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Патент USA US2126285

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Aug- 9. 193s.
2,126,285
J- E. SCHAAF
Dec‘ 10)
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2,126,285
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INVENTOR
JAMES E. SCHAAF
a
A
ORNEY
Patented Aug. 9, 1938
2,126,285
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
$120,285
REFRIGERATOR
James E. Schaaf, Nu?ey, N. 1., assigns:- to Gen
eral Electric Company, a corporation of New
York
Application December 10, I930, Serial No. 501,188
400mm. (Cl. 82-115)
The invention relates to a freezing or cold
storage construction, to a storage ice box of com
mercial or household type. or to a display casing,
hereinafter referred to generically as a refrigera
5 tor, of the type of such constructions in which
of whatever agency may be utilized to raise the
temperature in the coil compartment in defrost
the storage space is cooled by circulation of air
exposed to a refrigerating coil and the invention
specifically relates to means for defrosting such
low operating temperature for a period of time
sufficient to permit the defrosting of the coils, the
frequent opening of the door as would be the
case in a busy store, has the effect of raising
the temperature higher than is desirable before
coil,
It is a present practice in vending package
foodstuffs, such as meats and other edibles, to
freeze the products at a very low temperature,
usually below —50° F. Such goods must be
maintained at a low sub-freezing temperature
15 until ready to be used and tend to deteriorate if
subjected for even a short period of time to any
relatively high temperatures, even to a sub
atmospheric temperature as low as +20‘ or
+30“ F‘. Refrigerators of this type now in gen
10
20 eral use accumulate layers of snow and ice on
the refrigerant carrying coil, condensed thereon
from‘ the moisture containing air which is intro
duced into the storage compartment whenever
the door thereto is opened. Such coils are com
‘.25 monly defrosted‘simply by shutting off the sup
ply of refrigerating liquid to the coils and expos
ing the coils to the heating in?uence of the ex
ternal atmospheric air.
It has also been sug
gested to defrost by chemical action and by ap
30 plying heat to the coils from heating wires.
This means, of course, that not only are the coils
heated but the storage space open thereto is also
heated above its operating temperature with
consequent ruiningof the contained food stuffs.
35 To avoid this it is a present practice to remove
the food stuffs from the refrigerator while the
coils are being defrosted. This practice, how
ever, necessitates the use of two refrigerators and
especially in the case of large refrigerators com
40 monly used in stores there is involved the labor
and inconvenience of handling large amounts of
frozen materials every time it is necessary to de
frost the coils.
The primary object of the present invention is
45 to provide a simpli?ed means for defrosting the
coils of refrigerators without the usual inci
dental raising of temperature of the storage
space.
Broadly, this object of the invention is at
50 tained by dividing the refrigerator into a storage
compartment and a coil containing compart
ment with doors or valves therebetween which
can be opened during the normal operation of
the refrigerator, and which can be closed to
55 insulate the storage space from the heating effect
ing the coils.
-
While a closed storage compartment in a well
insulated refrigerator casing will maintain its
the coils can be defrosted by the usual air ex
posure method. It is therefore desirable to mini
mize the length of time during which the stor
age space is deprived of the cooling effect of
the coils as herein featured.
Accordingly, the present disclosure features the
utilizing of heating means in place of or sup
plementing the usual air heating for accelerating
the defrosting action on the coils and at the
same time to prevent the transference of this
heat to the storage space with its low tempera
tured contents.
Broadly, this phase of the invention is attained
in the illustrated embodiment of the invention
by providing air heating devices and a fan in
sorted into the coil compartment or preferably
built into the refrigerator, for blowing a. current
of heated air across the coils thereby to melt the
frost thereon more quickly than could be done by
simple exposure to the external atmospheric air 30
and to contain this current within the outlines
of the closed cell containing compartment.
‘Still another object of the invention is to pro
vide for an automatic control of the storage
space insulating features, and of the coil heating
features above outlined, organized and arranged
so that the coil will be defrosted automatically
and quickly whenever the insulating effect of
the frost on the coils has resulted in a rise of
temperature in the storage compartment, and 40
to provide for a system of controls by means of
which the refrigerator as a whole will be restored
to its normal, operative working condition auto
matically when the defrosting of the coils has
been completed.
45
Various other objects and advantages of the
invention will be in part obvious from an in
spection of the accompanying drawings and in
part will be more fully set forth in the following
particular description of one form of mecha
nism embodying the invention, and the invention
also consists in certain new and novel features
of construction and combination of parts here
inafter set forth and claimed.
In the drawings:
3,128,985
Fig. 1 is a view in vertical section taken from
front to rear of a refrigerator illustrating a pre
ferred embodiment of the invention and taken
on the line I-l of Fig. 2 looking in the direc
tion indicated by the arrows and partly broken
away to economize in space;
Fig. 2 is a horizontal, sectional view taken
through the refrigerator shown in Fig. 1 and
taken on the line 2—2 of Fig. 1 looking down
10 wardly as indicated by the arrows; and
Fig. 3 is a diagrammatic showing of the electric
wiring connecting the several electrical parts
shown in the preceding figures.
In the drawings there is shown an electric re
15 frigerator including a heat insulating casing l?
with its interior divided by a horizontally extend
ing heat insulating partition ll into an upper rela
tively small coil and mechanism containing com
partment I2 and a lower relatively large storage
compartment I3. The upper compartment i2 is
provided with an opening II for permitting access
to this compartment and with a door ii for closing
opening N. The storage compartment I3 is pro
vided with an opening l5 closed by a door H.
25 The compartment I2 is provided with a refriger
ating coil l8 through which refrigerating liquid
is pumped from a refrigerating machine I! driven
by motor 28. The drip from the coil I8 is received
in drip pan 2! discharging into drain pipe 22.
The two compartments with their incidental con
necting passageways form an air conduit con
taining the air cooling coil l8. In general it is to
be understood that the refrigerator as thus far
described follows conventional structures and is
35 illustrated simply to show a structure adapted to
receive the defrosting devices herein featured.
The partition H is provided adjacent its front
and rear edges respectively with a hot or rather
relatively warm air duct 23 and a cold air duct 24
40 normally placing the compartments l2 and IS in
pneumatic intercommunication. The primary
feature of novelty in this disclosure is that the
ducts 23 and 24 are provided respectively with
doors or valves 25 and 26 which may be moved to
45 and from, opened and closed position when de
sired, so as to insulate the compartments l2 and
I3 from each other and thus prevent any heat
transference from one to the other. It is within
the scope of this disclosure to close and open these
50 doors by hand and to secure them in place either
by the frictional fit of the doors in their asso
ciated openings or by suitably positioned tempo
rary fastening means.
It is also a feature of novelty of the disclosure
55 to provide means for insuring a quicker defrosting
of the coils than would be obtained simply by
following the usual practice of exposing them to
the external atmospheric temperature by open
ing door l5. For this purpose, there is positioned
60 in the coil compartment I2 a plurality of hori
zontally spaced apart and vertically extending
be removed from the refrigerator when not in use.
The more pretentious showing herein illustrated
includes means for automatically defrosting the
coils and thus avoiding any necessity of personal
attention to the refrigerator to maintain its eill
ciency. It is obviously within the scope of the dis
closure to control the opening and closing move
ment of the doors 25 and 26 and to control the
heating devices 21 and 30 independently of each
other. In the illustrated disclosure, both the 10
doors and the heaters are controlled automatically
in proper time sequence and thermostatically by
the temperatures in either of the compartments
or at the coils themselves, but it is obviously within
the scope of the disclosure to otherwise control 15
the closing of the doors or valves 23 and 24 which
insulate the storage compartment.
In the illustrated form of the invention the
doors 25 and 26 are moved into closed position
by the energizing of pairs of solenoids 3i and 32 20
for each door. The plungers 33 of each set of
solenoids are connected by chains at with the
doors therebelow and the parts are arranged with
the four solenoids controlling the doors connected
in series and so disposed that when current is 25
passed through the same, the plungers 33 are
lifted simultaneously by electromagnetic action
and act on the doors to move the same from the
open position shown in Fig. 1 into an elevated and
closed position. The interception of current ?ow 30
through the solenoids releases the lifting e?'ect on
the plungers and the doors are permitted to fall
by gravity into their normally open position as
indicated in Fig. 1.
In this disclosure it is intended that the casing
Ill be internally wired as far as possible and with
the circuits organized so that the door controlling
solenoids and the heating devices are included in
the motor circuit which supplies the refrigerant
motor 20. This motor circuit is designed to be 40
connected to a source of energy indicated by elec
tric supply leads 35 and 36 and which may be the
house lighting circuit.
Referring to the wiring diagram shown in Fig.
3, there is disclosed a motor circuit including a
conductor 31 which extends from energy source
lead 35 to the motor 20, and therethrough back
to the lead 36 forming the other side of the
energy source, through a. two-point relay switch
38. Conductor 42 leads from armature 39 back
to the lead 36 forming the opposite side of the
energy source.
A main hand control switch 43
is contained in the conductor 42 and is disposed
in some convenient position exteriorly of the cas
ing II].
It is also understood that the motor cir- .
cult may be controlled by the usual thermostats
(not shown) for maintaining the refrigerator at
its preset low temperature during normal opera
tion.
shunted off the motor circuit is a heating de
60
vice circuit including conductor 44 extending
electric heaters 21 preferably positioned on a sup
from lead 35 through the two pairs of door op
porting frame 28 demountably hung from hooks
29 depending from the top of the casing "I.
erating solenoids 3| and 32, through the series of
heaters 21 and through the motor of fan 3|), all
disposed in series, to the other point 45 of the (i5
circuit closer or switch 38. The armature 39 is
so disposed that when shifted from the full line
into the dotted line position shown in Fig. 3, the
armature is moved into such position by a rela
tively weak electromagnet 46, contained in a 70
thermostat circuit shunted between conductors
l2 and 3T.v One end of the magnet 46 is con
nected by conductor 41 to conductor 42 and the
other end is connected to conductor 31 through
a conductor 48 containing a minimum tempera 75
65 Positioned at one end of the compartment l2 and
preferably supported on the frame 28 is an elec
tric fan 39 disposed to discharge air against and
across the heaters 21 to create a horizontally ex
tending whirl of warm air about the coil to raise
70 its temperature to the defrosting point. It is
obviously possible to include the fan and heaters
in an electric circuit which could be plugged into
the ordinary house circuit by leads extending
through doop opening ll in those cases where the
75 heater and fan constituted elements arranged to
9,190,200
ture thermostat II, the movable element Iii of
which is normally in open position and is set
to close at a relatively low temperature, in the
instant case at 10' 1''.
‘me armature I! is restored to its normal posi
tion closing the motor circuit by means of an
electromagnet ‘I designed to overcome the force
of the electrom'agnet 40 at the time when electro
magnets 4t and II are energized. Thiselectro
10 magnet Ii is contained in a maximum tempera
ture thermostat circuit, one end being de?ned by
conductor 52 leading to conductor 42 and the
other end connected through conductor 53 with
conductor 32 through a maximum temperature’
ll controlled thermostat 84 which is positioned di
rectly on the uppermost coil 55 or otherwise dis
posed so as to be-connected thermally to the coil
II and thus controlled by the temperature of the
coil. The movable element It of thermostat I4
is normally in open circuit position and is de
signed to close when the temperature at the
upper coil 55 reaches that point which experi
ments with refrigerators indicate is the point at
which the requisite ,defrosting of the coils takes
place and in the illustrated case it is' assumed
that thermostat 54 will close at a temperature
three or four degrees above 32' F.
In operation. and assuming first that the device
is in its simplest form, that is with doors 25 and
28 actuated by hand, and without the electrical
devices herein illustrated, it will be necessary in
order to defrost the coils, simply to shut off the
motor 20, to close the drop doors 2! and 28 and
open door IE to expose the coil to the heating
effect of the external air. In due course, the
warm external air will gradually melt the snow
and ice formed on the coil, the resultant water
dripping into the pan 2i and discharging from
the refrigerator through drain pipe 22. During
40 this time the usual air ?owing communication
between the compartments i2 and i3 will be in
tercepted so that during the time when the upper
part of the refrigerator containing the compart
ment i2 is being gradually heated to atmospheric
temperature, the frozen food stu?’s in the lower
compartment it will usually be in su?icient bulk
to maintain their frozen condition without mate
rially lowering the temperature at least for a
time duration suflicient to permit the coil to be
come defrosted. This will be true especially if
care is exercised not to open door ii any more
than is necessary. . After the coil has been suffi
ciently defrosted to restore it to its requisite
cooling capacity. the motor 20 is started, thus
forcing the refrigerating'liquld through the coil
and shortly thereafter the drop doors may be
opened manually, thus restoring the refrigerator
to its normal, active condition. This condition
can be continued until another defrosting of the
60 refrigerator is necessary.
In those cases where the drop doors 25 and 26
are designed to be opened and closed ‘by me
chanical action in distinction from manual ac
tion, this can be effected by door lifting solenoids
Si, 32, such as herein disclosed, acting on their
the structure of the refrigerator or, as herein
suggested, may constitute a removable strucmre
which can be introduced through the opening l4
and hung in position at one side of the coils
during the time the coils are being defrosted.
The addition of the electric fan disposed as
herein suggested to blow air across the heaters
and on to the coils has the e?'eet of accelerating
the defrosting action and in this connection it
is suggested that the fan be disposed so as to
draw external air into the coil compartment,
permit the heating of the same as it is passed
across the heater, and to permit the moisture
containing air to be discharged from the re
frigerator.
15
In the illustrated embodiment of the invention,
the several door lifting solenoids and coil heating
means are operatively connected to function un
der the control of thermostats, in turn controlled
by the temperature conditions in both of the 20
compartments. It is obviously possible to control
the door closing solenoids and/or the heaters
and fan by a single minimum and maximum tem
perature thermostat positioned in the coil com
partment. Referring to the details of the spe 25
ci?c disclosure herein illustrated and particularly
to the diagram of wiring thereof shown in Fig. 3,
it will be noted that with the main switch 4!
closed, the parts will be in the position indicated
in the several ?gures with current passing through 80
the motor circuit from lead It, conductor 21,
motor 20, contact point 4i, armature 38, con
ductor 42, hand switch 42, to lead 36. Frost will
eventually accumulate on the coil ill to such an
extent that it will tend to form a heat insulator 35
on the coil thus mimmizing its activity with the
result that there is a slow raising of temperature
in the storage compartment it. The thermostat
49 is set to close the circuit through electromagnet
46 at some preset temperature, in general prac 40
tice selected at about 10° F. Closing the circuit
through element iii of thermostat 49 completes
a minimum temperature electromagnet circuit
from conductors 31 and it through electromagnet
4B and conductors 41 and 42. Energizing electro
magnet 46 swings armature 39 from the full line
into the dotted line position shown in Fig. 3, thus
automatically and simultaneously intercepting
the current flow through the motor circuit and
establishing a current flow through the circuit 50
which contains the heating parts. Tracing this
last circuit, it will be seen that it extends from
lead 25, through conductor 44, through the sev
eral door actuating solenoids II and 32, through
the several heaters 21, through the motor of fan 55
30, through contact point 45, armature 39 and
conductor 42 to lead 36. The passing of current
through the solenoids BI, 32, energizes them and
thus causes them to elevate their plungers 33 to
swing the doors 25 ‘and 26 upwardly and into
position closing their respective air ducts 22 and
24 and this condition will continue so long as the
circuit is closed through the solenoids. As the
doors are closed the fan starts to blow air across
the heaters, thus heating the air and blowing the
respective doors and the circuit through which heated air in a circular horizontal path through
may be controlled by the manual actuation of a and about the coil i8 with the result that the
suitable circuit closer, which, of course, may be frost and ice thereon is melted and the moisture
laden warm air discharged either through the
same circuit closer or switch which controls the
motor 20 in conventional refrigerators now in door opening H or through air discharging vents 70
particularly arranged for this purpose. Asthe,
general use.
In those cases where it is desired to provide frost is discharged from the coil, the coil com
heating means to heat the coils in addition to, partment will gradually raise in temperature and
or to take the place of. the external air, electric the thermostat 84 therein is set to close the cir
15
75 heaters such as herein disclosed may be built into cult at some preselected temperature, selected to
4
greases
correspond to that temperature at which the coil
will become completely defrosted. It is herein
suggested that the thermostat 54 be set to close
at a temperature slightly above the melting point
of ice. say about 34° F. The closing of the cir
cuit through the thermostat 54 will establish a
maximum temperature electromagnet circuit
from lead 35, conductors 31 and 53, electromagnet
Ii, conductors 62 and 42 to lead 36. The encr
10 gizing of electromagnet 5| acts on the armature
l! to swing the same from the dotted line back
into the full line position shown in Fig. 3, thus re
storing the parts to their initial, normal, operative
condition. This has the effect of intercepting the
current flow through the heating devices and in
the absence of current in the solenoids 3| and
II, the doors 25 and 26 are permitted to fall by
gravity into their normal, open position drawing
with them the plungers 33. The circuit through
20 the motor 2|! is re-establlshed and the refrigerator
is restored to its operative condition.
,
By means of the device described, it is possible
to defrost the coil without perceptibly raising the
temperature in the storage compartment, thus
maintaining its contents at the requisite low
temperature necessary to maintain the contents
in the original frozen condition.
As the storage compartment is insulated from
the heat effects of the defrosting agencies in the
30 coil compartment, there is avoided the present
necessity of removing the contents to another re
frigerator. The refrigerator can be maintained in
active use, independently of any defrosting action
in the coil compartment. It is possible to open the
door I‘! during the defrosting process in the nor
mal operation of vending the contents without
appreciably or materially raising the temperature
in the storage compartment due to the large mass
of frozen material usually contained in such com
40 partments which will absorb the small amount of
heat introduced with the air. This is particu
larly true where means are provided to accelerate
the defrosting and thus reduce the time delay
when the refrigerant is inactive as where heaters
of high heating capacity are used for a brief
period of time.
Such high capacity heaters
might be introduced into the coil compartment or
rendered active when store conditions demand
a quick defrosting and restoring of the refrigerat
The actua
tion of the defrosting mechanism such as the
glowing of the usual heater, 28, or the activity of
the fan 30 on the closing of the doors 25-25,
indicates to the attendant that defrosting is
necessary and he could refrain from opening the
50 ing activity as during a busy period.
doors any more than is necessary or he might turn
on the installed heaters or introduce the addi
tional heaters if necessary. In this way the ac
tivity of the several elements of the defrosting
60 mechanism indicate by their action the time when
defrosting is necessary as well as the beginning
and duration of the defrosting period.
It is obviously within the scope of the dis
closure to so adjust the controllng thermostat or
thermostats that the defrosting will be attained
within narrow ranges of temperature raise. The
controls can be set to attain an automatic de
frosting following even a slight accumulation of
frost on the coil thus maintaining the coil at its
maximum cooling efficiency. In actual practice,
the parts can be set to defrost say once every two
or three hours which will be with sufilcient rapid
ity to maintain e?iciency under normal working
conditions in a store or shop where business is
75 su?lciently active to necessitate the opening and
closing of door I‘! frequently or the defrosting ac
tion may be clock controlled to take place at night
or whenever the refrigerator is not in active use.
While the invention has been described in con
nection with a refrigerator of the type commonly
employed in butcher and other shops and stores,
the features herein disclosed may be adapted for
use in other locations where it is necessary to
defrost refrigerating coils and it is suggested that
the disclosure with obvious changes in details may
adapted for display cases, household refrigerators,
ice boxes, water coolers and for use in refrigerat
ing plants and in scientific and laboratory devices.
I claim:
‘
1. A refrigerator including a heat insulating
casing and a horizontally extending heat insulat
ing partition dividing the casing interior into an
upper coil compartment and a lower storage com
partment, said compartments being both insu
lated from the external atmosphere during the
normal operation of the refrigerator, and adapted
to be insulated from each other, a refrigerating
coil in the upper compartment, each of said com
partments provided with door-closed openings
permitting access to their associated compart
ments and the opening to the coil compartment
when opened permitting the exposing of the coil
to the heating effect of the external air to defrost
the coil, said partition provided with a pair of air
circulation ducts normally placing the compart— 30
ments in intercommunication, and each of said
ducts provided with a heat insulating door for
closing the same and when closed for preventing
heat transference from the relatively high tem
peratured upper compartment into the relatively
cool lower compartment whereby the storage space
may be shut off from the heating effects of the
external air acting on the coil during defrosting.
2. A refrigerator provided with a coil contain
ing compartment and with a. storage compartment
and with a heat insulating partition separating
the compartments, said partition having an air
duct normally placing the compartments in inter
communication, a door for closing said duct and
thus intercepting both air communication and
heat transference between the compartments and
thermostatically controlled and electrically actu
ated means for controlling the opening and closing
movements of said door.
3. A refrigerator provided with a storage com
partment and with a coil compartment and having
openings therebetween normally placing the com
partments in intercommunication, a refrigerating
coil in said coil compartment adapted to be ex
posed to agencies to defrost the.same, and sole or u
noids for closing said openings whereby the stor
age compartment may be closed oil‘ from the coil
compartment and from the effects of any coil
heating agency therein during defrosting and a
thermostat within the refrigerator operatively (if)
connected to said solenoids to control the same
automatically by temperature conditions in the
refrigerator.
4. A refrigerator provided with a coil containing
compartment and with a storage compartment
and having an air duct normally placing the com
partments in intercommunication, means in the
coil compartment for raising the temperature
therein, a thermostat in the storage compartment
for controlling said temperature raising means *
and a door for closing said duct to thus intercept
communication between the compartments while
said temperature raising means is functioning.
5. In a refrigerator, the combination of a refrig
erating coil which becomes covered with frost
2,180,886
when in use, means for defrosting said coils, said
means including an electric heater in spaced rela
tion to the coil and a fan directed to blow air
therefrom across the heater across the intervening
space and on to the coil.
6. A refrigerator containing a coil compartment
and a storage compartment normally in inter
communication, a coil in the coil compartment
spaced from one of the walls thereof, a heater
10 disposed in said coil compartment to defrost the
coil and means for intercepting communication
between the compartments whereby the storage
‘ compartment may be shut oil from and thus
unaffected by heat from said heater.
'
15
7. In a device of the class described, the combi
nation of a coil compartment having a refrigerat
ing coil therein, a storage compartment adapted
to be open to the coil compartment and otherwise
insulated therefrom, means forming an electric
circuit including electrically actuated mechanism
for intercepting communication between said
5
air therein and in the storage space, said conduit
provided with means for defrosting the coil com- ‘
prising a normally closed entrance opening
adapted to be opened to expose the coil to the
heating effect of the external air to defrost the
coil, valvular means for separating the storage
space from the coil and thus selectively control
the flow of air either through said conduit alone
or through both the conduit and storage space
and thermostatically controlled means operatively 10
connected to said valvular means for controlling
said flow of air.
13. In a refrigerator. having a freezing com
partment open at one end and providing a. space
at said end substantially free of obstructions to 15
the free circulation of air, a door closing the
open end of the compartment, an electric heat
ing element supported within the compartment
adjacent the door exposed to the interior of the
compartment, including a cylindrical coil having 20
its outer surface entirely exposed to heat the air
compartments and thermostatically actuated con
as it passes about the same in said space and
trol means in one of said compartments for caus
adapted to be removable bodily through the open
ing said mechanism to function.
8. In a device of the class described, the com
bination of a coil compartment having a refriger
ating coil therein, a storage compartment nor
mally open to the coil compartment, means form
ing an electric circuit including electrically actu
ated mechanism for intercepting communication
between said compartments and for heating said
coil and thermostatically actuated control means
in one of said compartments for causing said
mechanism to function.
35
9. A refrigerator including a heat insulating
casing, a horizontally extending heat insulating
partition dividing the interior of the casing into
an upper coil containing compartment and a
lower storage compartment and said partition
40 adapted to heat insulate the compartments from
each other, a refrigerating coil in the upper com
partment, means for selectively placing the com
partments in fluid communication whereby air
cooled in the upper compartment is permitted to
circulate between the compartments and for in
tercepting such ?uid communication to intercept
the air circulation between the compartments and
thus prevent heat transference from the upper
to the lower compartment and means for expos
50 ing the coil to a heating agency to defrost the
same without heating the storage compartment.
10. In a refrigerator, the combination of means
providing a storage space, refrigerating means for
causing cold air to circulate through said space,
controlled means for exposing said refrigerating
means to a heating agency to defrost the same,
and means for insulating said space from the
effects of said heating agency and for intercepting
any flow of air between the refrigerating means
60 and the storage space.
11. In a refrigerator, the combination of struc
tural parts providing a cold storage space, and a
mechanism containing space, means in said
mechanism containing space normally disposed
for supplying cold air to the storage space, and
means for sealing the cold storage space from the
heating effect of the external atmosphere and
from the mechanism containing space whereby a
sub-atmosphere temperature may be maintained
end of the compartment when the door is re
moved from its compartment closing position, 25
and an electric circuit including said heating
element.
14. The combination with a refrigerating coil,
of an electric heating coil arranged in proximity
thereto, and thermostatically controlled and auto 80
matically operated means for energizing said
heating coil and for causing the refrigerating
coil to become inactive when ice and snow ac
cumulates on the refrigerating coil whereby the
refrigerating coil is freed from the ice and snow. 35
15. In a refrigerator, structural parts forming
a freezing chamber, cooling mechanism including
a heat-transferring element exposed in said
chamber, heating means independent of the cool
ing mechanism for defrosting said element and
a thermostat connected thermally to said heat
transferring element, controlled by the tempera
ture thereof and independent of the operative
ness of the cooling mechanism for causing the
heating means to function.
45
16. In a refrigerator, the combination of a,
mechanism containing chamber, cooling mecha
nism including a heat transferring element in the
chamber, electrically energized heating means in
the chamber creating a ?ow of warm air im 60
pinged on said element, means forming an elec
trict circuit including said heating means and a
control switch, an electromagnetic control for the
switch and control means including a pair of
spaced apart thermostats, one connected ther 55
mally to the heat transferring element and both
independent of the operativeness of the cooling
mechanism and acting selectively on said electro
magnetic control for opening and closing the
switch and thus controlling the functioning of the 60
heating means.
17. In a. refrigerator, structural parts on which
ice and snow are liable to form, means for ex
posing said parts to a heating agency to melt the
accumulated ice and snow and means including 65
an electric circuit containing electrically actu
ated devices controlled by the temperature of the
surfaces on which the ice or snow forms for caus
ing said heat exposing means to function.
70 in the storage space for a period of time even in
the absence of the means which normally sup
18. In a refrigerator, the combination with a 70
refrigerating machine including a motor and re
plies the cold air.
12. A refrigerator provided with a, storage space,
a ‘conduit communicating with the storage space,
75 a refrigerating coil in said conduit for cooling the
frigerating coils supplied thereby, of an electric
heating device adjacent the coils to heat the same,
means forming‘an electric circuit including said
motor and heating device, and a two-way switch 75
6
2,126,985
for selectively closing and opening the circuit
through the motor while respectively opening and
closing the circuit through the heating device and
thermostats controlled by the temperature in the
refrigerator for controlling said switch.
19. In a refrigerator, structural parts forming
a mechanism containing compartment, cooling
mechanism in said compartment, heating means
in said compartment for heating the cooling
10 mechanism, a storage compartment adapted to be
cooled by said cooling mechanism and thermo
statically controlled means governed by the tem
perature in said storage compartment for causing
15
the heating means to function.
20. In a refrigerator, the combination of cool
ing means, a heater and thermostatically con
trolled means for blowing a current of hot air at
a temperature greater than 32° F. from the heater
across the cooling means.
20
said last named means.
26. In a device of the class described, the com
bination of a storage compartment and a coil
compartment, a coil in the coil compartment, said
coil having capacity to reduce the temperature
of the contents of the storage compartment to
less than 10° F., means for raising the tempera
ture in the coil compartment to a temperature 10
greater than 32° F. thereby to defrost said coil,
and means for insulating the storage compart
ment from the e?ects of said defrosting means.
27. In an electric refrigerator, including cooling
mechanism, and an electrically operated device 16
for raising the temperature of the coils thereof
above the surrounding atmospheric temperature,
a switch in the current supply line leading to said
device, and a thermostat in circuit with said tem
_
21. In a refrigerator, the combination of a
perature raising device controlled by the tempera 20
freezing compartment provided with cooling
ture at the coils for controlling an operation of
said switch.
28. In an electric refrigerator including cool
ing mechanism and a coil, and defrosting means
for the coil, an electro magnetic switch in the 25
current supply line for said defrosting means, and
means controlled by the ice formation on the coil
for controlling the operation of said switch.
29. In combination with a refrigerating coil, of
an electric heating coil arranged in proximity 80
means for creating a temperature in said com
partment lower than 34° F., heating means in said
compartment to create a ‘temperature in said
25 compartment greater than 34° F., a thermostat
exposed to the temperature condition at said cool
ing means for controlling the cooling means and
another thermostat for controlling the heating
means.
30
22. In a refrigerator, the combination with a
refrigerating machine including a motor and re
frigerating coils supplied thereby, of an electric
heating device adjacent the coils to heat the same
to free them of frost accumulations, means in
35 cluding the motor forming a motor circuit, means
including the heating device forming a heating
circuit, a two-way switch for selectively opening
one circuit while closing the other, thermostati
cally controlled means for moving the switch into
~10 one of its circuit closing positions, and another
thermostatically controlled means for moving the
switch into its other circuit closing position.
23. In a refrigerator, structural parts forming
a mechanism containing compartment, cooling
mechanism in said compartment, heating means
in said compartment for heating the cooling
mechanism, thermostatically controlled means
governed by the temperature in said refrigerator
for causing the heating means to function, other
50 thermostatically controlled means for causing the
cooling mechanism to function, and each of said
thereto, and automatically operated means for
energizing said heating coil at irregular intervals
controlled by the temperature conditions at a
point in spaced relation to the coils whereby the
refrigerating coil is freed from snow and ice.
30. A mechanical refrigerator provided with a
mechanism containing chamber and a storage
chamber, normally active mechanism contained
in the mechanism containing chamber for sup
plying a current of cold air to the storage cham 40
her to maintain the same between a preset maxi
mum and minimum cooling temperature, means
for intercepting the fluid communications be
tween the chambers, and for closing the storage
chamber when it is desired to defrost the mecha 45
nism in the mechanism containing chamber.
31. The combination with a refrigerating coil
of heating means including a thermostat con
trolled by the temperature of space cooled by the
coil for raising the temperature of the coil to free
the same of adhering snow and ice whenever the
50
thermostatically controlled means including a
thermostat circuit and a thermostat for opening
temperature of the space cooled by the coil
reaches that pre?xed maximum which is con
and closing its associated circuit, the thermostat
trolled by the setting of the thermostat.
32. The combination with a refrigerating coil 55
55 which controls the closing of the motor circuit set
to close at a temperature above a relatively high
temperature and to open below said temperature
and the thermostat which controls the closing
of the heater circuit set to close at a relatively
60 low temperature.
-
24. A mechanical refrigerator provided with a
storage space, defrosting means for the refriger
ator means for insulating said means from said
storage space, whereby the defrosting means when
65 active will not effect the contents of the- storage
space, and a thermostatic control for the defrost
70
of heated air to ?ow through the conduit and
thermostatically controlled means for controlling
for cooling a space remote therefrom, of an elec
tric heating means in spaced relation to the coil
for heating the same and means controlled by
the temperature in said space‘ for energizing said
heating means.
60
33. In a mechanical refrigerator, cooling means
for creating a temperature therein less than 32°
F., defrosting means independent of the cooling
means for creating a temperature therein above
32° F., to melt ice accumulation on the cooling 65
means and a thermostatic control for said de
ing means, said control being operatively respon
sive to the temperature conditions in the refrig
frosting means operable automatically whenever
the temperature within the refrigerator reaches
erator.
25. A refrigerator provided with a storage space,
a. pre?xed low temperature below 32° F.
an air conduit communicating with the storage
space, a refrigerating coil in said conduit for cool
ing the air therein and in the storage space, said
coil adapted to be exposed to a heating agency
75 to defrost the same, means for causing a current
34. A defrosting mechanism for use in connec 70
tion with a mechanical refrigerator having a
chilling element, the same consisting of a ther
mally sensitive element, a device connected thereto
to be controlled thereby, said device being capable
of emanating vibrations on to the chilling element,
2,120,230
the thermally sensitive element being located to
be responsive to the chilling element on which
frost is permitted to accumulate, the presence of
said frost serving to effect the thermally sensitive
element and then cause said device to operate
when the refrigerator is to be defrosted.
35. A mechanical refrigerator including a re
7
42. Refrigerating apparatus comprising means
for dividing the interior thereof into a cooling
chamber and a storage chamber, valvular means
for controlling ?uid communication between the
chambers, refrigerating mechanism including a
cooling element in the cooling chamber and elec
trically actuated power means for operating the
frigerating unit on which ice is liable to form,
refrigerating mechanism, electrically actuated de
means forming an electric circuit including a
frosting means in the cooling chamber, and
means including electric circuits comprising the
10 motor driven refrigerating apparatus for supply
ing said unit, means forming an electric circuit
including a device for defrosting the ice on the
unit and a thermal responsive unit exposed to
the thermal in?uence of a space cooled by said
15 refrigerating unit and operatively connected to
both of said circuits simultaneously to open the
circuit to the motor of the refrigerating appa~
ratus and to close the circuit to the defrosting
device.
20
36. Refrigerating apparatus comprising in com
bination a cabinet having a food compartment
and a second compartment, a cooling element in
said second compartment for cooling said food
compartment, means for exposing said cooling
element to the air outside of said cabinet and
circulating such air over the cooling element for
defrosting said element, and means for isolating
the food compartment from the second compart
ment for preventing the access of external air
to the food compartment during the defrosting
period.
.
37. Refrigerating apparatus comprising in com
bination a cabinet having a food storage portion
and a second portion, a cooling element in said
86 second portion, and means for exposing said sec
power means and the defrosting means for mov~
ing the valvular means into position to inter
cept the fluid communication between the cham
bers for causing the refrigerating mechanism to
become functionally inactive and for causing the 15
defrosting means to become active.
43. In a mechanical refrigerator the combina
tion of a casing provided with a partition for
dividing the interior of the casing into a cooling
compartment and into a storage space, said par 20
tition provided with openings providing com
munication between the compartments, doors for
said openings coacting with the shelf for insulat
ing the compartments from each other when the
doors are closed, refrigerating mechanism in 25
cluding a cooling element in the cooling com
partment, heating means in the cooling compart
ment for defrosting the cooling element, current
supply lines for supplying electric current to
both the refrigerating mechanism and the heat
ing means, and control means including a switch
contact for connecting and disconnecting said
refrigerating mechanism from the supply lines
and a switch contact for connecting and dis
connecting the heating means from the supply
lines and said control means also including a
thermostat located in the storage space and op
eratively connected to control one of said
ond portion including said cooling element to the
environment temperature outside of said cabinet
while sealing said food storage portion from said
environment temperature.
38. Refrigerating apparatus comprising in com
bination a cabinet having a food storage portion
switch contacts thermostatically.
and a second portion, a cooling element in said
merchandise, refrigerating means for causing cold
air to circulate through said space and about
second portion, means for exposing said cooling
element to the air outside of said cabinet and
45 preventing said outside air from entering said
food storage compartment, and means for cir
culating said outside air over said cooling element.
39. Refrigerating apparatus comprising in com
bination, a cabinet having a food storage compart
50 ment therein, a cooling element for cooling the
food compartment, means for isolating the food
compartment from the cooling element and for
exposing said cooling element to air externally
of said cabinet, and means for forcing air exter
65 nally of said cabinet over said cooling element.
40. Refrigerating apparatus comprising in com
44. In a refrigerator, the combination of means 40
providing a storage space adapted to receive
said merchandise to cool the same by direct air
contact, controlled means for exposing said re 45
frigerating means to a heating agency to defrost
the same, controlled means for exposing the
refrigerating means to the external air during
defrosting and means for insulating said space
from_ the effects of said heating agency.
50
45. In a refrigerator, structural means forming
a freezing compartment separate from the rest
of the refrigerator interior, means including an
air port for exposing the interior of the com
partment at will to in?ltration of external air 55
and the expulsion therefrom of defrosting air,
bination a cabinet, an insulated shelf in said cabi
means providing an opening between the freez
net, said shelf being provided with an opening
dividing said cabinet into a plurality of compart
ments, a cooling element in one of said compart
ments, means for circulating air over said cooling
ing compartment and the rest of the refrigerator
element in one compartment and through said
opening into the other compartment for cooling
said other compartment, means for exposing said
65 cooling element to the air outside of said cabinet
and means for closing said opening in said shelf.
41. Refrigerating apparatus comprising in com
bination, a cabinet having a food storage com
partment therein, a cooling element for cooling
70 the food compartment, a door for closing an open
ing leading into said storage compartment and
electrical means operable simultaneously with the
closing movement of the door for increasing the
temperature of the cooling element to cause
76 defrosting thereof.
interior, a closure for the same, means for creat
ing a freezing temperature in said compartment,
means including an electric heater having a plu
rality of exposed coils and mounted in said com
partment and means for drawing air into the
compartment through the air port and for pass
ing the same across the exposed coils of the elec
tric heater to heat the air so passed across the
heater and freezing means and for discharging
the same from the compartment during the time
when said closure is in position closing the open 70
ing.
46. A refrigerator including an outlining cas
ing of unitary construction and provided with
at least one opening permitting access directly
into the interior of the casing, heat insulating 75
2,198,285
means including a shelf connecting the upstand
ing walls 01’ the casing, dividing the interior
thereoi' into two superposed compartments and
acting to heat insulate the compartments from
each other, said shelf provided with a pair of
from one compartment into the other, means for
exposing said cooling element to the air outside
or the casing and said insulating means includ
horizontally spaced apart openings, one forming
ing doors for closing the openings in the shell’
a vertically directed updraft conduit and the
other forming a vertically directed downdraft
and thus constituting a control for the air com
munication as well as heat transference between
conduit, a cooling element in one of said compart
the compartments.
means for circulating air horizontally over said
cooling element, through the conduits and thus
10 ments located between the pair of openings,
'
JAMES E. SCHAAI".
DISCLAIM ER
2,126,285.—James E. Schaaf, Nutley, N. J. REFRIGERATOR. Patent dated August
9, 1938. Disclaimer ?led July 19, 1939, by the assignees, General Electric
Company and General Motors Corporation.
Hereboy enter this disclaimer of claims 6, 10, 11, and 26 of said patent.
[ ?ieial Gazette August 8, 1939.]
10
2,198,285
means including a shelf connecting the upstand
ing walls 01’ the casing, dividing the interior
thereoi' into two superposed compartments and
acting to heat insulate the compartments from
each other, said shelf provided with a pair of
from one compartment into the other, means for
exposing said cooling element to the air outside
or the casing and said insulating means includ
horizontally spaced apart openings, one forming
ing doors for closing the openings in the shell’
a vertically directed updraft conduit and the
other forming a vertically directed downdraft
and thus constituting a control for the air com
munication as well as heat transference between
conduit, a cooling element in one of said compart
the compartments.
means for circulating air horizontally over said
cooling element, through the conduits and thus
10 ments located between the pair of openings,
'
JAMES E. SCHAAI".
DISCLAIM ER
2,126,285.—James E. Schaaf, Nutley, N. J. REFRIGERATOR. Patent dated August
9, 1938. Disclaimer ?led July 19, 1939, by the assignees, General Electric
Company and General Motors Corporation.
Hereboy enter this disclaimer of claims 6, 10, 11, and 26 of said patent.
[ ?ieial Gazette August 8, 1939.]
10
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