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Патент USA US2136182

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NOV. 8, 1938.
p_ H‘ CRARY
2,136,182
FLUID POWER ENGINE
Filed March 17, 1936
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2 Sheets-Sheet 1
Nov. 8, 1938.
2,136,182
P. H. CRARY
FLUID POWER ENGINE
Filed March 17, 1936
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2 Sheets-Sheet 2
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2,136,182
Patented Nov. 8, 1938
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,136,182
FLUID POWER ENGINE
Palmer H. Crary, Miami, Fla., assignor oi' ?fteen
per cent to William F. A. Buelmer, Miami, Fla.
Application March 17, 1936, Serial No. 69,408
6 Claims. (Cl. 121-126)
This invention relates to improvements in fluid trated in Figure 1, is shown as being oi’ the four
power engines, and particularly to an engine of
this character intended and adapted to be oper
ated by compressed air, compressed gas, or other
5 suitable ?uid under pressure.
The primary object of this invention is to pro
vide an engine structure with which the intake
and exhaust intervals are automatically con
trolled by means actuated by the intake supply
10 of the operating ?uid, and with which the interval
and amount of supply of the operating ?uid can
be timed and spaced to meet the requirements
of use.
Another object is to provide an engine of this
15 type having a single and common inlet and ex
haust port or passage or opening for each cylin
der, and to provide means by which said port is
controlled to function accordingly upon power
20 and exhaust strokes of a piston within the cylin
der.
‘
A further object and purpose is to so con
struct and mount the parts that the working
elements are of simple and inexpensive construc
tion, readily manufactured and assembled for use,
25 and easily accessible to be disassembled for ad
justment, repair, replacement, and any other
servicing operations.
'
Still another purpose is to provide an engine
having a rotary distributor structure by which
30 the supply of operating ?uid to several cylinders
is controlled and to_ provide means whereby the
length of the ?uid supply interval and the amount
of power ?uid can be controlled.
With the above and other objects in view, which
35 will be apparent to those skilled in this art, my
invention includes and embodies certain novel
features of construction and combinations and
arrangements of parts, which will be hereinafter
‘set forth in connection with the drawings and
40 then pointed out in the claims.
In the drawings:
‘
Figure 1 is a view in side elevation showing one
construction and embodiment of my invention.
Fig. 2 is a view in end elevation of the engine
45 structure.
-
Fig. 3 is a fragmentary sectional view taken
transversely through the upper portion of the
structure.
Fig. 4 is a longitudinal sectional ‘view taken
50 through the distributor.
>
Fig. 5 is a view in elevation to better show the
distributor rotor.
Fig. 6 is a view in end elevation of the rotor
case to show adjusting means.
55
The engine structure, in the adaptation illus
cylinder type, but it is to be understood that a
greater or lesser number of cylinders can be em
ployed. As here shown, the engine cylinder block
I is mounted on crank case 2, and the crank shaft 5
3 is journalled in suitable hearings in this crank
case, a balance or fly wheel 4 being mounted at
one end on said crank shaft 3, and a sprocket
wheel 5 being also mounted on the crank shaft.
The cylinder block I has the desired number of 10
cylinders 6 formed therein, and a piston 1 is ?tted
for reclprocatory movement in each cylinder
opening, a connection rod 8 being ?tted between
each piston and one of the cranks of crank shaft
3. The parts as hereinbefore described can be of 15
any desired construction, form, arrangement and
assembly, and the crank shaft and other parts
can be provided with suitable anti-friction bear
ings, as may be found desirable. In the dotted
line disclosure in Figure 1 I have illustrated the 20
engine structure as being of the four-cylinder
type, with the pistons acting in paired relation,
the two middle pistons being paired together and
the two outer pistons being paired to move on
power and exhaust strokes simultaneously. This 25
pairing of the pistons requires corresponding ar
rangement and disposition of the crank portions
on the crank shaft 3, and also it will be necessary
to time intake and exhaust intervals or cycles
correspondingly. In some instances it may be 30
found practicable and desirable to time and as
sociate the various parts so that the power strokes
of the several pistons will be equally spaced for
a complete revolution 01' the crankshaft 3, and
obviously other arrangements can be made.
35
A cylinder head 9 is mounted to close the upper
end of each cylinder opening 6, and the cylinder
head has a combination exhaust and intake port,
passage, or other opening Ill formed therethrough
in direct and full communication with the head 40
end of the cylinder opening 6. A valve casing ll
mounted upon the cylinder head 8 by means of
cap bolts or other suitable fastenings, has a ?uid
passage 12 formed therethrough and communi
eating with the passage I0 opening through the 45
cylinder head. This valve casing II has a hori
zontal valve cylinder bore l3 therein and a ?uid
inlet passage [4 extends substantially in line with
the valve cylinder opening it. This ?uid inlet
passage I4 is of relatively smaller diameter than 50
the valve cylinder opening l3, and a tapered valve
seat I5 is provided within the cylindrical opening
I3 at the discharge end of the ?uid inlet passage
II,‘ A cylinder slide valve l6 slidably ?tted with
in the valve cylinder opening ll has its inner end 55
2
2,136,182
closed and is provided with a tapered shoulder I1
adapted to fit and close against the correspond
ingly tapered valve seat I5. This cylinder slide
valve I5 is made of such length that when the
valve is closed against the seat I5 the skirted
rear end clears and opens a part of the end of
passage I2 in communication with the valve cylin
der opening I3, and a ?uid exhaust passage I8
provided through the wall of the valve case II is
10 also so spaced and located that it will be opened
when the valve I5 is closed against the seat I5.
A head I9 is provided to close the open end of
the valve cylinder opening I3, and a valve stem
20 connected at one end with the valve I6 is slid
15 ably ?tted through a suitable ori?ce in this head
I9. A coiled spring 2| is ?tted around the valve
stem 28 to be between the head of the valve I8
and the cylinder head portion I9, and this spring
serves to normally hold the valve I6 in the posi
20 tion shown in Fig. 3. In this position, the inlet
passage I4 is closed by the valve I6, and the ex
haust passage I8 is opened. As air under pres
sure is supplied through the inlet passage I4, the
pressure against the head end of valve I6 'will
25 slide said valve inwardly against the resilient
force of spring 2|, and the head end of the valve
will be removed from the seat I5 and will be
moved in to clear the passage I2 to place the
same in direct communication with the ?uid in
30 let of intake passage II.
This same movement
of the slide valve I6 will carry the skirt portion
thereof over the exhaust opening I8 to thus close
this opening and prevent the escape of ?uid from
the valve casing.
35
Air, gas, or other suitable operating ?uid under
pressure can be supplied from any desired source,
but in the present instance I have illustrated a
compression pump 22 operated by an electric
motor 23, or other suitable power drive, supply
40 ing air or other compressed ?uid to ?uid pres
sure tank 24. A safety valve 25, and any other
suitable and desired control and safety means
can be associated with this pre'tsure tank, and
a pressure supply pipe 25, controlled by valve 21,
45 is provided to conduct the pressure power ?uid
to the engine, through a distributor to be herein
after more fully described.
A distributor case 28 is made up of the cylin
drical side wall 28 and the heads or ends 30 and
50 3|, this distributor case 28 being mounted and
held in the proper position by a bracket 32 car
ried by the engine structure, or by any other
suitable support. A distributor shaft 33 is ?tted
‘and journalled in suitable bearings provided in
55 the casing heads 38 and 3I, this shaft being sub—
stantially centered within the cylindrical body
portion 29.‘ A sprocket'gear 34 is provided on a
shaft 33, and a sprocket chain 35 is ?tted over the
sprocket wheel 5 on the crank shaft 3 and over
this sprocket wheel 34 on the distributor shaft 33,
so that the distributor is rotated in' proper tim
ing and synchronism and ratio with the crank
shaft. The pressure ?uid supply pipe 25 con
nects to supply ?uid under pressure directly into
65 the case 23, preferably through one end of the
case, and it is desirable that stu?ing boxes, pack
Ing glands, or other suitable pressure ?uid leak
proof portions 38 be provided around the distrib
utor shaft 33 to confine the pressure operating
?uid within the distributor case. An adjusting
and cut-o?' control sleeve 31 is mounted within
the tubular body portion 29 of the distributor
case 28, and is fitted for oscillatory or rocking
movement. Such movement of the sleeve 31 can
75 be accomplished through a handle or lever 38
movable through an arcuate slot in one of the
heads of the distributor casing.
‘
The body portion 29 of the distributor case has
an opening 39 formed through the wall thereof
substantially in line with the ?uid inlet or in
take passage I4 of each valve casing II, and a
?uid tight conducting connection is made from
the opening 39 to the corresponding valve casing
II, through a connecting nipple 40, or through
any other desirable and suitable connecting 10
means. The sleeve 31 has slotted openings 4|
formed through the wall thereof substantially in
line with the openings 39 through the body of
the distributor casing as connected with the inlet
or intake passages I4 of the respective valve cas
ings II, and as indicated in Fig. 4, it is preferable
that these openings M be elongated substantially
circumferentially so that as the adjusting sleeve
31 is oscillated or partly rotated through the
medium of handle 38, these openings 4| will fully 20
open the passage through openings 39, or will
partly close or completely close these openings
39, the illustration in Fig. 3 disclosing the sleeve
in position to close the openings 39 and conse
quently cut o? the supply of pressure operating
?uid to and through the inlet passages I4.
Mounted revolubly within the sleeve 36, and
connected to rotate with shaft 33, is the distribu
tor sleeve 42. This distributor sleeve is of hollow
construction and is adapted to receive uninter
rupted and unobstructed ?ow of pressure liquid
as supplied into the distributor casing through
the pressure ?uid supply pipe 26. The distribu
tor sleeve 42 has ?uid supply openings 43 formed
through the wall thereof substantially in line
with the openings 39 of the body portion of the
case 29, and as illustrated in Fig. 5, the openings
43 are suitably spaced around the periphery or
circumference of this sleeve 42 so that the open
ings 43 will register with and pass the position of
openings 33 at the desired time when ?uid under
pressure is to be supplied to each of the cylinders.
In the present instance I have shown the dis
tributor shaft 33 driven to rotate at substantially
the same speed as the crank shaft 3, and with
the pistons of the several cylinders paired in the 45
manner set forth above, the openings 43 will be
formed through the wall of the distributor sleeve
or rotor 42 substantially in the relation illus
trated in Fig. 5. These openings 43 can be sub
stantially circular or can be elongated for any 50
desired distance around the circumference of the
sleeve 42, depending upon the length of injection
or ?uid supply time desired.’ Where the opening
is substantially circular or relatively short, the 65
interval of time of pressure ?uid introduction will
be correspondingly short, and where the openings
43 are formed as elongated slotted openings ex
tending around a part of the periphery or cir
cumference of the sleeve 42, the time of ?uid in
troduction will be proportionately lengthened.
60
The control sleeve 31 regulates the size of pas
sage available through the openings 39 and this
sleeve can also be employed to cut oil’ the supply
of pressure ?uid to the engine. The distributor 65
rotor or sleeve 42 is constantly operated at a
?xed speed and ‘ratio- during operation of the
engine, and the exact time or interval of pressure
?uid introduction is thus governed and deter
mined or ?xed. However, this period can be ad 70
vanced or retarded by setting drive chain 35 a
tooth ahead or back upon the sprocket wheel 34.
or a change in timing can be accomplished
through adjusting the position of the sleeve or
rotor 42 on the distributor shaft 33, or this ad- 75
, 3
justment can be accomplished in any other de
sired way.
In the use oi my improved ?uid operated
power engine, the ?uid under pressure will be
supplied from pressure tank ‘24, or from any
other suitable source, through pipe 28, and thus
operating pressure ?uid ?lls the distributor
case. When the adjusting sleeve 31 is in the
position shown in Fig. 3, the supply of oper
ating ?uid to the engine is entirely out o?, and
in order that the engine may operate it is nec
essary that this sleeve 31 be turned or oscil
lated su?iciently to bring the opening ll into
position to establish a passage through opening
15 39 and connecting nipple Ill into the intake
passage ll. As the crank shaft 3 is then
slightly rotated, by hand or in any other de
the parts, as well as in the adaptation and em
bodiment oithe various features, to suit differ
ent requirements or installation and use, with
out departing from the spirit and scope of my
invention.
I claim:
1. A ?uid operated power unit comprising, a
cylinder provided with intake and exhaust and
having a piston therein, a connection supplying
operating ?uid under pressure to the intake of
said cylinder, valve means to control and time
the supply of operating ?uid, and valve means
normally opening the exhaust from the engine
and closing the ?uid intake,‘ said second valve
means being moved to intake opening and ex
sired manner, the distributor sleeve 42 is cor
haust closing position during the time of sup
ply of operating ?uid as controlled by ‘said ?rst
respondingly rotated, and the openings ll there
valve means.
20 of. will come into- communication with the
passages through openings 4! and 39. The
pressure ?uid then rushes through these open
ings into the inlet passage I4, and the pressure
against the head of valve l6 slides this valve
25 back to close the exhaust port l8 and to open
communication from inlet passage i4 through
the passages l2 and Ill, and consequently per
mit direct ?ow of the operating ?uid under pres
sure into the cylinder opening 6. As this oper
30 ating ?uid bears against the head oi’ piston 1
the piston is moved upon its power stroke and
the crank shaft 8 is rotated. when the open
ing or passage 48 of the revolving distributing
rotor or sleeve l2 passes beyond-the opening ll,
35 the supply, of operating pressure ?uid to inlet
passage I‘ is cut off, and as the pressure is re
moved from the head of sleeve valve l8, spring
2| again moves this valve to the closed or seated
position, as shown in Fig. 3, and at the same
40 time opens communication from passage I2 di
rectly to the exhaust passage Ill. The interval
of pressure ?uid introduction or-qintake is pref.
erably su?iciently long to give‘ a maximum
power impulse on the power stroke of the piston
‘I, and the valve l6 will then be shifted by the
spring 2| to open communication to the ex
haust port or passage i8 substantially at or
before commencement of the up-stroke o! the
piston so that back pressure is reduced and the
50 dead pressure oi.’ the spent or exhausted oper
ating pressure ?uid is forced out through the
exhaust passage i8.
From the foregoing it will be seen that I have
provided a ?uid power engine adapted to be
55 operated by any desired pressure ?uid, and
which is of simple and inexpensive construction,
with few parts likely to become worn or other
wise injured fromvuse, that the control of the
engine is readily accomplished through simple
60
construction, arrangement, assembly and use oi’
and easily accomplished adjustments oi’ the dis
tributor, and that the engine as thus con
structed can be readily started and stopped and
can be operated at any desired speed and with
any desired power, to give a ?exible and readily
and completely controlled power unit. By ad
justing the sleeve 31 so that the opening ll
therroi has its end in communication with
either the upper or the lower part of opening
39, the relative time of supply of operating pres
sure ?uid can be somewhat varied.
While I have herein shown and described only
certain speci?c embodiments of my invention
and have suggestedonly certain possible modi
?catlons, it will be appreciated and understood
75 that many changes can be made in the form.
-
2. A ?uid operated engine comprising a cylin 20
der having a combination intake and exhaust
opening, a piston reciprocably ?tted in said cyl
inder, a power shait operated by movement of
the piston, a valve casing ?tted at said opening
and provided with separate intake and exhaust, a
pressure ?uid supply connection to the intake oi’
said valve casing, a valve ?tted to said casing nor
mally positioning to open the exhaust and close
the intake through said valve casing and moved
by the supply of pressure ?uid to open the intake 30
and close the exhaust, and means operated from
the power shaft to time the supply of pressure
?uid.
3. A ?uid operated engine comprising, a cylin
der having a reciprocating piston therein and 35
provided with a combination ?uid intake and ex
haust opening at its head end, a crank shaft ro
tated by movement of said piston, a valve casing
mounted at the combination opening of the cyl
inder and provided with separated intake and 40
exhaust, a ?uid supply connection to said inlet, a
valve in said valve casing, and spring means nor
mally holding said valve in position to open the
exhaust and close the inlet and to resiliently
permit movement of the valve to open the inlet 45
and close the exhaust, and valve means to, sup
ply pressure ?uid at spaced intervals through the
supply connection to the inlet.
4. A ?uid operated engine comprising, a cylin
der having a combination intake and exhaust 50
opening, a piston in said cylinder, a power shaft
operated by movement of said piston, a. valve
casing ?tted at said opening provided with a cy
lindrical internal opening having separated ex
haust and intake passages opening thereinto, a
valve slidably ?tted within the cylindrical open
ing of the valve casing and movable to one posi
tion to close the intake and open the exhaust and
to a. second position to close the exhaust and open
the intake, means to normally ‘hold said valve 60
in intake closed and exhaust opened position,
and timed means to supply power ?uid under
pressure at desired power stroke intervals
through the intake opening to close the exhaust
and open the intake into said cylinder to thus 65
supply motive ?uid at desired power intervals.
5. A ?uid operated engine comprising, a cyli'n
der, a piston reciprocably ?tted in said cylinder,
a power shaft rotated by movement of said pis
ton, a valve casing at the head 01’ the cylinder 70
provided with intake and exhaust passages lead
ing to the cylinder, 9. pressure ?uid supply con;
nection to the intake passage or the valve casing,
a piston type valve in said casing reciprocable
to alternately open and close the intake and 75
4
exhaust passages, spring means normally hold
ing said valve in position to close'the supply pas
sage to the cylinder and open the exhaust pas
sage from the cylinder, a rotary distributor valve
at said pressure ?uid supply connection to alter
nately open and close the same for the supply of
pressure ?uid to unseat the valve in the valve
casing to open the supply passage to the cylinder
and close the exhaust passage, and an actuating
connection from said power shaft to rotate and
consequently open said distributor when the pis
ton is adjacent to the supply and exhaust end of
the cylinder.
6. A ?uid operated engine comprising, a cylin
der, a piston reciprocably ?tted in said cylinder, a
power shaft rotated by movement oi’ said piston,
‘ a valve casing at the head 01' the cylinder pro
vided with intake and exhaust passages leading
to the cylinder, a pressure ?uid supply connection
20 to the intake passage of the valve casing, a pis
ton type valve in said casing reciprocable to al
ternately open and close the intake and exhaust
passages; spring means normally holding said
valve in position to close the supply passage to
the cylinder and open the exhaust passage from 5
the cylinder, a rotary distributor valve at said
pressure ?uid supply connection to alternately
open and close the same for the supply or pres
sure ?uid to unseat the valve in the valve casing
to open the supply passage to the cylinder and
close the exhaust passage, an actuating connec
tion from said power shaft to rotate and conse
quently open said distributor when the piston is
adjacent to the supply and exhaust end of the
cylinder, and means to cut oil’ the supply 01' pres
sure fluid and to control and vary the amount of
pressure ?uid supplied through the supply pas
sage upon opening of the ?uid supply control
valve.
PALMER. H. CR-ARY.
20
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