed. The round of
screening involved the evaluation of 16 abstracts. Among
them, two studies applied low-level laser treatment in the
context of distraction osteogenesis of the mandible by
means of the Hyrax appliance,19,20 one presented a unique
was measured using various methods among studies. In
clinical trials, bone density was assessed radiographically
(digital photographs, CT scan, and periapical X-rays) after
the application of intervention and compared with a control
nonirradiated group23,24,32,33 (Table 1).
Cepera et al. noted significant disparities in the final effect
on bone healing between five groups, which were subjected
to several irradiation protocols, differing in the onset and
frequency of application.24 Angeletti et al. reported a stimulatory effect of LLLT on bone healing in its early stages,
but failed to observe any differences between the irradiated
and control groups after 7 months.23 The study conducted by
Garcia et al. demonstrated that the application of LLLT
Downloaded by Tufts University package NERL from online.liebertpub.com at 10/28/17. For personal use only.
LLLT AFTER RAPID MAXILLARY EXPANSION: SYSTEMATIC REVIEW
7
FIG. 1. Preferred reporting
items for systematic reviews
and meta-analyses (PRISMA)
flow diagram of the search
strategy and its results.
during the retention phase of RME achieved quicker bone
healing. Bone repair was depicted in the approximation of
the suture margins, which was greater in the anterior area.33
Fereira et al., after comparing the optical density around the
midpalatal area on CT images obtained at the end of the
expansion period and those taken 4 months later, found
acceleration of bone repair process in the irradiated group.32
Data synthesis
No meta-analysis could be implemented in view of the
apparent heterogeneity in individual trial settings, appliance
protocols, and methodology for outcome assessment followed. Consequently, publication bias detection or other
secondary analyses were not performed as well.
Risk of bias within studies
Three studies were unclear,23,24,33 and one was of high
risk of bias.32 Details on the reporting of randomization and
allocation concealment strategies were insufficient in all
included studies. High risk of bias was noted for randomization in one study.32 A similar trend was detected also for
items pertaining to blinding/masking of the personnel in-
volved. In this case it was acknowledged that blinding of the
investigators or the patients was not possible due to the
nature of the interventions. Three studies reported blinding
of the investigator/radiologist who was responsible for data
recordings.23,32,33 Only one study32 was rated as high with
regard to risk for attrition bias as half of the participants
were lost only from one of the groups. Finally, selective
reporting was rated as low risk of bias in all studies since
sufficient details were included to allow for the assessment
and predetermination of study outcomes.23,24,32,33 However,
none reported any preregistration of a trial protocol.
Animal studies
According to the inclusion criteria set for the present review,
eight laboratory studies were finally included in our review, so
as the findings of the clinical trials be more clearly explained.
Among them, seven studies were performed on rats,25,27–31,34
compared with one in dogs.26 Bone formation was evaluated in
all of these studies after the animals’ sacrifice.
Laser type. The most common laser type for the LLLT
in these studies was gallium-aluminum-arsenide (Ga-Al-As,
also known as diode lasers or near infrared lasers—NIR).
Downloaded by Tufts University package NERL from online.liebertpub.com at 10/28/17. For personal use only.
8
More specifically, 10 out of the 12 included studies (83.3%)
preferred diode laser for the laser intervention. One study
used a combination of a diode laser and light-emitting diode
(LED) phototherapy.28 Another important parameter of laser
treatment is the wavelength (nm) that laser emits. In the
included animal studies, the emission of the Ga-Al-As lasers
fluctuated from 780 to 830 nm.25,29–31,34
In Rosa et al., the diode laser had a 780-nm wavelength,
whereas the LED laser emitted at 850 nm.28 LED light was
solely used by Ekizer et al., at 618 nm.27 The ‘‘Photon Lase
III’’ device (790–904 nm) was used only by Santiago et al.26
Orthodontic method and expansion period. With regard
to the devices utilized in midpalatal suture opening, helical
springs,27,29,31 circular metal rings that were placed between
the maxillary incisors,22,27 coil springs made of orthodontic
wire,34 and orthodontic triple helicoid springs28 were applied. In six studies, the expansion period was *5–8 days
when the sample constituted a single group.23,24,28,32–34
In four studies, the sample was divided into several
groups, with the investigators evaluating bone formation
after various periods of expansion, with or without laser
irradiation.25,28,30,31 In another study, several experimental
groups were examined at various time points.34
The time point of the onset of laser irradiation and the
frequency of the irradiation protocol varied significantly
between studies. Five studies applied laser irradiation directly after expansion of the midpalatal suture.24–26,29,31
Altan et al. performed laser irradiation around the midpalatal suture after 5 days of midpalatal suture expansion
and every other day, for a total of four treatment sessions.29
Aras et al. applied the laser on day 5 postexpansion and until
day 7.31
Methodology for outcome assessment. Animal studies
measured the formation and maturation of new bone by
means of immunohistochemistry qualitatively or quantitatively. Tissues from the midpalatal area of the irradiated and
nonirradiated groups were sampled, stained, and analyzed
with regard to bone neoformation by measuring osteoblasts
and vessels or other molecular regulators of bone remodeling, such as growth factors and alkaline phosphatase. Only
de Silva et al. combined immunochemistry with a pure
quantitative expression analysis of genes that were related to
bone repair, such as Runx 2, by real-time polymerase chain
reaction.25
Regardless of the discrepancies in evaluation methods,
these studies reported stimulatory effects of LLLT on bone
regeneration after RME.
As far as the intensity of the ongoing research on this
topic, the vast majority of the studies, *85% of them, were
conducted during the period 2012 until now. Apart from
this, two randomized controlled trials were published in
2016, following the peak of published data, mainly from
animal studies, which was noticed in 2012 and 2015.
Discussion
This systematic approach evaluated the effects of LLLT
on bone regeneration in the midpalatal suture after RME
with orthodontic functional appliances and surgically assisted rapid palatal expansion. We noted rising interest
SKONDRA ET AL.
among professionals in the field of orthodontics over the
past 10 years, but few studies have been performed in this
area—primarily in animal models. Only four RCT trials
have determined the effects of laser treatment on bone
during the opening of the median palatine suture.23,24,32,33
LLLT effects are attributed to the absorption of the red
and NIR light from cytochrome c oxidase (CCO), a mitochondrial chromophore that is contained in the respiratory
chain. This event initiates a cascade of reactions that leads
to biostimulation of the target cell.35 In this case, the target
cell lines are the endothelial cells, the osteoblasts, and the
osteoclasts. The red and NIR can penetrate into the hypodermis, where these cells are located and stimulate new
vessel formation and osteoblastic activity.36,37
Even more, the wavelengths reported (660, 780, and
830 nm) are very near to the high absorption peak of the
CCO (810 nm followed by 635 nm), thus explaining the
protocols’ effectiveness for LLLT.38
Regarding human studies, all reported RCTs conclude
that LLLT enhances immediate bone regeneration and
healing after midpalatal suture expansion when applied in
RME cases, despite the differences in the application protocol, the wavelength, the irradiated points, and the energy
applied. These findings were more profound on those that
utilized three-dimensional imaging (cone beam computed
tomography) as an evaluation tool.
Laser irradiation correlated significantly with a decrease
in pain after maxillary expansion,22 accelerated healing,23,26,30 and a significant rise in bone density.23,24 Animal
studies conducted in this field demonstrate the influence of
laser treatment on bone repair on cellular and molecular
level, although these findings must be carefully interpreted
and results not directly extrapolated to human. The clinical
trials included could only evaluate the final outcome of the
intervention, by assessing the deposition of bone in the
midpalatal area.
Histological analysis of bone tissue from the midpalatal
area revealed a major increase in the numbers of osteoblasts,
fibroblasts, blood vessels, and undifferentiated cells in the
irradiated group. These findings demonstrate the tendency of
bone tissue to repair the acute trauma that is caused by the
separation of the palate. Consistent with these findings,
TGF-b, a master regulator of osteogenesis, was upregulated
in the irradiated group.27,29
Only da Silva et al. studied the expression profile of genes
that are related to bone neoformation. ALP, Runx2, osteocalcin, collagen, and bone sialoprotein were overexpressed
in the laser-treated group compared with the nonirradiated
group.25 Other advantages of LLLT were highlighted, such
as its easy application and clinical use, its restricted application time, and the absence of side effects.24
With regard to laser types, the semiconductor diode
gallium-aluminum-arsenide laser (Ga-Al-As), emitting at
wavelengths of 808–830 nm, was the preferred treatment,
for which 830 nm was the most common wavelength.23,25,30
The ‘‘TWIN’’ diode laser in Cepera et al. was also effective
in accelerating bone repair.24 Similar results were obtained
with the photon laser (790–904 nm).26
The use of an LED photobiomodulation device in two
studies also accelerated new bone regeneration.27,28 The
number of osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and vessels rose in the
group that was irradiated with LED.27 Only one study
Downloaded by Tufts University package NERL from online.liebertpub.com at 10/28/17. For personal use only.
LLLT AFTER RAPID MAXILLARY EXPANSION: SYSTEMATIC REVIEW
compared the effects of diode laser treatment and LED
phototherapy on osseous regeneration and bone tissue maturation in the expanded midpalatal suture—hydroxyapatite
(HA) peak values were greater when LED was applied,
constituting LED irradiation as an alternative method of
LLLT.28
In support of this outcome, it has also been reported that
LED irradiation downregulates osteoclastogenesis by reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production.39
With regard to application area of the laser treatment,
most studies irradiated specific points around the midpalatal
suture. Few studies proposed additional application of the
laser to the region around the premaxillary sutures, located
at the incisive papilla.25–27,31 These studies failed to note
significant differences between application protocols.
Some laboratory studies reported a significant outcome
regarding the efficacy of laser application in new bone regeneration and its dosage. Altan et al. applied a Ga-Al-As
laser at low (0.15 J), medium (0.65 J), and high doses (198 J)
to the midpalatal suture after RME with a helical spring that
was made from stainless steel orthodontic wire and found a
significant effect on bone regeneration at 5 and 6300 J/cm2
but not 20 J/cm2.29 In addition, Saito et al. reported that high
doses of 6354 and 21,180 J/cm2 stimulated bone formation
after rapid midpalatal suture expansion.30
Further studies are needed to determine the appropriate
dose of an LED27,28 and soft tissue laser. Moreover, the
parameters of the laser device that affect the required dosage, such as the depth of the irradiated tissue, must be
evaluated.29
Certain groups emphasized the duration of the laser application and the intervals between interventions as other
important parameters that influence the clinical outcome.
Bone regeneration in the histological studies that measured
cell elements peaked on day 7.31,34 Amini et al. observed
greater osseous regeneration in the third and fourth week
after the onset of laser treatment compared with bone neoformation in the first week.34 Da Silva et al. proposed the
initial application of LLLT after RME and continuous irradiation for up to at least 2 weeks. According to their
findings, the peak effects of LLLT on cell activity occurred
in vivo around 2 days after the first irradiation session, but
the mineralization continued to rise at day 17.25 Conversely,
Saito et al. recommended intermittent application of the
laser in the early stages of the midpalatal suture expansion,
finding it to be more effective than a single dose in accelerating bone formation.30
Apart from these, it has been recently demonstrated that
laser treatment affects stem cell behavior,40,41 as well as the
presence of biomaterials in bone defects.42,43
Concluding, as most of the existing literature does not
show high level of evidence, further studies, especially longterm, randomized controlled trials, are deemed necessary to
generate safety results and render the method clinically
applicable. Although the vast majority of the animal studies
conducted indicate that LLLT might be an effective and
promising intervention for stimulating immediate bone regeneration and healing after midpalatal suture expansion, it
is rather premature to stand up for LLLT as a useful adjunct
to RME. This approach does hold promise in this certain
field of orthodontics, but an unequivocal statement of approval cannot be made.
9
Author Disclosure Statement
No competing financial interests exist.
References
1. Silva Filho OG, Montes LAP, Torelly LF. Rapid maxillary
expansion in the deciduous and mixed dentition evaluated
through posteroanterior cephalometric analysis. Am J Orthod Dentofac Orthop 1995;107:268–275.
2. Zhou Y, et al. The effectiveness of non-surgical maxillary
expansion: a meta-analysis. Eur J Orthod 2014;36:233–242.
3. Bazargani F, Feldmann I, Bondemark L. Threedimensional analysis of effects of rapid maxillary expansion on facial sutures and bones: a systematic review.
Angle Orthod 2013;83:1074–1082.
4. Liu S, Xu T, Zou W. Effects of rapid maxillary expansion
on the midpalatal suture: a systematic review. Eur J Orthod
2015;37:651–655.
5. Verma SK, et al. Laser in dentistry: an innovative tool in
modern dental practice. Natl J Maxillofac Surg 2012;3:
124–132.
6. Doeuk C, et al. Current indications for low level laser
treatment in maxillofacial surgery: a review. Br J Oral Max
Surg 2015;53:309–315.
7. Sonesson M, De Geer E, Subraian J, Petrén S. Efficacy of
low-level laser therapy in accelerating tooth movement,
preventing relapse and managing acute pain during orthodontic treatment in humans: a systematic review. BMC
Oral Health 2016;17:11.
8. Ren C, McGrath C, Yang Y. The effectiveness of low-level
diode laser therapy on orthodontic pain management: a
systematic review and meta-analysis. Lasers Med Sci
2015;30:1881–1893.
9. Aoki A, et al. Periodontal and peri-implant wound healing
following laser treatment. Periodontology 2000 2015;68;
217–269.
10. Kang Y, Rabie AB, Wong RW. A review of laser applications in orthodontics. Int J Orthod 2014;25:47–56.
11. Tim CR. Effects of low level laser therapy on inflammatory
and angiogenic gene expression during the process of bone
healing: a microarray analysis. J Photochem Photobiol 2016;
154:8–15.
12. Tschon M, Incerti-Parenti S, Cepollaro S, Checchi L, Fini
M. Photobiomodulation with low-level diode laser promotes osteoblast migration in an in vitro micro wound
model. J Biomed Opt 2015;20:78002.
13. Sella VR, do Bomfim FR, Machado PC, da Silva Morsoleto
MJ, Chohfi M, Plapler H. Effect of low-level laser therapy
on bone repair: a randomized controlled experimental
study. Lasers Med Sci 2015;30:1061–1068.
14. Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG; PRISMA
Group. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews
and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. J Clin Epidemiol 2009;62:1006–1012.
15. Liberati A, et al. The PRISMA statement for reporting
systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate health care interventions: explanation and elaboration.
J Clin Epidemiol 2009;62:31–34.
16. Available at: http://handbook.cochrane.org/chapter_8/8_5_
the_cochrane_collaborations_tool_for_assessing_risk_of_
bias.htm (Last accessed August 4, 2016).
17. Higgins JP, Thompson SG, Deeks JJ, Altman DG. Measuring inconsistency in meta-analyses. Br Med J 2003;327:
557–560.
Downloaded by Tufts University package NERL from online.liebertpub.com at 10/28/17. For personal use only.
10
18. Mavridis D, Salanti G. How to assess publication bias:
funnel plot, trim-and-fill method and selection models.
Evid Based Ment Health 2014;17:30.
19. Andrade Gomes do Nascimento LE, Sant’anna EF, Carlos
de Oliveira Ruellas A, Issamu Nojima L, Gonçalves Filho
AC, Antônio Pereira Freitas S. Laser versus ultrasound on
bone density recuperation after distraction osteogenesis-a
cone-beam computer tomographic analysis. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2013;71:921–928.
20. Medeiros MA, Nascimento LE, Lau TC, Mineiro AL, Pithon MM, Sant’Anna EF. Effects of laser vs ultrasound on
bone healing after distraction osteogenesis: a histomorphometric analysis. Angle Orthod 2015;85:555–561.
21. Abreau ME, et al. Infrared laser therapy after surgically
assisted rapid palatal expansion to diminish pain and to
accelerate bone healing. World J Orthod 2010;11:273–277.
22. Hamade E, Saimeh R, Mazandarani M, Mir M, Gutknecht
N. The effect of low-level laser therapy during rapid
maxillary expansion. Internat Magaz Laser Dent 2010;2:
14–17.
23. Angeletti P, Pereira MD, Gomes HC, Hino CT, Ferreira
LM. Effect of low-level laser therapy (GaAlAs) on bone
regeneration in midpalatal anterior suture after surgically
assisted rapid maxillary expansion. Oral Surg Oral Med
Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2010;109:38–46.
24. Cepera F, et al. Effect of a low-level laser on bone regeneration after rapid maxillary expansion. Am J Orthod
Dentofacial Orthop 2012;141:444–450.
25. Da Silva AP, et al. Effect of low-level laser therapy after
rapid maxillary expansion on proliferation and differentiation of osteoblastic cells. Lasers Med Sci 2012;27:777–783.
26. Santiago VC, Piram A, Fuziy A. Effect of soft laser in bone
repair after expansion of the midpalatal suture in dogs. Am
J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2012;142:615–624.
27. Ekizer A, Uysal T, Güray E, Yüksel Y. Light-emitting diode photobiomodulation: effect on bone formation in orthopedically expanded suture in rats—early bone changes.
Lasers Med Sci 2013;28:1263–1270.
28. Rosa CB, Habib FA, de Araújo TM, et al. Effect of the laser
and light-emitting diode (LED) phototherapy on midpalatal
suture bone formation after rapid maxilla expansion: a Raman
spectroscopy analysis. Lasers Med Sci 2014;29:859–867.
29. Altan AB, Bicakci AA, Avunduk MC, Esen H. The effect
of dosage on the efficiency of LLLT in new bone formation
at the expanded suture in rats. Lasers Med Sci 2015;30:
255–262.
30. Saito S, Shimizu N. Stimulatory effects of low-power laser
irradiation on bone regeneration in midpalatal suture during
expansion in the rat. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1997;
111:525–532.
31. Aras MH, Erkilic S, Demir T, Demirkol M, Kaplan DS,
Yolcu U. Effects of low-level laser therapy on osteoblastic
bone formation and relapse in an experimental rapid maxillary expansion model. Niger J Clin Prac 2015;18:607–611.
32. Fereira F, et al. Effects of low-level laser therapy on bone
regeneration of the midpalatal suture after rapid maxillary
expansion. Lasers Med Sci 2016;31:907–913.
SKONDRA ET AL.
33. Garcia VJ, et al. Effect of low-level laser therapy after rapid
maxillary expansion: a clinical investigation. Lasers Med
Sci 2016;31:1185–1194.
34. Amini F, Najaf Abadi MP, Mollaei M. Evaluating the effect
of laser irradiation on bone regeneration in midpalatal suture concurrent to rapid palatal expansion in rats. J Orthod
Sci 2015;4:65–71.
35. Karu TI, Kolyakov SF. Exact action spectra for cellular
responses relevant to phototherapy. Photomed Laser Surg
2005;23:355–361.
36. Avci P, Gupta A, Sadasivam M, et al. Low-level laser
(light) therapy (LLLT) in skin: stimulating, healing, restoring. Semin Cutan Med Surg 2013;32:41–52.
37. Amid R, Kadkhodazadeh M, Ahsaie MG, Hakakzadeh A.
Effect of low level laser therapy on proliferation and differentiation of the cells contributing in bone regeneration.
Lasers Med Sci 2014;5:163–170.
38. Gupta A, Dai T, Hamblin MR. Effect of red and near infrared wavelengths on low-level laser (light) therapy induced healing of partial-thickness dermal abrasion in mice.
Lasers Med Sci 2014;29:257–265.
39. Sohn H, Ko Y, Park M, et al. Effects of light-emitting diode
irradiation on RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. Lasers
Surg Med 2015;47:745–755.
40. Ballini A, et al. Osteogenic differentiation and gene expression of dental pulp stem cells under low-level laser
irradiation: a good promise for tissue engineering. J Biol
Regul Homeost Agents 2015;29:813–822.
41. Tattulo M, et al. Mechanical influence of tissue culture plates
and extracellular matrix on mesenchymal stem cell behavior:
a topical review. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 2016;29:3–8.
42. Marrelli M, et al. Behaviour of dental pulp stem cells on
different types of innovative mesoporous and nanoporous
silicon scaffolds with different functionalizations of the
surfaces. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents 2015;29:991–997.
43. Marrelli M, Tatullo M. Influence of PRF in the healing of
bone and gingival tissues. Clinical and histological evaluations. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2013;17:1958–1962.
Address correspondence to:
Eleftherios Terry R. Farmakis
Department of Endodontics
Faculty of Dentistry
National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
27 D.Gedeon Street
Athens 19002
Greece
E-mail: [email protected]
Received: February 8, 2017.
Accepted after revision: July 27, 2017.
Published online: October 25, 2017.
(Appendix follows/)
LLLT AFTER RAPID MAXILLARY EXPANSION: SYSTEMATIC REVIEW
11
Appendix: Search Strategy
Downloaded by Tufts University package NERL from online.liebertpub.com at 10/28/17. For personal use only.
MeSH Terms
(‘‘Palatal expansion technique’’ [MeSH] OR ‘‘Expansion
Technique, Palatal’’ OR ‘‘Expansion Techniques, Palatal’’
OR ‘‘Palatal Expansion Techniques’’ OR ‘‘Technique, Palatal Expansion’’ OR ‘‘Palatal Expansion Technic’’ OR
‘‘Expansion Technic, Palatal’’ OR ‘‘Expansion Technics,
Palatal’’ OR ‘‘Palatal Expansion Technics’’ OR ‘‘Technic,
Palatal Expansion’’ OR ‘‘Maxillary Expansion’’ OR ‘‘Expansion, Maxillary’’).
AND
(‘‘Low level light therapy’’ [MeSH] OR ‘‘Light Therapies, Low-Level’’ OR ‘‘Light Therapy, Low-Level’’ OR
‘‘Low Level Light Therapy’’ OR ‘‘Low-Level Light
Therapies’’ OR ‘‘Therapies, Low-Level Light’’ OR ‘‘Therapy, Low-Level Light’’ OR ‘‘Photobiomodulation Therapy’’
OR ‘‘Photobiomodulation Therapies’’ OR ‘‘Therapies,
Photobiomodulation’’ OR ‘‘Therapy, Photobiomodulation’’
OR ‘‘LLLT’’ OR ‘‘Laser Therapy, Low-Level’’ OR ‘‘Laser
Therapies, Low-Level’’ OR ‘‘Laser Therapy, Low Level’’
OR ‘‘Low-Level Laser Therapies’’ OR ‘‘Laser Irradiation,
Low-Power’’ OR ‘‘Irradiation, Low-Power Laser’’ OR
‘‘Laser Irradiation, Low Power’’ OR ‘‘Low-Power Laser
Therapy’’ OR ‘‘Low Power Laser Therapy’’ OR ‘‘Laser
Therapy, Low-Power’’ OR ‘‘Laser Therapies, Low-Power’’
OR ‘‘Laser Therapy, Low Power’’ OR ‘‘Low-Power Laser
Therapies’’ OR ‘‘Low-Level Laser Therapy’’ OR ‘‘Low
Level Laser Therapy’’ OR ‘‘Low-Power Laser Irradiation’’
OR ‘‘Low Power Laser Irradiation’’ OR ‘‘Laser Biostimulation’’ OR ‘‘Biostimulation, Laser’’ OR ‘‘Laser Phototherapy’’ OR ‘‘Phototherapy, Laser’’).
PubMed Terms
‘‘Orthodontics,’’ ‘‘rapid maxillary expansion,’’ ‘‘lowlevel laser treatment,’’ and ‘‘LLLT.’’
Scopus Terms
‘‘Lasers’’ AND ‘‘midpalatal expansion.’’
Embase Terms
‘‘Low level laser therapy’’ AND ‘‘maxillary expansion.’’
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
2
Размер файла
240 Кб
Теги
2017, 4278, pho
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа