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Патент USA US2126132

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Aug. 9, 1938.
J. A. PAAscl-IE
' 2,126,132
Filed May '7, 1934
3 Sheets-Sheet 1
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tTem/.9 J?. Paœche,
Aug. 9, 1938.
Filed May '7, '1934
5 Sheets-Sheet 2
, `.
Aug. 9, 1938.
Filed May '7, 1954
" k
s sheets-sheet s
Jän/5 ß, Pau/57216,
[email protected]
Patented Aug. 9, 193s
Jens A. Panache, Wilmette, Ill.
Application May 1, 1934, serial No. '124,313
3 claim.A (ci. zel-4s)
The present invention relates generally to4 stantly and completely burned or exploded
means for vaporizing or carbureting liquid fuel whereby materially to increase the operating eili
for various purposes as in the production of an ciency of the instrumentality to which the fuel is
explosive mixture for internal combustion en
Other objects and advantages will become ap- 5
parent in the following description and from the '
An object of the invention is to provide a novel
device of this character which is capable, in op
accompanying drawings, in which:
Figure 1 is a substantially axial section through -
eration, of producing a combustible or explosive
mixture of fuel and- air in an exceedingly iinely
a device embodying the features of the invention,
certain associated parts being fragmentary or in 10
10 divided, dry, smoke-like form.
Another object is to provide an improved fuel
carbureting device having means therein for com
bining a liquid fuel and a `vaporizing gas, usually
air, -to reduce the fuel to a thoroughly vaporized
condition, and means for subsequently mixing
elevation. `
Fig. 2 is an axial section on an enlarged scale
throughthe atomizing or vaporizing section of
the device.
Fig. 3 is a top plan view of a mixing element 1
such vaporized fuel intimately with air to pro-v forming a part of the vaporizing section.
Fig. 4 is a side, elevation of a discharge cap
duce an explosive mixture.
structure for _effecting a mixing flow of part of
the secondary air stream into the volatilizled fuel.
Another object is to provide a device of this
character having means for varying the volume
of the air introduced to vaporize the fuel ac
'Fig. 5 is a transverse section taken as indicated ‘20
by the line~5---5 of Fig. 2.
cording to the quantity of fuel, the proportion
Fig. 6 is an elevational view partially in section
looking at the device from the right as shown by
Vthe arrows 6-6 in Fig. 1.
being suchv as to effect an efficient volatil'ization
of the fuel, and which embodies means for vari
ably adjusting the lratio of the quantity oftvolatil.
ized fuel and the volume of the air subsequently
added to produce an efliciently explosive mixture.
The air which is added in successive steps will
hereinafter be termed respectively “primary air’
and “secondary air”.
' Fig.~7 is a similar view‘looking at the rear side 28
of the ‘device as shown in Fig. 6.
‘ Fig. 8 is a horizontal section through thevsec
ondary air valve showing the operating mech
anism and parts associated therewith.
Fig. 9 is a detail view of the temperature con- 30
Another object is to provide a >novel carburet
ing device wherein the fuel to be carbureted is
acted upon by air in separate stages, ñrst to
trolled mechanism and the direction in which
the view is taken is indicated by the arrows 9--9
in Fig. 6.
Fig. 10 shows the device in elevation as viewed
atomize or volatilize the fuel to _effect complete
transformation >thereof >to a gaseous state, and
next to introduce air intimately into such gaseous
fuel to produce an eiîiciently combustible or ex
plosive mixture, said device having fuel and air
inlets which are variably controlled to obtain
that proportion of air to fuel or fuel mixture
from the left in Fig. 6.
valve cam assembly.
While the invention is susceptible of various
modifications and alternative constructions, I
have shown in the drawings and will herein de- 4o
which will most efficiently produce the required
Fig. il is a side face view of the secondary air
Another object is to provide, in a device of this
character, means for controlling the admission of
secondary air which is effective to admit air
. .practically in measured volume as required by
scribe in detail the preferred‘embodiment, but'it '
is to be understood that I do not thereby intend
to limit the invention to the specific form dis
closed, but intend to cover all modifications and
alternative constructions falling within the spirit 4i.
the volume of introduced fuel, _and further to
and scope'oi’ the invention as expressed in the
associate therewith such means as a thermally
appended claims.
responsive device for varying the actionof the
air control means to meet changing temperature
A general object of the invention is to provide
a carbureting device of simple operation and
inexpensive construction which will reduce liquid
fuel to such a ñnely-divided condition that the
ultimate fuel mixture is capable of _being in
According to the present invention, the liquid
fuel is reduced to an explosive mixture in several
stages, the ñrst of which is the conversion of the
liquid fuel into substantially a volatilized condi
tion by the action thereon of a relatively small
volume of gas or air which is ample to produce
a complete vaporization of the introduced fuel,
but is otherwise ‘insumcient to produce an efii- y
ciently explosive mixture. The gas and fuel
mixture are momentarily confined in a mixing
chamber wherein the gas is violently agitated
to insure complete volatilization of the fuel. Sub
sequently, such volatilized ,fuel is thoroughly
mixed with air from a secondary air stream, part
of the secondary air being drawn into the mixing
chamber to produce a thoroughly homogeneous
mixture and to further insure that no liquid
particle of fuel remains unvaporized. The vol
ume of secondary air admitted is accurately and
variably proportioned with respect to the quan
tity of fuel in the gaseous mixture to produce an
eiiicient explosive mixture.
From the following detailed description, a pre
ferred form of device embodying the invention
will for illustrative purposes be considered in op
erative association with an internal combustion
engine as an example of a fuel consuming instru
mentality. It will be evident, however, that the
device may, without substantial modification, be
used with instrumentalities other than that
Referring to the drawings, IIJ and II indicate
25 respectively the intake and exhaust manifold of
an internal combustion engine. Secured in open
communication with the intake manifold is a
tubular member I2 which may, if desired, extend
through the exhaust manifold but, of course, has
30 no communication therewith. The member I2
constitutes one section of the enclosing member
or housing of the fuel vaporizing device, and a
continuing housing section I3, suitably secured to
the outer free end of the section l2, completes
35 the housing. The section I3 has an angular bend
therein to provide a laterally directed tubular end
I4 constituting the secondary air intake as will
presently be more fully described.
The carburetingdevice embodies mechanism
40 for discharging fuel and a relatively small volume
purpose of the container and tube 21 will here
inafter be described.
Extending horizontally from the head 24 is a
boss 28 (Fig. 7) -which is screw threaded external
ly to receive a valve supporting gland 29. The 5
boss has an axial bore 28a communicating with
the passageway 25 preferably at a point below the
upper end of the induction tube 21. A rotatable
valve 30 in the gland is held in place by cooperat
ing shoulders on the gland and valve and an actu
ating stem 3I projects through the outer end of
the gland for connection with a radial arm 32.
The valve has an L-shaped bore 33 therein, one
leg of which registers as a continuation of the
bore in the boss 28 while the other legis arranged
to be moved variably into communication with a
primary air inlet port 34 provided in the gland 29.
lThe fitting I1 (Fig. 6) has a second laterally
extending nipple 35 thereon which is shown as
being located a quarter circumference from the
nipple 22. The nipple 35 constitutes the liquid
fuel intake and has a bore 36 which communi
cates with the passage 31 through the tube Iii.
The outer or lower end of the tubular fitting I1
has an axial recess 38 (Figs. 1 and 6) therein,
the base of which is formed by an annular shoul
der 39. A The restricted bore defined by the shoul
der forms a sliding bearing for a lower inter
mediate portion of an elongated valve stem 4U
which extends upwardly approximately to the
tops of the tubes I9, 20 and downwardly beyond
the fitting I1.
The valve stem controls a fuel inlet valve, to
be presently described, and the stem is adapted
to be manipulated by means which is supported
by an end section 4I provided herein as a detach
able continuation of the fitting I1. The abutting
ends of the fitting and end section preferably have
complementarily formed flared and tapered sur
faces 42 for accurately determining the proper
of air into the casing I2 and towardthe intake » relation of one part to the other, and an annular 40
manifold I0 in a highly volatilized condition. shoulder 43 on »the end section is engageable by
Preferably this mechanism comprises the follow
ing arrangement of parts, reference being had
particularly to Fig. 1. The outer bend of the
section I3,is apertured, as at I5, and about the
margin of the aperture is an outstanding flange
I6 which is internally screw threaded for engage
ment by a tubular fitting I1 having an enlarged
recess I8 facing inwardly of the housing. Prefer
ably the axes of the fitting and of the recess I8
are located on the axis of the housing. An elon
gated tube I9 is screw threaded onto the fitting to
extend from the base of the recess I8 concentri
Cn ci cally through the recess and along the axis of the
casing a considerable distance toward the intake
manifold. A larger tube 20 has internal screw
threaded engagement with the mouth of the re
cess I8 and extends concentrically along the duct
60 I 9 to provide a passageway 2I therebetween.
The fitting I1 has a laterally extending nipple
22 for connection with the primary air intake con
trolling means. Internally of the fitting, the pas
sageway 23 through the nipple communicates
with the enlarged recess I8 and thence with the
passageway 2| which in consequence becomes the
primary air conduit. Connected with the nipple
22'is a head 24 (Figs. 1 and 7) having a passage
way 25 therein. The passageway is longitudinally
angular so that when the parts are assembled the
outer end of the passageway opens downwardly
into communication with an upright container
28. An induction tube 21 extends from the bot
tom of the container loosely in'to and a short dis
75 tance along the passageway 25 (see Fig, 1).A The
a gland 44 which is screw threaded over the end
of the ñtting to secure the parts rigidly together.
The end section has an axial recess 45 therein
which, when the parts are assembled, is a con
tinuation of the recess 38. Together the recesses
38 and 45 receive the spring and packing ele
ments of a conventional compression packing,
generally designated at 46, for preventing leakage
along the valve stem. The bottom wall 41 of the '
recess 45 provides a bearing for the valve stem as
does a plug 48 in the extreme end wall of the end
Between the wall 41 and plug 48, the end sec
tion has a generally rectangular transverse open 55
ing 49 therethrough for receiving a part of the
operating mechanism for the valve stem. vRefer
ring to Figs. 1 and 6, the valve stem, near the
bottom wall of the opening 49, has a collar 58
rigidly secured thereto. A lever 5I, which is pref 60
erably formed of a metal strip bent transversely
into a U-shaped member to straddle the valve
stem, is pivoted on the end section, as at 52, and
extends laterally and horizontally (as shown)
across the collar and beyond the side of the end
section. Hence, downward movement of the
longer end of ’the lever moves the valve stem
downwardly and the return movement is effected
by a spring 53xbearing between the collar 50 and 70
plug 48. Preferably the surfaces of the lever
which engage the collar are arcuate, as shown at
54 (Fig. 6), to minimize friction. The lower end
of the end section preferably carries such means~
as a set screw 55 for adjustable engagement with
the short end of the lever and is effective to set mixture of the two streams and final vaporization
‘ of any remaining liquid fuel particles. Thus, the
the normal or idle position of the valve stem.
'I'he structure of the vaporizing means proper upper end of the sleeve 56 has screw threaded
to which the primary air and fuel passageways _thereonto _an elongated discharge _cap 15 which
2| and 31 respectively lead, may best be seen in may be held in any position of axial adjustment
Fig. 2. The inner or free end of the tube 28 by such means as a lock nut 16. The cap has a
supports in axial alinement therewith a relatively cylindrical side wall 82 in which an annular series
elongated tubular sleeve 56. Internally the sleeve of spaced slots 11 (Figs. 2 and 4) is formed, which
has enlarged chamber 51 into which the tube slots in assembly are located immediately above
I9 extends a short distance beyond the end of the the upper surface of the element_13. The slots 10
are also formed generally on a spiral angle as l
tube 28. 'I'his end of the tube I9 carries an en
largedv head 58 having a tapered external sur- _ in the case of ‘the element slots 14 and the _whirl
face 59 for abutment with a complementary sur
face 60 provided internally of the sleeve 56 at the
outer en`d of the. chamber 51. The external sur
face of the head 58 is mutilated or cut away at
ing action of the volatilized fuel mixture causes
an inward flow of secondary air through the slots
11 and into the fuel mixture.
At its upper end the cap is closed by a coni
a number of equidistantlyv spaced points (see 6I,
Fig. 5) to provide clearances 62 between the op
posing surfaces of the head and sleeve through
20 which air may flow from the chamber 51.
cally shaped head 18v which extends annularly
beyond the cylindrical side wall to form a flange
,19. 'I‘he head also has a series of slots 88 therein
formed to discharge the fuel mixture into the in 20
terior of casing section l2 and toward the lintake
manifold on a spiral angle. The annular flange
19 faces away from the intake manifold I0, and
is dimensioned to form with the surrounding Wall
Axially the head has a tapering bore 63 which co
operates with a needle valve 64 of substantial
length formed upon the end of a valve stem 40.
It is preferred to employ an elongated needle
valve in order that the flow of liquid through the
bore 63 may be accurately controlled` by minute
Surrounding the emission mouth of the bore
63 is an annular flange 65 constiîutinga tip which
30 internally is fashioned to define an‘ outwardly
flaring liquid fuel> nozzle 66.' About the flange 65
the sleeve 56 is internally enlarged to provide an
air chamber 61 surrounding the flange _and com
municating with the clearances 62 and the en
largement is terminated rather abruptly by a
shoulder 68 located about on the line of the
mouth of the nozzley66. The shoulder defines
an annular port 69 about the nozzle and from the
shoulder the internal wall of the sleeve 56 flares
sharply, as indicated at 18, and then terminates
in a cylindrical portion 1I. The walls 18 and 1I
of the tubular casing a passageway 8| for `the
remaining part of the secondary air stream.
It is preferred, in order to prevent condensa
tion ofthe vaporized fuel, to provide sharp edges .
at the discharge ends of all of the passageways
through whichrthe vaporized material flows. Air 30
expanding through an >opening or port having
blunt edges creates turbulence or eddy currents
around the port which do not prevent' the con
densation of vaporized fuel due to the cooling ac
tion of the expanding fuel stream as it issues 35
through the port. By providing a substantially
knife edge around the port, the expanding ñuid
discharged therefrom induces a flow of air along
the knife surface outside of the stream and into
the stream to draw into the stream any particles 40
tending to condense. Thus, the annular flange
define a volatilizing chamber 12 in which an ex
65 and the slots 14 and 80 are fashioned to pre
ceedingly fine atomization of the fuel stream dis
charged from the nozzle 66 is attained by the
action thereon of the air stream issuing through
the port 69.
-To produce an intimate mixture of air and fuel
particles, aswell as further to insure a complete
reduction of fuel particles substantially to a dry,
smoke-like gaseous state, means is provided for
discharging the vaporized fuel from the chamber
12 in a plurality of relatively small streams and
sent substantially knife edges at the discharge
sides thereof thereby minimizing condensation.
Referring to Figs. 1, 6 and 7, liquid fuel is de 45
with a whirling action. In this instance, an an
nular element 13 somewhat in the shape of a
. hollow cone is fixed in the outer end of the sleeve
livered to the fuel nipple 35 ‘through a conduit
84 which is connected with a conventional type
of fuel pump 85 and ñlter 86. It may be desir
able to preheat the fuel before _delivery to the
carburetor, and in this embodiment this end is 50
attained by forming an intermediate coil 81 in
the conduit, enclosing said coil in a leak proof
casing 88 secured to the exhaust manifold ll,
and diverting a portion of> the hot exhaust gases
through the casing 4by such means as a cap 89 55
56 to traverse the end of the chamber 12 and this
in the exhaust manifold communicating with the-
` element has a circumferentlally spaced series of
casing through an intake slot 98 and a similar
cap 9| having a discharge slot ‘92 therein for re
turning the gases to the manifold. To produce
radially extending slots 14 (Figs. 2 and 3) therein.
These slots are quite narrow and are cut through
circulation through the casing 88, the intake slot 60
which herein is the slot 9i) faces toward the gas
flow through the exhaust manifold while the
`other slot 92 is oppositely faced.
The construction and arrangement of parts
a spiral angle so that a circular whirling motion by which the admission òf secondary air is ef 65
of the stream results. Preferably the central por
fected and controlled will now be described. 'I'he
tion of the element is imperforate (see Fig. 3)
face of the tubular >end I4 of casing section I3 is
the element in planes which extend transversely
of rather than parallel to either the axis or
radius of the element. In other words, the
stream issues from the slots in a direction which
is neither axial nor radial but is generally along
to eliminate a direct axial flow.
'I‘he secondary air stream is, as Will `become ap-.
parent, introduced into the housing to flow up
wardly about the vaporizing means toward the
' intake manifold. At least a part of the secondary
air is preferably introduced into the circular
whirling stream of vaporized fuel whereby to util
ize the violent tubulence to effect an intimate
beveled, as at 93 (Figs. l and 8), to form a valve
seat for _a circular secondary air valve 94. The
valve is supported for axial reciprocatory move
ment in any suitable manner, as by a curved
arm 95 projecting endwise from the casing and
having an axially alined bearing 96 for a stem
`91 on the valve. A nut 98 onv the stem adjustably
limits the closed position ofthe valve while a
2,128, 132
spring 90, about the stem and exerting its force
between ' the valve and the bearing, normally
urges the valve toward its seat.
cam counterclockwise or advances the cam to
open the valve, thus admitting additional sec
ondary air in proportion to temperature increase.
The type of valve herein shown is capable oi' ~ Experimentation will determine the proper re
controlling the admission of air with exceeding lationship between the several forces involved,
accuracy and the actuating mechanism therefor as well as the speed of the cam and the shape
is likewise accurate in its operation of the valve of its surface so that the increased volume of
whereby the volume of secondary air admitted secondary air admitted as temperature increases
may be varied in proportion to the quantity of
10 fuel introduced with unusual precision to produce will be in proper proportion to the fuel to pro
duce an efficiently explosive mixture at any tem
at all times the most eillciently explosive mix
perature. If the temperature decreases, the ther
ture. In this embodiment, a shaft |00 extends
unit, of course, has an opposite action to
horizontally through the opposite side walls of mal
the volume of admitted secondary air.
the casing immediately adjacent to the inner Should the
shaft |00 be rotated, such movement
face of the valve 94. At one end the shaft is is transmitted to the cam through the strip |06
- joumaled in the associated wall. The shaft car
and the sleeve |0| without disturbing the ther
ries an elongated sleeve |0| which is loose on mally adjusted relationship between the shaft
the shaft and is journaled in the other casing and cam.
wall. The sleeve extends inwardly approxi
be main
20 mately to a point opposite the center of the
tained against endwise movement in any suitable 20
valve 94 and on its inner end has a cam |02 manner as by the actuating connections to and
fixed rigidly thereto for engagement with the from the shaft. If desired, an air filter of con-'
adjacent face yof the valve. The shape of the ventional form may be connected with the sec
cam is accurately predetermined to produce an
25 accurately graduated opening and closing of the ondary air inlet, as illustrated in dotted outline
in Fig. 1. valve upon rotation of the sleeve.
Herein the manipulable means by which the
The present invention embodies a temperature operator conventionally controls engine opera
control means for automatically varying the ad
tion is represented generally by the end of a
mitted volume of secondary air as such adjust
30 ment becomes necessary during operation of the power transmitting connecting rod H0 (Fig. 1)
a thrust being theA valve opening movement.
device whereby to maintain the explosive mix
This rod is suitably connected through a link | | |
ture at its maximum eiiiciency. For example, with the shaft |00 inlsuch manner that a push or
in internal combustion engines tlie carbureting pull
on the rod ||0 rotates the shaft correspond
mechanism is usually set for operation at an ingly to open or close the secondary air inlet
35 average or mean temperature.
An eilìciently
combustible mixture at this temperature will not,
however, be eillcient at a different temperature.
Hence, while the engine is heating it is operating
changes have the same effect.
The present temperature control. means em
bodies a lost motion connection between the
valve. Such operator controlled movements are
also utilized to actuate the fuel inlet valve 64 and
_the primary air inlet valve 30.
Referring to Figs. 6, 7 and 10, the end of shaft
|00, opposite that to which link ||| is connected,
is engaged by a split clamping member ||2 which 40
has a longitudinal screw threaded extension ||3
thereon. Preferably, both ends of shaft |00 are
shaft |00 and sleeve | 0| which, while it allows serrated to provide a non-slipping connection
the sleeve to be moved by the shaft, also permits ~with the associated parts.
The extension || 3
of independent movement of the sleeve accord
engages a nut ||4 which is pivotally supported
ing to the action of a thermally responsive de
between the arms | l5 of a yoke || 6 forming the
vice. Referring to Fig. 11, the side face of the
cam |02 at the end of sleeve |0| has a sector
shaped recess |03 therein. The sleeve |0| is cir
cumferentially cut away through that part which
opposes the recess to allow a pin |05, rigid with
the shaft |00, to extend into the recess, A spac
ing sleeve or collar interposed between the end
of the sleeve |0| and -the casing wall maintains
the centered relationship of the valve and cam
and also substantially closes the open face of
the recess |03. As shown in Figs. 8 and 9, the
shaft beyond the outer end of the sleeve has one
end of a spirally wound bimetallic thermally re
60 sponsive strip |06 secured thereto, as at |01. The
other end of the strip is fastened rigidly to the
sleeve, as by the adjustable clamping device |00.
'I'he operation of this particular part of the
mechanism maybe best understood byconsidering
65 that the cam |02 will normally be rotated in a
counterclockwise direction to open the valve.
The mechanism being properly adjusted for eili
cient operation, the pin |05 at'minimum tem
perature engages one end of recess |03 (the low
er end as the parts are shown in Fig. 11). Coun
terclockwise movement of the shaft to open the
valve will accordingly be transmitted to the
cam through the pin |05. As the temperature
increases, the bimetallic strip is arranged to ex
75 ert a force on the sleeve |0| which rotates the
upper end of an actuating link assembly, gener- .
ally designated ||'|. The link assembly depends
from the nut ||4 and at its lower end terminates
in a head H08 which is receivable between the
arms of the needle valve actuating lever 5| and
is plvotally secured thereto, as shown at H9, at
one of several positions provided along the length
of the lever. This adjustment, together with that
provided by the nut ||4 and extension H3, serve
generally to establish the desired operating rela
tionship between the shaft |00 and lever 5|. How
ever, a finer and more accurate adjustment is
usually necessary and means has been provided
for attaining this end with micrometer-like ac
To this end, the link assembly ||'| is formed in
sections. The lower section |20 which carries the
head ||8 and is connected with the lever 5| has
4 an externally screw threaded upper end as shown
in Fig. 6. An intermediate section |22 is tubular
and one end thereof has a swivel connection with
a stem |23 on yoke || 6, said yoke being the third
section of the link assembly ||'|. 'I'he opposite
end of the tubular section |22 is internally screw
threaded for ermagement with the screw threads
of the lower section |20. This end of section |22
is slotted as shown at |24 (Fig. 10), is externally
tapered, andy is 'screw threaded for engagement
by a complementary nut |2| carried by section 75
2,126,132 V
I 20.k Thus, when section |22 and nut I2| are dis
connected, the tubular section I2'I may be screwed
and air-so that the stream which issues through
the slots 80 is practically a dry, uniformly atom
onto or of! of section |20 to increase or decrease
ized mixture of fuel and air.
. the effective length of the link assembly II1,
after which the adjustment may be definitely and
- ñrmly maintained by engagement between section
|22 and nut I2 I. Thus, the overall length of` the
link assembly H1. may be `readily increased or
decreased and such adjustment may be made
10 vwith exceeding accuracy.
Actuation of the shaft |00 by the operator will,
therefore, be effective through the above described
connections to open and close the needle yvalve
64 as the secondary air valve 94Jis corresponding
15 ly actuated and the intermediate connections are
so accurately adjustable that the most efficient
proportion of secondary air to fuel may be ob
The primary air valve 30 is controlledv by the
20 movements of the lever 5I by such means as a`
link H25 (Figs. 6 and 7) connected at one end
with the radial arm 32 on the primary air lvalve
stem 3l and _at the other end with lever 5l. This
connection is adjustable but exceeding accuracy
25 thereof is not so necessary since the volume of
primary air admitted is relatively small and is
only suilicient to produce an efficient vaporization'
of the fuel.
In adjusting the device for operation, the fuel "
30 valve 64 and the primary air valve 30 are setto
a normal, slightly open position which determines
the idling or minimum' speed of operation of the
engine; The adjustments are correlated in such
manner that at the idling speedthe fuel which.
35 is introduced will be acted _on by just that volume
of primary air necessary to produce a complete
atomization of _the fuel. The secondary air valve
94 is valso adjusted to an‘initial slightly open po
As the stream issues from the slots 80, the
whirling motion previously imparted thereto is C7.
continued and is generally in the direction indi
cated by the arrows A. The relatively restricted
and obstructed passageway 8l causes the sec
ondary air stream to converge inwardly, as indi
cated by the broken lines B, as it passes the 10
flange 19 to meet the diverging fuel mixture
stream. Consequently a final thorough mixing
of the fuel and air streamsoccurs as the fuel
mixture travels to they intake manifold to pro
duce a mixture which is in its most eñiciently. 15
combustible state.
Variations in secondary air requirements,
caused by increasing or decreasing temperature,
are met by the action of the thermally responsive
means associated with the secondary air valve. 20
Consequently, the proper volume of air is mixed
with the fuel and the fuel cannot vary from a
too lean to a too rich mixture because of tem
perature changes.
The cam actuator for the secondary air valve 25
and the elongated needle valve permit the ac
tions of these two Valves to be accurately corre
lated and the proportion of the substances ad
mitted can be deñnitely adjusted and main
The purpose of the container 26 is to receive
excess and unused fuel which might occasionally
pass from the fuel duct, as would possibly oc
cur when the engine is stopped. , Such fuel drains
downwardly through the primary air passage
ways 2l and 23 and into the container where it
is retained until the engine is started. There
upon the initial lloW of primary air will, as it
passes the mouth of induction tube 21, draw the ~
sition, such as will produce an efñciently com
40 bustible mixture of fuel and air at a predeter- f fuel from the container and ‘discharge it from
the vaporizing device to produce a rich fuel mix
- minedaverage temperature, which may be ap
proximately the minimum ytemperature at which
the engine will be operated.
These adjustments having been made, fuel is
45 Adelivered from the pump 65 by conduit 84, duct 36,
and passageway 31 to- discharge through the ta
pering bore 63 and nozzle 66. Primary air is
drawn into the device through- port 34, bore 33
in air valve 30, bore 28“, passages 23- and 21,*
chamber 51, clearances 62 and chamber 61 to dis
charge into the volatilizing chamber 12 through
the restricted port 69 which closely encircles the
fuel discharge nozzle 66. The force which causes »
such primary' air flow is the diminished pressure
55 in the intake manifold and in some measure the
inductive action of the discharging fuel stream.
The wall which defines the fuel discharge nozzle
flares outwardly (see Fig. 2) to produce a diver
gent discharge of fuel into~the encircling air
stream whereby to produce a violent turbulence
in the volatilizing chamber with the result that
the fuel stream is broken up into exceedingly
finely divided particles. This volatilized fuel
then passesfthrough the slots 'i4 in the element
65 13 and the several streams issuing from the slots
encounter the internal wall of the cap ‘l5 and -a
whirling action within said _chamber results. This
motion serves to draw secondary air through the
slots 'l1 and an intimate mixture of the streams
70 is produced. The passage of the fuel and air mix
ture through the slots, together withnthe subse
quent mixing of the vaporized fuel with a part
of the secondary air, completes the atomization
of the fuel into its finest possible state and pro
2 duc-es a completely homogeneous mixture of fuel
ture. Consequently the action is similar to the
Operation of choking an engine in starting.
The present device has been illustrated as be
ing of the type known commercially as an “up
draft” carburetor.
However, without substan
tial modiiication it will also serve effectively as a
“down-draft” carburetor, it being necessary
merely to turn the device upside down through
180°. Of course, in the last mentioned position 50
the container 26 and its associated induction tube
are not required since any unused fuel will iìow
to the intake manifold and be available there in
yIt will be seen moreover that the present de
vice is capable of operation in positions other
than a. vertical one. Consequently this carburet
ing device may be readily adapted for eiiicient
operation on a great variety of engine and like
I claim as my invention:
1. In a device of the character described, the '
combination of a chamber having an outlet,
means for delivering an atomized mixture of
fuel and air to said chamber for discharge from
said outlet, a member in said chamber having
slots extending generally radially and formed on
an angle. more nearly transverse of the axis of
the chamber than parallel for imparting a>
whirling action to the mixture, means for im
parting a whirling movement to the streamflow
ing from said outlet, a casing in which said
chamber is located and into which said stream
is discharged, and means for delivering air to
said casing for discharge into the whirling fuel
2. In a carbureting device of the character de
scribed, the combination of an air intake, a valve
for controlling the volume of air> entering through
said intake, means mounted adjacent the valve
for controlling said valve and including a coaxial
shaft and sleeve, a cam mounted on said sleeve
and arranged to move said valve to open posi
tion, actuating means for rotating said shaft,
and thermally responsive means connecting said
shaft and sleeve for joint rotation to move said
cam and thereby adjust the position of said valve
for various operative conditions, said thermally
15 responsive means being movable due to variations
in temperature for effecting relative rotation be
tween said shaft and sleeve to shift the circum
ferential position of said sleeve and cam on the
shaft to move said valve for variabiy governing
20 the volume of air admitted into said intake in
any adjusted position established by said actu
ating means.
3. In comblnation‘in a carburetor construction
of the character described, an elongated fuel de
livery passage having a restricted discharge port,
a needle valve for accurately controlling the dis
charge of liquid fuel from said port and having
a valve stem extending therefrom to the opposite
end of said passage, a primary air passage hav~
ing its discharge end coactive with said fuel
discharge port to produce an atomized fuel-air
stream, 'a valve for controlling the ñow of pri
mary air through said air passage, a secondary
air passageway arranged for supplying a, large
volume stream of air to combine with said fuel
air stream to produce an efficient combustible
mixture, a valve for controlling the volume of
air ilow in said secondary passageway', means
for adjusting the secondary air valve including
an operating shaft and means for actuating the
saine, a lever operatively associated with the end
of said needle valve stem for adjusting the same
longitudinally and having an adjustable con-
nection with said shaft for operation thereby,
and means connecting said lever with said pri
mary air valve for effecting adjustment of the
latter simultaneously with said needle valve.
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