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Патент USA US2134962

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Nov. 1, 1938.
‘Filed Aug. 27, 1934
FIG. 1.
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Patented Nov. 1, 1938
' Floyd~ T. Warmin-gton and Louis Rupert, Detroit,
Mich.,.. assignors ‘to General .Railway. Signal
' _Cornpa?_ny,v Rochester, N," Y.
. .
'- ,
‘ > Application August 27, 1934,‘ Serial No. 741,615
Claim. ' (or;
This invention relates totrack circuits for rail
roads, and more particularlyto means for regu
lating the voltage supplied to a1 direct current
track circuit to compensate for variations in bal
last resistance. »
, In the usual and well-known track circuit, with
a given supply of voltage at the feed end, the
current supplied to theitrack relay depends up
on the‘ ballast resistance;--and if an adjustment
of the supply of voltage ~-is’5ma'de tofprovide s'uf-_
.?cient operating current for the relayunder wet
conditions of'the ballast'and high ballast leak
age, there is excess current through the relay
under dry ballast conditions and low ballast‘
15 leakage, which tends to interfere with the proper
shunting of the track relay.
Generally speaking, in accordance with this
invention, it is proposed to provide a source ‘of
uni-directional voltage for a track circuit which
20 is
automatically varied in accordance with
changes in ballast conditions for the purpose of
maintaining the current through the track relay
substantially constant and render its shunting
more reliable.
The drawing illustrates in a diagrammatic and
simpli?ed manner different ‘speci?c embodiments
of the invention. Fig. 1 shows one form of- the
invention particularly applicable to the use of
storage batteries; Fig. 2 shows a modi?cation
suitable for primary batteries; and Fig. 3 shows
a modi?cation in the manner in Which the cur
rent supplied by the track battery is varied.
The invention contemplates the usual and well
known arrangement for a track circuit, in which
35 the track rails I and 2 are bonded in the usual
way, with insulated joints 3 de?ning the ends
of the track section, and with a track relay TR
of the usual type and construction connected
across the track rails l and 2 at one end of the
former T2,v having its primary connected‘ to the
alternating‘ current-supply; One end of this!‘
ground circuit is connected to as'uitable ground
6, and the other end to the mid-point of a re
sistance l , across ,_ the battery leads'or directly
across the‘ rails; Theground 6‘is preferably ‘as
sociated with theballast for the track,‘ and‘ is in
‘the form of a plate,‘ rail, or the like buried in’ the
ballast;'and'lhavingsu?icient- area toaprovide a‘ '
resistance to ground commensurate-With the‘bal
last resistance of the track circuit. The resist
ance 1 is relatively high so‘ as not .to interfere 15
materially with the supply of the current from
battery B to- the track circuit.
In this arrangement of Fig. 1, the current sup
pliedto the track circuit is derived from the bat
tery B and the recti?er R. The current sup
plied to the recti?er vR depends upon the sub
stantially ?xed voltage of the transformer T and
the variable current in the secondary of the
The current in the primary of
the transformer Tl in turn depends upon the 25
transformer Tl .
substantially ?xed voltage of the transformer T2
and the resistance of the ballast as indicated by
the resistance between the ground 6,resistance
1, and resistance of the track rails l and 2 to
Thus, ‘as the ballast becomes wet and the bal
last leakage increases to reduce the current sup
plied to the track relay TR, more current ?ows
in the ballast resistance detecting circuit, there
by supplying more current from the secondary 35
of the transformer TI to the recti?er R to in
crease the current fed to the track circuit.
versely, as the ballast dries out, less current is
supplied to the track circuit from the recti?er R.
track section. The present invention! relates In this way, the supply of current to the track
more particularly to the supply of current at the , circuit is automatically regulated, within limits, 40
feed end of the track section.
in accordance with variations in the ballast re
Referring to Fig. 1, the track battery B, as . sistance, so as to maintain the current through
sumed to be in the form of a storage battery, is the track relay TR substantially constant, and
45 connected across the track rails l and 2 in series
it responsive to a substantially same wheel 45
with an adjustable limitingresistance 4 in the render
shunt under various ballast conditions.
usual way. The output circuit of a double-wave
. Referring to Fig. 2, the track battery BI is con
recti?er R of the usual type and construction, ‘ nected to the track rails I and 2 in series with the
preferably of the dry-plate or copper-oxide type, output circuit of the rectifier Ri, and the limit
50 is connected across the battery B; and the in
ing resistance 4. The input circuit-of the rec 50
put circuit of this recti?er includes the second
ti?er RI is connected to the secondary of the
aries of two transformers T and TI. The pri
mary of transformer T is supplied with alternat
ing vcurrent from a suitable transmission line con
55 nected to an alternating current generator G.
The primary of the transformer TI is connected
in a ground or'ballast resistance detecting cir
cuit which includes'the secondary of a trans
transformer TI, having'its primary in a ballast
resistance detecting circuit energized by a trans
former T2 and terminating in a ground 6 and
resistance 1 connected to the track rails. In this 55
to supply su?icient current for the relay TR. In
this arrangement of Fig. 3, the adjustment of the
feed voltage is made in steps, rather than gradu
ally as the arrangements of Figs. 1 and 2; but
single step adjustment is adequate for cer
track circuit to compensate for the greater loss .
tain types of track circuits having a limited range
of current by ballast leakage.
Referring to the modi?cation of Fig. 3, the of ballast resistance variation.
This invention is characterized by the provi-»
track battery B is connected across the. track .sion
of a ground-circuit detecting or: indicating
arrangement, as the current in the ground circuit
increases due to lowered ballast resistance, the
current supplied to the recti?er RI is increased,
and this increases the current supplied to the
rails I and 2_ in series with‘ an adjustable resist
10 ance 8, in addition to the usual adjustable limit
variations in the ballast resistance or leakage of 10
the track circuit, andvariations in the current in
nating current, establishes a short circuit through ' this ground circuit act to change the current sup
ing resistance 4. A relay 9, responsive to alter
plied to the track circuit so as to compensate for
the change in ballast conditions. The speci?c
organization and arrangement of means shown 15
15 at one end of the ground 6, includes’ an adjust: and described for performing the desired func
able reactance or resistancelll and is'connected.
tions are merely illustrative; and various modi
at its ‘other end to terminals of corresponding po
.and adaptations may be made without
tential of two secondaries of a transformer v‘I33,
the other terminals of said. secondaries being \ departing from the invention.
. -What we claim is:
20 connected across the track rails I and'2; and the
primary of‘ this transformer being supplied with
alternating current ‘from a suitable source G. former with, two equal independent secondaries
so connected to the rails and through an electro
The ‘resistance/of the secondary of the trans
responsive device to ground that there is no differ
former T3 is relatively high, so, as notto inter
ence in alternating current potential between the 25
25 fere with the operation of the track circuit.
In this arrangement of Fig.3, when the ballast rails and ‘equal alternating current potential from
rail to ground, and. means governed by said
becomes wet, and its resistance falls below some each
for. . varying the "voltage applied 7 from. the
critical value rendering the response. of thertrack
battery to the track‘ circuit to- conform with
relay TR uncertain, relay 9 is su?iciently ener
its front contact l0 around the resistance 18. The
energizing circuit for the relay 9, terminating
.130 gized to close its front contact In and short cir
cuitthe resistance '8,~so‘ that the inter-rail volt
age in the feed end of the track circuit is increased
variations inlrballast resistance.
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