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Патент USA US2127582

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Aug. 23, 1938.
M. BARUCH ET AL
'
2,127,582
AIR CONDITIONING METHOD
Original Filed Aug. 8, 1936,
oecms09 ‘
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
INVENTORS
J3
MILTON BARUCH
QALPI-I E. PHILLIPS,
ATTORNEYS
Aug- 23, 1938-
M. BARUCH ET AL
2,127,582
AIR CONDITIONING METHOD
Original Filed Aug. 8, 1936
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
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2,127,582
Patented Aug. 23, 1938
UNITED STATES PATENTOFFICE
2,127,582
I
AIR CONDITIONING METHOD
Angeles, and Ralph E.
Milton Baruch, Los ewpark, Calif.
'
Phillips, Vi
‘
Original application August 8,1936, Serial No.
Divided and this application January
95,004.
4, 1938, Serial No. 183,316
1 Claim
(Cl. 62-471)
means of the water evaporation type in associ
ation with an auxiliary refrigerating means ar
This invention relates to air-conditioning sys
tems and pertains particularly to the provision
ranged to provide dehumidi?cation and/or addi
of a method for securing a “single pass” circu
tional cooling of- the volume of air under treat- ‘
lating system as contrasted to the “recirculating”
5 systems conventionally employed in this art.
This application is a division of our copending
application .Serial No. 95,004, ?led August 8,
1936.
The common practice in air-conditioning treat
10 ments is to provide positive circulation of a vol
ume of air through the space under treatment,’
continuously withdrawing a portion of such air
and replenishing the volume with a correspond
ing quantity of fresh air while maintaining the
15v volume of air under circulation at a desired tem
perature and relative humidity. One of the prin
cipal reasons for employing a system of this char
acter resides in the’ energy economies obtainable
thereby in that it is only necessary to extract that
20 proportion of heat and moisture from the air.
withdrawn from the space under treatment which
is represented by the heat and moisture dissem
inating agents within such space, and to com
pensate for the heat. and moisture of the added
Such recirculating systems are rela
25; fresh
tively air.
expensive of installation and operation,
ment in such manner that the auxiliary refrig- 5
erating means operates only when the moisture
content of the air in the space to be treated is
such that a dehumidi?cation or additional cool
ing is required, whereby the major portion of the
cooling effect is obtained by the ?rst-mentioned 10
cooling means and the auxiliary refrigerating
means operates only under abnormal conditions.
This apparatus arrangement provides for the
energy economies of a cooling means of the wa
ter-evaporation type under all normal operating 15
conditions and also provides the bene?ts of a
dehumidiiying type of apparatus under abnormal
conditions, together with an economy of instal
lation which may not be attained with the con
ventional refrigerating type of air-conditioning 20
unit.
According to the method of the present inven
tion, in a simple embodiment, atmospheric air
is passed through a suitable heat exchange means
whereby such air is reduced in temperature and 25
increased in relative humidity without increas
, and do not provide any method of replenishing
fthe oxygen content of the air withdrawn from
the space under treatment and recirculated into
30 ‘the space. In addition, these systems ordinarily
-
do not have a satisfactory method of removing
odors, smoke, or other‘ objectionable contami
nants in the air.
In view of the above, one of the particular ob
35 jects of the present invention‘ is to provide a
method adapted for continuously supplying con
ditioned fresh air to a space under treatment,
while maintaining the energy consumption of the
system at a- desired low level.
40 A further object of the invention is to provide
a method for supplying a volume of cooled and
conditioned air to a space under treatment and
.to utilize this volumeof air after passing the
same through said space in a heat exchange
45 treatment of the air supplied to such space.
Another object of the invention is to provide
an air-conditioning system which may utilize
the once cooled'and contaminated air exhausted
ing its absolute humidity. _ The cooled air is then
introduced into a dwelling or other space to be
conditioned either with or without further re
frigeration. This air may then be withdrawn 30
from the dwelling and passed through an evap
oration type cooler for the purpose of cooling
a body of water or other suitable heat transfer
agent which is circulated through the heat ex
change device' through which the volume of air =35
is passed as above described in non-contacting
relation with' the heat transfer agent circulated
in said heat exchange device.
exhaust air through the evaporation cooler will
cause a relatively large increase in relative hu- '40
midity thereof, and while this air is still cool,
its relatively high humidity will make it unsuited
for introduction into a dwelling space, and for
this reason we preferably pass the air from ‘the
evaporation cooler into the attic or otherwall 45
space of a building to provide an insulating
blanket of cool air.
_
Apparatus which is useful in carrying out the
method of the'present invention may comprise,
essentially, a system of ducts and air-supply 50
50 for the purpose of cooling the incoming air in the means such as blowers,-in association with a
absence of direct contact between the exhausted cooling means which preferably includes a ‘heat
and incoming air, whereby contamination of said _ exchange means adapted to effect a chilling of ~
from a dwelling or other space under treatment
incoming air is- avoided.
_
-
Another object of the invention is to provide
55 an air-conditioning system including a cooling
a body of air passed therethrough without in
bsolute moisture content thereof, 55‘
crease in the
.13.’
.
2,127,582 y
and an evaporation type cooler of a preferred
cooler as above described, together with addition
construction adapted to receive air exhausted
from the space under treatment and employ
the same in an evaporation treatment of a body
of Water or ?uid which is circulated through the
?rst-‘mentioned heat exchange means in a noncontacting relation with the air passing therethrough.
Other objects and advantages of the present
invention W111 be more fully brought out in the
following speci?c description thereof, or will be
‘ apparent therefrom. In the accompanying
f drawings we have shown flow sheets which illustrate the practice of the method of the present
invention and a preferred type of cooling means
useful therein, and referring thereto:
Fig. 1 is a ?ow sheet of a simple example of the
practice of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is a flow sheet of a more involved prac-
a1 atmospheric air. Referring to this arrange
I ment, a blower is shown at A provided with a
_ tice of the present invention, in which a high
Fa body of water or other cooling agent is cooled ‘
energy e?iciency may be maintained;,
discharge duct 0. leading into a heatexchanger
B and. thence through a refrigerator R and
thence into the space C to be subjected to treat
ment. The refrigerator R is provided vwith a
suitable power unit indicated at R’. Air is with
drawn from the space C through a duct e to the
inlet side of a second blower A’, the inlet side of
which also communicates with the atmosphere
so that the air discharged therefrom constitutes
all of the air withdrawn from the space C plus
an additional quantity of atmospheric air. The
discharge from the blower A’ passes through a
duct a’ into an evaporation tower F and is then
preferably discharged to the attic space G’ or
the like through a duct f, as described in con
nection with Fig. 1. Within the cooling tower
by the action of the air supplied to said tower
Fig. 3 is a sectional side elevation of an evapo-
and this water is passed in heat-exchanging rela
ration cooler according to the present invention,
tion to the incoming air within the heat-ex
taken on line 3—3 in Fig. 4;
changer B and recirculated to the tower F for
~
,
Fig. 4 is a sectional front elevation thereof
taken on line 4-4 in Fig. 3;
Fig. 5 is a sectional plan view thereof taken on
line 5—5 in Fig. 3;
Fig. 6 is a ?ow, sheet of a further example of
further cooling.
It will be appreciated that the refrigerator R via
is adapted to function both as chilling agent
whereby the temperature of the air from the
cooler B is reduced to a desired low level, and as
the practice of the present invention; and
a dehumidi?er.
The dehumidifying action is ob
the apparatus of the present invention.
In Fig. 1 we have shown a blower or the like A,
the atmospheric conditions are in general such
that additional cooling is not required a dehu
discharge the same through two branch conduits
stituted for the refrigerator. For example, we
a and a’. The branch conduit a passes through
a heat exchange cooler B and thence into the
may use a body of absorbent material such as
silica~gel or the like. It will further be appre
cool a body of water which is employed in a heat-
the space C rises to a’ point above that desired,
exchanging, non-contacting relation with the air
the thermostat t will start operation of the power
effect of the system as a whole.
The cool air supplied through B into the space
C will escape from said space through the normal openings in the building, such as windows
and doors, or speci?c openings may be provided
in the space for the escape of such air. The
operate to start the refrigerator R and secure the
desired dehumidifying elfect. In the event that
air supplied to the attic G through the duct d
will escape through the conventional ventilating
louvres or the like provided in attic spaces, preferably at points removed from the inlet of the
duct d. The escape of air from the spaces C and
some other form of dehumidifying means is em
ployed in place of the refrigerator R, it will be
apparent that the humidostat h may be employed
to effect a control of the circulation of the air
flow through the dehumidifying means.
In view of the fact that the space C will not be
absolutely air tight, the volume of air withdrawn
through the duct e will not be equal to that sup
plied to the space C. In general however, we ?nd
Gis indicated diagrammatically by arrows.
it feasible to remove approximately 80 per cent
Fig. 2 illustrates an arrangement which provides for the introduction of a cooled volume of
air to a space undergoing treatment, the withdrawal of cooled air from such space and the
passage thereof through an evaporation type
of the air supplied to a space under treatment,
and under such circumstances, only about 20 per
cent of makeup air is required at the blower A’.
The proportion of air which is lost from the space
C is indicated by the small arrows at the left side 75
3
2,1,27,582
trough i8 inthe tower 6 through
same into the
1, the
As in the ‘case shown in Fig.
}
Fv through the duct f
air supplied from the tower
into the space G’ will escape from such space
therein as in-_
of'the ?gure.
through the conventional openings
dicated by the heavy arrows.
Referring to Figs. 3 and 5, a cooling device
which may be used in practicing the method of
the present invention may comprise a vertical
the agency of a supply line 22. At a point adja
cent t ~e lower end of the tower 6; as defined by
the partition 9, we provide a second pump 23
adapted to withdraw water from the lower por
tion of said tower 6 and introduce the same into
tower or casing I divided into upper, and lower
portions 2 and 3. The upper portion 2 comprises
a water-cooling space or evaporation tower pro
vided with air inlet means such as a duct 4 adja
cent the lower end’ thereof and an exhaust duct 5
adjacent the upper end thereof. The tower 2 is
the trough 19 in the secondary tower 1 through
the agency of a suitable supply line 24. Suitable
means may be provided to supply water to the
system to make upifor water lost by evaporation.
It may be convenient, for example, to supply wa
ter automatically from the water supply mains by
employing a
'
which is operable to
above the partition 9. Due to the fact that the
preferably divided into two separate evaporation
pumpsv 2| and 23 may not maintain a uniform
a medial partition 8 extending vertically through
ing towers, there may be a tendency for one or.
1 through the agency of
water level in the primary and secondary cool
out the major portion of the tower in the direc
duct 4. The two
'tion of inlet of air through the
portions 6 and 7i will be hereinafter designated
as primary and secondary evaporating towers, re
the other of the towers to load up with water so 20
that an incorrect amount of makeup water will
be supplied tothe system. In order to obviate
such a condition we find it advantageous to pro
. The primary tower 6 is provided with
a lower wall 9 which provides a space at the low
er portion of said tower for the accumulation of
water, as will be hereinafter described.
The lower portion 3 of the device constitutes an
air-cooling or heat exchange portion and may
comprise an air duct l0 provided with an air in
let-duct II and an exhaust duct i2 at opposite
sides thereof, and heat exchange means such as
30 a plurality of water tubes i3 extending trans
vide an equalizer opening 29 in the partition 8
as shown in Figs. 3 and 4 to
above the water-distributing means l8 and I9, as
shown at 25, for the purpose of extracting any. 30
‘large particles of water which may be sprayed
upwardly from the towers due to the flow of air
from the duct 4 to the duct 5.
The cooling device of the present disclosure
may be employed in connection with either of 35
A circulation of water is provided through
the above-described arrangements of apparatus
the tubes i3 from the'lower end of the tower ‘I, ‘
elements shown in Figs.
2. As a specific
example, the cooling device may be employed in
the relation shown at B and D in Fig. 1, in which
the water preferably being withdrawn from said
35 tower 1 through a passage i4 into that group of
tubes adjacent the exhaust duct l2 and then into
I40, below said group of tubes.
The water is then circulated upwardly through
the group of tubes intermediate the inlet and ex
i2. After passing through the _
40
haust ducts ii and
aforesaid intermediate group of tubes the water
may be caused to enter a header space I4b,.-which
may be partitioned from the passage I4 by means
of a partition l5, and is then passed through that
45 group of tubes adjacent the inlet duct H into a
discharge space H, the space l1 being separated
a blower A is arranged to supply approximately 40
equal volumes of air to the ducts H and 4 (cor
responding to the ducts a and a’ in Fig. 1), and
the exhaust duct i2 of the heat exchanger 3 is
into the space
' caused to communicate directly
5 of the
. C to be cooled, while the exhaust duct
from the header Mb by a partition IS. The cir-'
culating water may then be withdrawn from the
space I1 and introduced into the tower portion 2
. '50
25
baf?e means or de?ectors are preferably provided
versely and‘ preferably vertically across the duct
iii
provide for an equa- .
lizing flow of water between the water bodies
in the primary and secondary towers. Suitable
as hereinafter described.
evaporating tower 2 is caused to communicate
45
with the attic or other wall space G or G’. The
blower A is caused to pump air from the atmos
phere into the respective upper and lower por
tower, and during the passage
'tions of the cooling
of air through duct It) in the portion 3 of the
tower it will be chilled to a temperature closely
approximating that produced in the water which
'
Duct 4 opens into both of v the chambers 6 and.‘ has passed through both the primary and sec
1 as shown in Fig. 5 so that a substantially equal ondary evaporating tower portions (providing the 55
distribution of air is provided for the two towers heat exchange area of the tubes i3 is adequate
3 and 'l in the portion 2 of the device, and water ’ with respect to the volume of air passed through
spray means such as perforated distributing
1.9 are provided adja
,baskets or troughs I8 and
cent the upper end of the respective towers, suit
able water supply means being provided to said
troughs in such manner as to effect a withdrawal
v60 of water which has passed through the heat ex
change means 3 and introduce the same into the
primary tower 6 to cause a partial cooling there
of, and subsequently withdraw the water from the
tower and introduce the same into the secondary
65 tower 1, from whence it recirculates through the
heat exchanger 3, being introduced to said heat
exchanger ‘through the portion l4 aforesaid.
Suitable sc'reen- members are preferably provided
in the towers 6 and ‘I, as at 20, to assist in pro
70 moting contact between the water and air in
75
the duct l0) and is increased in relative humid
ity, but in view of the fact that the air does not
come in‘ actual contactwith the water, the ab 60
solute humidity thereof remains unchanged un
less the dew point of the atmospheric air is above
the temperature. The air supplied at 4 to the
towers 6 and ‘I will effect a cooling of the water
discharged from the troughs i8 and IS, the water 65
withdrawn by the pump 23 from the tower 6 being
partly reduced in temperature and the water
withdrawn from the tower
the heat exchange means 3 being cooled to a
temperature only slightly above the wet-bulb tem 70
perature of the air entering at duct 4.
As a specific example, assuming the atmos
pheric air to have a dry-bulb temperature of
said towers. The water-circulating system may - 95° F. and a wet-bulb temperature of '71“ F. and
assuming that 5,500 cubic feet per minute of fresh
comprise a pump 2| communicating with the por
tion I‘! of the heat exchanger 3 and adapted to air is to be supplied to the space under treatment,
withdraw water therefrom and introduce the
15.
4
2,127,582
the method of the present invention may be car
ried out in accordance with the ?ow sheet shown
in Fig. 1 as follows: -
The blower A
11,000 cubic feet per minute and the atmospheric
.
d1.
.
.
C.
r
A typical set of operating conditions which may
-_be obtained according to the-showing in Fig. 2
cool the
10 in the neighborhood of 76° F.,
circulated through the cooler B will serve to cool
the 5,500 cubic feet per minuteintroduced to said
cooler to a dry-bulb temperature of approximate
ly 79° F.
15
may be given as follows:
Assuming the atmospheric air to be at a dry
bulb temperature of 95° and a wet-bulb temper
ature of 71°, the dew point being 59°, the cooler B
may be employed to cool the 5,500 cubic feet per
minute of air to a dry-bulb temperature of ap
proximately 74° and a wet-bulb. temperature of
64".
ature approximating 84°
perature approximating 68° F. Under these con
D and the cooler B.
_
derstood that the temperatures given are accord
25
30
this ?gure is not obtained.
35
Where an apparatus arrangement such as
40
shown in Fig. 2 is employed, the blower A will
power under the most severe operating condi
comparatively low for an air-con
of this capacity.
40
The actual amount of work accomplished in the
45.
45
‘50,
C, as above
is thus caused
to draw
in some additlonal atmospheric
air.
55
65
ator R is not required to operate, the present ap
horsepower for
65
70 to one skilled in the art.
In the event that the relative humidity of the
atmospheric air is too high to
70
2,127,582
compared with a unit which depends
al refrigeration to effect the entire
"upon mechanic
The arrangement
showriin Fig. 6 is somewhat
than‘ the arrangement shown in
more efficient
-bulb temperature
a lower wet
Fig. 1 in that air ofthe
cooling
tower.
is passed through ent of apparatus, air may be
om'a blower ‘A through a cooler B and
introduced into a spac
’ and intro
.rangement o
evaporation.
.
It will be appreciated thatnumerous modi?ca
of apparatus herein shown, without departing
from the contemplation of this invention.- For
example, the cool moist air withdrawn from the
evaporating tower shown at D, F, H, and the like,
may be advantageously passed into a wall space
other'than the attic space as speci?cally shown in
Figs. 1 and 2.- Similarly, this cool air may be
Fig. 2 and is only slightly ,
be'appreciated that
1 air exhaust
may be employed -to
5
tions may be made in the form and arrangement
cost than th ive of installation than the appara
'more expens
‘
of evaporation tower, it being, realized that the
ultimate temperature to which the water in the
tower may be lowered is dependent entirely upon
the wet-bulb temperature of the air employed for
advantageously passed in heat-exchanging rela
tion to the atmospheric air which is passed into
' the cooler D, so that the work requirements of
of the tower H i said cooler are diminished thereby, or where a
an attic .or 0th
refrigeratorv unit is used such as shown in Fig. 2,
space adjacent the space under treatment, as
above described
wn a somewhat further
In Fig. 'l we
ent of apparatus elements in
modified arrangem and secondary tow
oh the primary
n in Figs. 3,4, an
merits, each prov
According to. this embodiment .a
take as an exampl e, 1.2 volumes of
this cool air may be passed in cooling relation to
the power plant R.’ or to the‘refrigerant cooling
coils associated therewith, as will be apparent to
one skilled in the art.
We claim:
‘
The method of air-conditioning
an' enclosed
space, which comprises: passing a stream of fresh
blower I may
air in heat-interchanging, non-contacting rela
tion with a body of. cooled water so as to cool such
s one volume
fresh air without increasing its absolute humidity;
air from the atmosphere and the space E’,
~
introducing
‘the so cooled fresh air into said en
oler
B
and
into
through the co
lume of air from closed space; withdrawing from said space a sub
a second blower J removes divided into two un
stantial portion of the cooled air supplied there
the space E’, whic
d through the primary to; dividing said withdrawn portion into two
equal portions and passe
particular ar
parts; adding to one- of said parts a quantity of
and secondary tow
atmospheric air; withdrawing water from said
from
the
space
E’
rangement, the 9.
tion comprisin
hrough the se
volume and a por
The 0.5 volume is
tower and the 0.3 ,
primary tower
f air is passed into theospheric
air re
body after passage of said stream of fresh air in
heat-interchanging relation and contacting said
withdrawn water with said one part of withdrawn
air containing said added air under such condi
tions as to cool said water by evaporation; bring
ing the water so cooled into contact with the other
v
part of withdrawn air to further'cool said water by
evaporation and passing the further cooled water
.coo
the water supplie d to the
the space E’ and supplied » . ‘ into said body of water for the cooling of a fur
vides for ob
' the air withd
'
' ther quantity of fresh air.
to the secondary tower is
> supplied to the
MILTON BARUCH.'
than the mixture sing
RALPH E. PHILLIPS.
the
cooling
7
thereby in'crea
primary tower,
effect which may lie-obtained with a given
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