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Патент USA US2111753

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- March 22, 1938.
" A. c. CATLAND
2,111,753
WELL BIT CUTTER MOUNTING
Filed Sept. 25; 1936
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2 Sheets-Sheet 1
March 22, 19,38.
A. c:.- QATLAND
I
WELL BIT‘ CUTTER MOUNTING
Filed Sept. 25, 1936
2,111,753
'2 Sheets-‘Sheet 2
. "
are/72b)’
1
tented Mar. 212,
2,111,75i '
ir
‘
re‘ iris
WELL BET @‘UTTER, MOUN'EHNG
Alfred C. Catland, Alhambra, Calii’., assignorto
Globe Oil Tools Company, Los Nietos, iDalih,
a corporation oi Caliilornia
I
‘
1 Application September 25, 1936, Serial No. 102,527
r oi.
(oi. 255-71)
This invention relates to well drilling tools and
relates more particularly to the mountings or
bearings for the roller cutters of well bits. A
generalobject of this invention is to provide im_ g proved anti-friction bearings for roller cutters
that are e?icient and long wearing.
I
,
Roller rock bits have been employed embodying rollers for rotatably supporting the roller
cutters on the pins or shafts of the bits.
Such
10 hearings or rollers are only capable'of assuming
‘
a
tion will be fully understood ‘from the following
detailed description of typical preferred‘ forms
and applications of my invention; throughout
which description reference is made to the ac
companying drawings, in which:
ing the bearings provided by the present inven—
tion illustrating the lower portion of the bit in
central vertical cross section.
Fig. 2 is an en
larged fragmentary'detailed sectional view taken it
the radial loads or thrusts and it has been the
as indicated by line 2—2 on Fig. 1. ‘Fig. 3 is a
accepted practice to provide thrust washers at
the ends of the cutters to assume the end thrusts.
fragmentary vertical detailed sectional view of
the lower portion of the bit taken in a plane
, lThrust washers even though they be hard ' or
‘it formed of hard material wear very rapidly, par;
ticularly where abrasive earth. formations are
encountered ‘in the wells.
'
~-Another object of this>invention is to provide
5
Fig. 1 is a side elevation of a well bit‘ embody
at right angles to the plane of the sectioning in
Fig. i. Fig. ‘i is an enlarged fragmentary detailed 15‘
sectional view of the bearing for supporting one
of the outer cutters. Fig. 5 is an enlarged frag
inentary longitudinal sectionalview of the hear
an‘ improved anti-‘friction bearing for the roller .. ing means for supporting one of the inner cutters _
so cutter of a» well bit that embodies a series of _- and Fig. 6 is a view similar to Fig. 4'illustrating 20 .
. anti-friction members that take or assume both ‘a slightly modi?ed form of bearing.
the‘v radial andv axial thrusts or loads "thereby
The cutter mounting means or bearings ‘pro
‘eliminating the’necessity for thrust washers. '
vided by the present invention are adapted to
- Another object of this invention is to‘provide
amounting or bearing for the roller cutter of a,
“0 well bit that embodies a series of balls arranged
be employed for mta-tably Supporting the roller
cutters of various forms of well bits. In the fol- 25
lowing detailed disclosure I will describe several
between the interioriof'the' cutter and the'cutter . typicalforms of theinvention rotatably mount
carrying bushing in a manner to assume both the ing the cutters of a well bit of the character fully
radial thrusts and the, end thrusts imposed on described and claimed in my colpendi'ng appli_
'30 the cutter.
‘
. '
cation entitled “Roller rock bit", Serial No. 88,989, 30
Another object of this invention is to provide ‘ ?le'd July 6, 1936.
a cutter bearing of the character mentioned that
The bit illustrated in the drawings includes‘
provides a series of balls within each end portion of the cutter to transmit the radial thrusts
3,5 as well as the end thrusts in both directions. _
Another object of this ‘invention is to provide
an improved cutter supporting bearing of the
characterr'nentioned in which the points of con-I
tactv of the balls with the interior of the cutter
40 and the bearingbushing lie in a plane substan-
tially normal to '61‘ at right angles to the principal formation engaging edges of the cutter to
sheet the most e?icient operation of the bearing.
Another object of this invention is to provide
45 an improved bearing means for rotatably supportingthe cutter of a bit that is simple and in-'
expensive and that is easy to assemble.
a shankorbody it adapted to be connected with
a‘rotar'y welldrilling string, The body II] has a .
tapered threaded socket H in its upper end for 35
receiving a pin on the drill collar Orother part
of'the drilling string. Two diametrically oppo
site legs 01‘ Wings 12 Project downwardly and
slightly outwardly _-from the lower end of the
body ill.
The wings l2 have ?at Substantially‘ 40
vertical inner surfaces l3. Flat substantially
horizontal shoulders it occur on the wings l2
at the lower ends of their inner'surf'aces It. The
body "W further includes two Opposite legs or
Wings l5-' The Wings l5 pl'oject downwardly land 45 outwardly from the lower end of the body W
and are space‘ substantially 90° from the wings
A further object of this'invention is to provide l2. 'Thewings‘ it have ?at downwardly and out
an anti-friction bearing for the roller cutter of _Wardly inclined inner Surfaces “5 and ?at Shoul
50 a.- well bit that embodiés‘rollers for assuming or
transmitting the radial thrusts and a series of
ders all on their lower ends. '
5o
A cutter carrying shaft or pin‘ l8 extends across
,balls acting between the cutter and a bearing the open lower end of the body l0 between the
' ‘ bushing for transmitting the principal end opposite wings l2. The major portions of the
> . thrusts and a portion of the radial thrusts. ‘
pin l8 are inclined upwardly and inwardly to
55
ward the central vertical axis of the bit. The 55
The. various objects and features of my lnvcn-
2
2,111,753
intermediate portion it“ of the pin 48 is cylin
drical and substantially horizontal. Screws it
are passed through openings in the wings i2
and threaded into openings in the opposite ends
‘of the pin l8 to connect the pin and the, wings
I 2.
The heads of the screws i9 may have por
tions i9a peened into notches in the outer sides
‘ of the wings l2 to prevent unthreading of the
screws.
10
The cutter supporting pin it has re
ducedrend portions 20 adjacent the inner sides
of the wings I2. A central web 2! projects from
the lower end of the body It! and has two down
wardly and outwardly projecting wings 22 spaced
inwardly from the wings H5. The outer sides 23
15 of the wings 22 are ?at and parallel with the
surfaces I6 of the wings l5. Flat shoulders 22a
occur on the lower ends of the wings 22. Cut‘
ter supporting pins 24 are passed outwardly
through openings in the wings 22 and are thread
20 e'd in openings 25 in the wings H5. The outer
end portions of the pins 24 have parts distorted
or peened into notches 28 in the outer sides of
the wings l5. The heads of the screws 24! may‘
have similar parts distorted into notches 2? in
25 the inner sides of the wings 22. The parts of
the screws 24 peened into the notches 28 and 217
positively prevent unthreading of the cutter sup
porting pins 24 when the tool is in operation.
30
In the event that one peened over portion of a
pin 24 may be worn away through contact with
the earth formation the other may remain to
prevent loss of the pin.
A stud 28 is arranged through a vertical open
ing 29 in the body web 2i. The lower portion of
the stud 28 is enlarged and has an opening 38
receiving the intermediate portion l8a of the pin
I8 whereby the stud serves to support the pin be
tween its ends. A connecting pin 3i may be ar
ranged through transverse openings in the stud 28
A nut 32 is
threaded on the projecting upper end of the stud
28 to retain the stud in position. Fluid discharge
40 and the portion l8a of the pin ‘i8.
members 33 are arranged in spaced openings in
the body ID to discharge the circulation ?uid
45 downwardly against the cutters on the. pin.
The
nut 32 may serve to hold the discharge members
33 in position.
The bit further includes two like outer cutters
A supported on the pins 24 through the bearings
50 provided by the invention and a set of inner cut
ters B and C rotatably supported on each inclined
portion of the pin N. The outer cutters A are
the cutters. The interiors of the cutters C and
their outer ends are shaped or formed to cooperate
with the bearing means provided by the inven
tion as will be hereinafter described.
The bearing means provided by the present in
vention and illustrated in Figs. 1, 2 and 4 of the
drawings for rotatably supporting each outer
cutter A includes, generally, annular surfaces or
races 4i and 42 on the interior of the cutter, a sec
tional bushing 43 on the cutter supporting pin 24
and series of balls 44 cooperating with the races
4! and Y42 and the bushing 43.
The surfaces or races 4| and 42 are provided
on the interior of the cutter A to partially receive
and to cooperate with the balls 44. The races 4!
and 42 are alike in shape and may be of the same
diameter. In accordance with the invention the
races ill and 42 are spherically concaved to have
proper cooperation with the balls 44.. The races
4| and 42 are oppositely disposed, that is, the race 20
4i faces toward the adjacent wing I5, while the
race 42 faces toward the adjacent wing 22. The
races 4! and 42 on the interior of the cutter A are
spaced axially by an annular ridge 45 on the in
terior of the cutter A. The cutter A may have
cylindrical internal surfaces 46 extending in
wardly from its ends to merge with the races 4i
and 42. The surfaces or races 4! and 42 may 'ex
tend or curve inwardly to the internal or periph
eral surface of the ridge 45. Annular sockets or 30
recesses 41 are provided in the opposite ends of
the cutter A. The above described ridge 45 is
substantially equally spaced between the oppo
site ends of the cutter A so that the races 4| and
42 are substantially equally spaced from the cen 36
tral transverse plane of the cutter.
The bearing bushing 43 is provided on the pin
24 to be engaged by the series of balls 44. The
bushing 43 is preferably sectional to facilitate the
assembly of the balls 44 within the cutter A. In 40
practice the bushing 43 includes two similar or
like sections 48. The sections 48 are tubular and
surround the pin 24. The pushing sections 48 are
complementary and oppositely disposed to have
their inner ends in abutment as illustrated. An 45
annular ?ange 49 is provided on the outer end of
each bushing section 48. The outer side of the
?ange 49 of the outermost section 48 cooperates
with the inner surface I6 of the adjacent wing l5
while the outer surface of the ?ange 49 on the 60
- other bushing section 48 cooperates with the sur
frusto-conical having peripheral cutting teeth 34 face 23 of the adjacent wing 22. The peripheral
provided with inclined or pitched cutting edges 35. portions of the ?anges 49 are received or partially
55 The opposite ends of the cutters A may be ?at
received in the recesses 41 as illustrated. The
and normal to the axis of the cutters. The ends ?ange 49 of the outer section 48 has a projecting 55
and the interiors of the cutters A are formed to co
tongue 58 cooperating with the shoulder H to pre
operate with the bearing means of the invention vent rotation of that section. The ?ange 49 of
as will be hereinafter described.
the inner section 48 has a similar tongue 5| co
60
The inner cutters B are cylindrical roller cut
operating with the shoulder 22“ to prevent rota
ters provided with peripheral cutting teeth 36. tion of that section. The ?anges 49 ?tting the 60
The opposite ends of the cutters B may be ?at and recesses 41 close the outer ends of the ball carry
the inner ends of the cutters may be recessed or ing space within the cutter A.
,
relieved to receive adjacent parts of the web 2i. , Each bushing section 48 is provided with a
65 The cutters B may be rotatably supported on the
spherically concaved surface or race 52. The race
pin l8 by series of anti-friction rollers 3?. Suit
52 of the outer bushing section 48 opposes the 65
able washers 88 may space the inner ends of the race 4| while the race 52 of the inner section 48
rollers 21 from the adjacent faces of the web 2|. opposes the race 42. The races 52 occur in the
The inner cutters C which surround the pin it corners between the peripheries of the bushing
between the cutters B and the wings.\ l2 are sections 48 and the inner sides 53 of the ?anges
frusto-conical cutters, provided with peripheral 49.
peripheries of the sections 48 and the 70
teeth 39 having pitched or inclined cutting edges innerThe
surfaces
53 of the ?anges 49 preferably
40.v The cutters C are arranged with their large
merge
with
the
races
52, as illustrated. The pe- ends facing outwardly. The inner ends of the
75 cutters C may be ?at and normal to the axes of ripheries of the bushing sections 48 may be cylin
drical and the inner surfaces 53 of the ?anges 49
3
2,111,753
may be normal to the longitudinal axes of the sec
tions 48;
'
i
'
-
and balls in the above described form of the
Owing to the inclination or
pitch of the cutter A’ the principal or heavy
_ cutter mounting.
The series .of balls 44 are arranged within the
' cutter A to cooperate with‘ the sets or pairs of
‘ opposing races 4| and 52 and 42 and 52. The
‘balls 44 are operable. to transmit the radial thrusts
and the end thrusts to which the cutter A is
subjected and are preferably hard steel balls.
The races 4|, 42 and 52 are properly curved or
10 formed to have e?ectlve engagement with the
balls 44. The diameter‘ of the balls 44 is such
that the balls forrn'the sole means for rotatably
supporting the cutter A on the bushing 43. It
' is an important feature of the invention that the
.15 sets of races 4| and 52 and 42 and 52 are related
so that the balls 44 assume the axial thrusts in
both directions; as well as the‘ full radial thrusts.
This action results from'the location and relation
of the faces 4| and 42 on the interior of the
I cutter A and the location of the races 52 in the
corner between the peripheries of the sections 48
end thrusts. are imposed on the balls 44a coop
erating with ‘the races 4|a and 52a. Owing to
the fact that the races 4|a and 528 are larger
in eifective diameter than the races 42a and 523
they present'larger bearing surfaces and a larger
number of balls 44“ may cooperate with them for
the dependable transmission of the heavy end
thrusts.
The bearing means provided by the present
invention for rotatably mounting each inner cut
ter C on the pin |8 includes rollers 68 rotatably
supporting the cutter C on the pin l8, for the
transmission of the‘radial thrusts, a bushing 6|
on the pin l8 at the outer end of the cutter C
and a series of balls 62 operating between the
cutter C and the bushing 6|-. As the means for
supporting the, cutters C may be identical I will 20
I and the inner surfaces 53 of the ?anges 5| .p While
proceed with a detailed description of one of the
hearing or mounting means,, it being understood
balls 44 cooperating with the‘ races_42 and '52
of the cutter C. The-recess 64v is deepened or
the disposition of the races 4| and 42 and 52 may that such description is also applicable to the
means for supporting the‘other cutter C. ;
be varied somewhat and yet attain the desired re
The major inner portion of the‘ cutter C is 25
sult it is preferred to provide and locate the races
so that a line extending through the central cylindrical and its wall is concentric with the
points of contact of_ a ball 44 with the race 4| ‘_ longitudinal axis of the pin l8. An ‘annular or
and the race 52 is substantially normal to the tubular series of rollers 68 surrounds the pin l8
cutting edge35 of, a tooth 34 as illustrated in within the inner portion of the cutter C to have
.rolling cooperation with the pin l8 and the cylin '30
30 Fig. 4 of the drawings. This particular relation
ship has been found to be most practical and to drical interior of the cutter. A suitable thrust
provide for the full transinissionof the principal washer 63 is interposed between the inner ends
axial thrust of the cutter ,A as well as the radial of the rollers 68 and the adjacent ends of the
thrusts ‘with a minimum of friction and wear. rollers 31 and the cutter B. It will be apparent
: Due to the inclination of the cutter A the heavier how the bearing rollers ‘68 assume most of the
or principal end thrusts are imposed on the balls radial thrusts to which the cutter C is subjected.
An annular recess 64‘occurs in the outer‘ end
.44 cooperating with the races 4| and 52. The
of course assume the other end thrusts.v
40
extends into the cutter C to ‘have a spherically
Fig. 6 of‘the drawings illustrates a slightly
modi?ed form'ofbearing for rotatably support
ing an inclined roller cutter A’. The cutter A’
concaved ball race 65.
The race 65 occurs in 40
described cutters A and is provided with two in
with the series of balls 62'. /
what may be termed the corner/between a radial
wall and an axial wall of tlierec'ess 64. The race
may be substantially the same as one of the above _ 65 is spherically concaved-to properly cooperate
ternal races 4|“ and 423-. The races 4|a and 42a
may be substantially the same as the above;
described races 4| and 42. »The bearing means
for rotatably supporting the cutter A’ includes
two bushing sections 48" and 48'" similar, generé
’ ally to-thev above described bushing sections 48.
The bushing sections 48“ and 48b surround and
are supported by a pin 24a which may be iden
tical with one of the pins 24. The bushing sec
ti0ns‘48a and 48b are arranged in opposing end
' to end relation with their inner ends inlcooper
ati'on. ' Flanges 48" corresponding to the ?anges
49 are provided on the outer ends of the sec
,
The bushing 6| is arranged on the reduced end
portion 28 of the pin | 8 and has an internal
shoulder 66 cooperating with the shoulder 61 of
the pin l8 which occurs at the inner end of its
reduced-portion 20. The bushing 6| extends in
wardly to have its inner portion surrounding the 50
body of the pin l8 withinwthe cutter C. The
inner end of the bushing 6| is adjacent or coop
erates with the outer ends of the rollers 60 and
thus limits outward movement of the rollers.
The bushing 6| ' is provided ‘with an annular
?ange "68 vwhose outer surface cooperates with
the "surface l3 of the adjacent wing l2. A tongue
tions '48“ and 48b. The section 48"- is provided 69 is provided on the ?ange 68 to cooperate with
the shoulder M of the adjacent wing |2_to pre
with a ball race 52a and the section 48b is pro
60 vided with a ball race 52”. vIn the structure vent rotation of‘ the bushing 6|. .The ?ange 68 60
illustrated in' Fig. 6 of the drawings the bushing _ is partially received in the recess 64 of the cut
ter C and serves to close the outer end of the
section 48“ is somewhat larger in effective diam
eter than the section 48" so that it's race 528 _is '_ ball receiving space within the cutter. An annu
larger in diameter than the race 52". Annular lar spherically concaved ball race 'lll‘is provided
65 rows or series of balls 44'- are arranged ‘within
on the bushing 6|. The race '18 opposes the race
the cutter A’ to cooperate with the opposing races 65 of the cutter C. The race 18 occurs in the
of the cutter and the bushing sections 48“ and corner between the inner surface of the ?ange
48b. The balls 44' of the two rows or series may 68 and the periphery of the bushing 6|.
I The annular series of balls 62 is arranged in the‘
be of the same diameter and where the race 52a
is larger in effective diameter than the ‘race 52b ‘ cutter C to cooperate with the opposing races 65 70
the'race 4|“ of the cutter is preferably larger and ‘Ill. The races 65 and 18 are related and
formed so that the balls 62 cooperating with them
in e?ective diameter than the race 42“ to prop
erly accommodate the balls 44". The balls 448 dependably transmit the principal end thrusts to
cooperate with the sets of races 4|“ and 52* and which the-cutter C is subjected and assume some.
75. 42‘ and 52b in the same manner as the races of the‘radia/l thrusts on the cutter. It is to be 75
4
2,111,753
noted that a line extending through the points of
contact of a ball 62 with the races 85 and ‘i0 is
substantially perpendicular ‘to the longitudinal
axis of the cutter C and the edges of the cutter
teeth.
It is believed that the operation of‘the cutter
supporting bearings of the present invention will
be readily understood from the foregoing detailed
description. The bearings rotatably supporting
10 the outer cutters A involve the two rows of balls
44 which assume all of the end thrusts as well as
the radial thrusts and the bearing does not involve
thrust washers that are subjected to rapid wear.
The cutter bearings are dependable and the balls
44 and 62 cannot become lost or displaced. The
bushing sections or bushing parts are dependably
locked against loss and displacement and cannot
rotate. The bearings are simple and embody a
minimum number of parts. The bearings for the
outer cutters involve the sectional bushings 43
facilitating the assembling of the cutters and
bearing parts. The series of balls cooperating
with the interiors of the cutters support the cut
ters for free rotation with a minimum of friction
‘and wear.
Having described only typical preferred forms
and applications of my invention. I do not wish
to be limited or restricted to the speci?c details
herein set forth, but wish to reserve to myself
30
any variations or modifications that may appear
to those skilled in the art or fall within the scope
of the following claims:
l Having described my inventionrI claim:
'1. In a well bit, a supporting pin, a rotatable
35 cutter, an internal ridge in the cutter spaced be
tween its ends, ball races on the opposite sides of
the ridge, a sectional bushing on the pin having
end ?anges overhanging the ends of the cutter,
ball races in the bushing opposing the ?rst named
40 races, and series of balls cooperating with the sets
of opposing races to rotatably support the cutter.
2. In a well bit, a supporting pin, a rotatable
cutter, an internal ridge in the cutter spaced be
tween its ends, ball racesv on the opposite sides of
45
the ridge, a bushing on the pin, ?anges on the
50
bushings to oppose the races on the ridge, and
series of balls cooperating with the sets of oppos
ing races‘to rotatably support the cutter.
3.- In a well bit, a supporting pin, a rotatable
bushing overlapping the opposite end faces of the
cutter, ball races in the bushing occurring in the VI
corners between the ?anges and the peripheries
of the bushings to oppose the races on the ridge,
the bushing comprising two sections each having
a ?ange and a race, and series of balls cooperating
1 with the sets of opposing races to rotatably sup
10
POrt the cutter.
4. In a well drilling bit, a supporting pin, a ro
tatable cutter, rollers rotatably supporting the
cutter on the pin, a bushing on the pin entering
one end of the cutter and overlapping said end of 15
the cutter to close it, opposing races in the cutter
and bushing and balls cooperating with the races,
the races being related so that a line passing
through the points of contact of a ball with races
is pitched relative to the axis of rotation of the 20
cutter whereby the balls assume the end thrusts
on the cutter.
5. In a well bit, a supporting pin, a rotatable
cutter, an internal ridge on the interior of the
cutter spaced between its ends, a ball race on a 25
side of the'ridge, a bushing on the pin having an
end ?ange overlapping an end of the cutter, a ball
race on the bushing opposing the ?rst named race,
‘and a series of balls cooperating with the said
races to rotatably support the cutter.
30
6. In a well bit, a straight cylindrical support
ing pin, a rotatable cutter having internal ball
races, a bushing comprising sections slid on the
pin to extend into the ends of the cutter, ?anges
on the bushing sections projecting radially out 35
ward to overlap the ends of the cutter, each bush
ing section having a race opposing a race on the
cutter, and balls cooperating with the opposing
races to rotatably support the cutter.
7. In a well bit, a straight cylindrical support
ing pin, a rotatable cutter having internalball
40
races, a bushing comprising sections slid on the
bushing engaging the opposite ends of the cutter,
ball races in the‘ bushing occurring in the corners
between the ?anges and the peripheries of the
cutter, an internal ridge in the cutter spaced be
tween its ends, ball races on the opposite sides of
the ridge, a bushing on the pin, ?anges on the
LL
pin to extend into the ends of the cutter, ?anges
on the bushing sections projecting radially out
ward to overlap the ends of the cutter, parts on
the cutter overlapping t1": peripheries of the
?anges, each bushing section having a race oppos
ing a race on the cutter, and balls cooperating
with the opposing races to rotatably support the
cutter.
-
vALFRED C. CA'I'LAND.
'
50
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