Патент USA US2136681код для вставки
'pnrosrrmu- ’ an a. Fulton mil to 5 asgE g 1 t... a, Pittsburgh, Pa., » Chemical am w an, @011‘ ppm ration oi lleylva No llllrawing. Application .lanu i M, rest, .Jberial No. 1%,223 3 ?lls. (Cl. ?ll-W) as a priming coat over which to apply a coating This invention relates to the formation of a dry varnish-type protective ?lm on‘ solid ma terials, and particularly to the formation of such of paint or varnish. protective ?lm on the surface of metals. Cl Primarily we have made the discovery that we, may prptect metallic bodies against corrosion by ' ' oil; and by dipping or spraying so apply the depositing on their surfaces from water emulsion a varnishé-type drying film, which we may ‘make suitable either for the temporary or the per 10 manent protection of the, metallic bodies; and , emulsion to the surface. ofethe articles or ‘ma terial to be coated that a protective ?lm oil dry 110 ing nature is formed thereon. We are aware that water phase emulsion of . thatthis may satisfactorily. be performed by a built, or “batch,”application of ?lm-forming ma-' terial to the bodies. - Fundamentally considered, we, make up a water emulsion, in the water phase, from a soap, or its equivalent emulsifying agent, such as a water-soluble gum, and a drying or semi-drying sulphonated oils, cutting oils, and similar non drying emulsi?able ingredients, have‘ previously ' can from a water emulsion deposit a varnish been used protectively to coat metallic articles and materials. While suitable for many pur 15 type drying ?lm,‘ which as initially deposited, dried, and set is susceptible in predetermined poses,'the utility of such coatings is limited by their non-drying‘nature. We are also aware that degree to removal by water-washing,_or which dried soapy coatings have been formed on me tallic articles and materials. ' Such soapy coat More speci?cally we have discovered that we may approximate the character of a normal 20 varnish film in its resistance to removal by water. Further, we have discovered that such varnish type ?lms, ‘deposited from water emulsion, are subject to progressive oxidation in‘ the manner , of normal varnish films, and thus as they season tend progressively to increase their resistance to removal by water-washing, ’ Thus for the short-period protection of ma . terials against degradation-attendant upon ex posure to moisture and similar degradation-pro 30 ducing agents, we are able to apply a dry pro tective film which may be removed without di?lculty by washing with an ample quantity of water; and for longer continued‘ protection ings are also, however, limited in utility because ’they are indiscriminately removable by water; at» presenting no capacity for regulation in the de gree of their resistance to removal by water, and lacking the varnish characteristic of progressive oxidation by seasoning. . For many purposes, and particularly for the protective coating of pipe, and the like, in bulk, it is desirable tomake up an emulsion base which may be shipped and stored as a concentrate; and which by proportioned dispersion in water‘ may be used to make up a working emulsion of pre determined concentration. An emulsion base formula suitable for the formation of a ?lm re we can deposit a ?lm which by seasoning becomes movable without di?lculty by water-washing may substantially unaifected by water. We are able - be given as follows: to e?ect this controlled ?lm formation by prac Emulsion Base Formula No. 1 ‘ ' ' ticing the simple and inexpensive procedure of ' Parts by volume depositing the protective films from water emul sion, and ‘without fundamental change in the 40 ,?lm-forming. material which isv deposited. Further, _we have discovered that our ?lms, de posited from water emulsion, possess substantially. the ability of normal varnish films to serve as . a priming coat for a later applied varnish-type coating. v ‘ ' » ' ' ' Our water-emulsion-deposited ?lms ?nd par ticular applicability in the protective coating of formed or partially formed metallicwarticles, such as steel pipe, bars, rods, and the like. vInithe case 50 of pipe, which is the bulk article most‘greatly in I Rosin _____ -_‘___I _____ _; __________________ __ 75 Blown linseed oil 50 25% solution NaOH ____ _; ______________ ..e. 25 These ingredients arecompounded, preferably with heat and agitation‘, until a clear homogene ous liquid is produced. Desirably a suitable sta- , bilizer, such as pine oil, is added‘ to the other 46 ingredients. On‘ the basisv of the proportions given above, we have found, that an addition of 25 parts by volume ofrpine oil gives good stabil pity. If,desired, the linseed bil, given as atypical ' example of a drying oil, may contain one or more ‘5o need of"pr'otection against corrosiongoun ?lm ‘ of the-well known drying agents, such as the lead, may be applied ‘to the pipe to inhibitv corrosion pending the application of a'perma’nent protec tive» coating. In storage, our water-removable protects the pipe'in the interim betweenT 550''?lm formation of the‘ pipe and‘ the application of 9. ~ permanent coating to it. "This removable ?lm maybe wholly and readily removed‘ by water washing, or in a pickle bath; alternatively, being 60 a dry, varnish-type ?lm,)it may remain to serve cobalt, manganese, and the like driers. Desirable proportions for a working emulsion. ' utilizing the above concentratefoimula, are one part of the concentrate to nine? parts ,ct water. This may be considered as a normalpor mean, ‘ proportioning for ’ ‘the working emulsion, and (considering also, the composition "of'lthe base F formula) may be considered to be one particularly; suitable for the temporary protection ‘ofgpipe... . '~ i i . In initially making up' the working emulsion, the water of the bath is desirably unheated while the dosage of the concentrate emulsion is dis persed through it by'means of mechanical agita ‘tion. By this procedure a homogenous, milky, emulsion bath is formed. The treating tank, which for the coating of pipe should be relatively we are able to produce, the ?lms formed upon articles have remarkable, uniformity, in their thickness Rind smoothness, and may if desired be very thin. We have noted that, while utilizing an emulsion 5 which is in the water rather than the oil phase, we may vary the concentration of the emulsion large, and ?tted along its sides with heating coils, . * within relatively 'wide limits. The usual range of is partially ?lled with the working emulsion. We concentrations employed by us ‘is from two 10 have found an emulsion bath temperature of volumes- of water to one volume of emulsion about 150° F. to be a good working temperature. forming ingredients, or even richer, to ten, or even Still assuming that it is pipe which is to be more, volumes of water to one volume of emul protectivelyvcoated, a batch of pipe desirably in sion-iorming ingredients. By varying the con-‘ the form of a bundle or “lift," is immersed in- the 'centration of emulsion-forming ingredients in II warm emulsion, and is allowed to remain in the the water of the emulsion, we are able to vary 15 bath until the temperature of the pipe is the same the thicknes of the ?lm formed from the emul as the, bath temperature. The bundle is then sion. For certain purposes, of whichthe forma lifted, and excess emulsion allowed to drain back tion of a protective ?lm on small threaded arti into the tank, leaving a ?uid ?lm- of emulsion on cles may be used as typical, we may utilize an both the outer and inner surfaces of the pipe. emulsion as lean as twenty'volumes of water to The warmth of the metal then quickly drives oil one volumeof the emulsion-forming ingredients. 20 the water of the ‘emulsion, leaving a deposited In spitev of the fact that the above-described ?lm on the pipe. This ?lm quickly dries to give ?lms are vdepositedi'rom water emulsion contain the desired result. Breaking the pipe bundle, and ing a water-soluble emulsifying agent, the ?lms spreading the pipe, expedites evaporation of the are susceptible to‘ progressive oxidation in the 25 water and drying of the film. . manner in which oxidation progressively takes The ?lm so formed offers protection to the ' place in drying ?lms deposited from varnish com pipe, during storage, until ?nal disposition of the pipe is ‘determined; that is, for example, whether the pipe is later to be salvanized or whether it is later to receive an outer coating .of paint or var .nish. If the pipe is to be galvanized, the ?lm can be readily removed by water ‘or in the pickle bath. If the pipe is to receive an outer coat of . point or varnish, the ?lm formed from emulsion is allowed to remain without detriment to the adhesion or desirable qualities of the outer coating. _‘ - ' - We are also able to form on bolts and nuts a coating ‘so thin and dry that the nuts can be run up on the threads of the bolts without clogging or stripping. Conversely, the coating is sui?ciently positions of the usual solvent type. Thus, the ?lm tends to become more resistant to water as it seasons. Advantage isvtaken of this quality on pipe and other articles on which the protective ?lm is to remain'as their sole protection against corrosion and other degradation for a relatively long period of time. Thus, having formed on pipe, or the like, a ?lm which is readily removable __initially by means of water, choice is given as to whether to remove such?lm-within a relatively short length of time, or whether by seasoning to permit it to become more resistant. ' It is to be, understood that the degree of re sistance to water, or lack of such quality in the 40 ?lm, is subject to control. Thus, by using the dense and continuous, as well as suf?ciently stable, least adequate proportion of soap or equivalent that it a?ords good protection against weather emulsifying agent in' the emulsion, a ?lm, which, and watenqwashing. The coating is dry enough to is substantially unremovable by water, will be permit the nut and bolt to be painted 'over in 'produced. Such ?lm approaches correspondence’ 45 their various service associations. It may be noted that ‘it is di?icult to apply uniform var-' nlsh ?lms to such articles by dipping them in, or' by brushing upon them, common varnish com positions, because of the tendency of the varnish to form drops and runs on the threads. De to a standard vamish ?lm. A convenient mode of lessening the propor tional inclusion of soap, or its equivalent, below . the point at which the soap content is adequate to carry the emulsion, is to utilize a colloid mill 50 . or other mechanical homogenizer to give the de sirably, we apply the ?lm-?rming emulsion to stabilized dispersion. By using such me metallic bodies of the type of nuts and boltsby sired chanical agency, it is possible at will to decrease ' collecting" them in a meshed, or perforate,‘ basket, the proportion of emulsifying agent to a mini 1 and dipping the batch -thu_s gathered in the mum, while obtaining an emulsion, or emulsion 55 emulsion bath. ‘ v A suitable emulsion base for this purpose may base, of the desired dispersion and stability. It be given as follows:' is to be understood that mechanical agitation ’ ‘ methods also may desirably be employed as a ' “Emulsion Base Formula No. 2 _ Parts by volume Rosin - -‘ / .._ '75 Blown linseed oil __________________ .._» ____ __ 350 25% solution’of NaOH___________________ _a_ \_ 25 _ - means of maintaining dispersion in the working emulsion asit is used for coating bodies immersed I 60 in, or sprayed with, the emulsion. We may give alternative formulae for emulsion bases, as follows: ' Emulsion Base Formula No. 3J For the purpose of a particularly dry, dense, ?lm the use of a drier or driers is, for such use as the coating of nuts and bolts, particularly desirable. . i '_ \ We have found that inherent di?iculty in pro 70 ducing a clear, homogeneous, liquid base emul sion in accordance with this formula may be ob viated by introducing the “drying oil gradually to '1 the, other ingredients, while heating and agitating the ' ‘ 1| \ We ture. v ave found that, in the‘?ne emulsions which . ' Parts by weight - Blown linseed oil _______________________ _. 100 Common soap .? ._ 25 Water ______ .._-___>-'_______________ ..~_ _____ __ Emulsion Base Formula N0. 4 ' > v 25/ \ \ 70 Parts by weight Blown linseed nil j 100 . Common soap ______________________ _‘_____ 75 Water 50 15 ’ ' - v ' 3 2,186,881 In both these formulaethe ingredients may be and like elongate metallic pieces such as bars and rods a temporary corrosion-protective coating in the form of a uniformly thin coherent ?lm ?xed to the surfaces of the pipe, rods, or bars and capable of receiving and retaining an outer coat ing of paint or varnish, which comprises wetting the entire exposed surface area of the elongate metallic pieces of pipe or the like by immersing compounded with gentle heating and agitation. Desirably, a stabilizer and drying agent are in corporated in each. ‘ Of these formulae, ‘Formula No. 3 corresponds generally to Formula No. 2, being capable of forming a water-phase emulsion which deposits a ?lm approximating in its qualities those of a standard varnish ?lm in the resistance to re 10 moval which it oifers, having but slight suscep them in bundles in a bath emulsion of the oil-in water type containing drying oil as its chief in gredient and maintained at a temperature sub tibility to removal by water as initially deposited stantially above normal atmospheric temperature and below the boiling point of water, and by with drawing the bundle from the bath into the atmos phere at approximately bath temperature quickly spreading and setting on each of the pieces com posing the bundle a complete enveloping ?lm of the character above described in rapid evapora ‘from emulsion and set, and increasing in its re sistance to removal by water-washing as "oxida tion progressively takes place in it. 15 ' Films deposited~~ from an emulsion made up from‘ Emulsion Base Formula No. 4 have quali ties approximating those deposited from an emul sion made up from Formula No. 1. These ?lms are removable by means of water, and removable tion of the water content of the emulsion wetting 20 by water with relatively great facility when they the elongate metallic pieces composing the bundle 20 at the moderately elevated temperature of the are newly deposited and set. ~ It is to be understood that all of the drying and semi-drying oils may suitably be used in said metallic pieces. our process as ingredients producing varnish as a step in the manufacture of metallic pipes, ' ‘ 2. The herein described method performable. varnishes, may also be incorporated to give de: and the like, of applying upon pieces of metallic 25 pipe and like elongate metallic pieces such as bars and rods a temporary corrosion-protective coat sirable properties. ing in the form of a uniformly thin coherent ?lm . -25' type‘ ?lms. Withthese oils, a resin or resins, natural or synthetic, such as are used in ordinary Generally v considered, our process utilizes any and all the standard varnish 80 ingredients with the addition of an emulsifying ?xed'to the surfaces of the pipe, rods, or bars and capable of receiving and retaining an outer coat 80 agent or agents to produce the desired dispersion of said varnish in waterlemulsion form, and in desired degree to modify the character of the ?lm. It is to be understood that we utilize the ing of paint or varnish, which comprises wetting the entire exposed surface area of the elongate metallic pieces of pipe or the like by immersing them in'bundles in a bath emulsion of the oil in-water type containing drying oil as its chief 35 ?lm-forming ingredient and maintained at a temperature between about 150° F. and the boil term “varnish-type” as a term of description and not of limitation, intending it to include the pig mented coating compositions commonly desig ing point of water, and by withdrawing the bun dle from the bath into the atmosphere at ap proximately bath temperature quickly spreading 40 nated as “paints” and “enamels.” When it is desired to form a pigmented ?lm from emulsion, 40 we have found that the ?occulent pigments, such as carbon black and lamp-black, which are readily brought into, and maintained in, a state of ‘sus pension are the ones most desirably incorporated and setting on each of the pieces composing the bundle in a complete enveloping ?lm of the char acter above described in rapid evaporation'of the‘ to, obtain pigmented coatings. We have found, water content of the emulsion wetting the elon gate metallic pieces composing the bundle at the moderately elevated temperature-of the said me 45 however, that the heavier pigments may be used, and in the event of their use the employment of a mechanical homogenizer, or other mechanical tallic pieces. . agitator, is particularly desirable for maintain 3. The herein described method performable as ing suspension of the pigment. \ a step in the manufacture of metallic pipes, and‘ . By the term “varnish-type” we do not intend r the like, of applying upon pieces of metallic pipe 50 to de?ne lacquer-type ?lms, such, for example, and like elongate metallic pieces‘such as bars and 50 K rods a temporary corrosion-protective coating in as those formed from nitrocellulose lacquers. ' ' It is to be understood that throughout‘ the the form of a uniformly thin coherent ?lm ?xed examples and discussion notation'of speci?c fea to the surfaces of the pipe, r0ds,. or bars and ca 55 tures or ingredients, such as the use of blown pable of receiving and retaining an outer coating 55 ‘of paint or varnish, which comprises wetting the rather‘than unblown drying oils, and the inclu entire exposed surface area of the elongate me- ' ' sion of driers, is made in the sense in which such characteristics or'ingredients are'noted and em tallic pieces of pipe, or the like, by immersing ployed in‘ standard varnish practice, and that them in bundles in a bath emulsion containing reference to blown oils and driers is to ' from about 5% to 30% by volume of ?lm-form 60 so speci?c be understood as describing illustratively a pre ing content having drying oil as its chief ingre ferred practice and not as imposing a necessary, dient while maintaining the bath at a temper ‘practical ‘limitation of our process. "Thus, for ature between about 150° F. and the boiling point example, blown oils are more susceptible to rapid of water, and by withdrawing the bundle from the bath into the atmosphere at approximately 65 drying than unblown oils, and drying is ‘further 65,. accelerated by the ' use of the common drying bath temperature quickly spreading and setting agents. This does not exclude from thescope of on each of the pieces composing the bundle a our process the use of unblown oils, and is not complete enveloping film of the character above described in rapid evaporation of the water con intended to indicate the use of driers as a neces 70 sary feature. - ' tent of the emulsion wetting the elongate metallic ‘ , v pieces composing the bundle at ‘the moderately 1. The herein described method performable as a step in the manufacture of metallic pipes, and the like, of applying upon pieces of metallic pipe elevated temperature of/the said metallic pieces. We claim as our invention: ; ' ' KARL H. FULTON. JOHN L. ILLIG.