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Патент USA US2139640

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2,139,640
Patented Dec. 6, 1938
PATENT OFFICE
‘ UNITED STATES’
2,139,640
METHOD FOR METALIZING SURFACES
Eugen Mall, Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt, and Wal
tcr Dorn, Stuttgart, Germany, assignors to Rob
ert Bosch Gesellschaft mit beschri'mkter Haf
tung, Stuttgart, Germany
No Drawing. Application March 17, 1937, Se
rial No. 131,532. In Germany March 30, 1936
13 Claims.
(CI. 41-18)
The invention relates to a method for metaliz~
ing surfaces by the purely thermal vaporization
of metal in vacuo, in which the metal to be va
porized is heated in an evacuated vessel until it
vaporizes, and the vapour is also precipitated
in vacuo directly on the surface to be metalized.
In this method in order to keep certain places on
the surfaces to be metalized free from the depo
sition of metal, stencils have hitherto been em
ployed to cover the surfaces at the places in ques
tion. Such stencils have the drawback that they
also become coated withthe metal, so that the
places left free by the stencils increase in size
in course of time. It is thereforenecessary to
change the stencils very frequently.
In a con
tinuous vaporizing method, in which metal-free
and metalized places alternately succeed each
other on a running band,‘ the stencils have also
the drawback that they must be arranged to run
iii) with the surface to be treated with vaporized
metal.
'
According to the invention, the places to be
kept free from metal are made in a substantially
simp'er manner by their being covered before the
metalizing with a substance, and which on heat
25 ing in vacuo produces vapours. It has been.
found that no metal precipitate is formed at such
places. This is to be ascribed to the very hot
molecules of metal vapour when vaporizing in
0 vacuo liberating vapours from the substance ap
plied at the places to be kept free from metal,
which form a cushion against the penetration of
the molecules of metal vapour;
The substance applied at the places to be kept
free from metal is preferably in a liquid or semi
liquid state.
As substances for preventing the precipitation
of metal, hydrocarbons or hydrocarbon-like sub
stances come principally in question. Greases
40 and oils have been found very suitable. Halogen
derivatives of the hydrocarbons, and further, al
cohols, such for instance as glycerine, as well as
resins, waxes, paraiiins and other organic sub
stances, are however also suitable.
‘
As for example in the case of grease, even the
. slightest traces of grease su?lce to prevent a
deposit of the metal, the desired end can even
be obtained with extremely thin layers or films
of grease. The use of very thin layers is espe
60 cially advisable, because thereby the edges of
45
the layer are prevented from running and pro
ducing metal edges on the surface which are
blurred.
For the technical production of the metal de
55 posit while leaving certain places free, the pre
cipitation inhibiting layer is applied to the sur
face to be metalized by printing or impressing it
thereon. Any desired design can be obtained by
this means in the metal layer in the simplest way,
either by printing the design itself, in which case
the design copy remains free from metal, or by ~
printing with a negative of the design whereby
then the design itself is formed as-the metal
deposit.
For the printing, not only the oils customary
in printing, but also any other oil can be em
ployed. Where it is desired to obtain very sharp
edges, substances are preferably used whose sur
face tension is small at the temperatures em
ployed, so that the edges do not become indis .10
tinct. Besides oils, greases, such for instance as
petroleum jelly, and also resins and waxes or
other organic substances may be used in the very
thinnest layers for the printing.
'
If it is a question of metalizing bands or strips, 15
for instance paper bands, one can for example,
when using a very thin grease layer, ?rst print
the paper of a whole roll with the design in
grease, and wind it up again, without the non
printed parts thereby becoming greasy. The roll 20
is then introduced into the vaporizing apparatus,
the strip or band unwound from the roll, led past
the vaporizing nozzle, and again wound up.
In cases where it is desired to get sharp metal
edges, it is however better to do the printing'or
impressing in the vacuumized vaporizing appa
ratus directly before the vaporizing, so that the
grease has no time for its edges to become blurred.
The method is applicable for imprints or im
pressions of all kinds, thus for instance for ad
vertising purposes on wrapping paper, or for sim
ilar purposes.’
Further, it is very suitable for making metal
ized paper, such as can be employed for the con
struction of electrostatic condensers. By mark
ings according to definite paper lengths, made for
example with grease, metal-free marks can‘ be
provided in the manufacture of metalized paper,
which subsequently, when assembling a condens
er, give an indication of the wound up effective 40
length of the paper. As in these condensers the
metalized paper must usually have an edge free
from metal, this edge may also be made by greas
ing or by applying any other precipitation-inhib
iting substance, before the vaporizing.
The method described may also be used for the
manufacture of condensers in which the metal
deposit is applied to plates of mica or plates of
a ceramic material. In this case, the places on
the plates that are to be kept clear of metal are 50
covered with the substances mentioned before
the metalizing operation.
‘
'
The method is also suitable for the manufac
ture of resistances. If, for example, thin layers
of metal are applied to strips of insulating ma. 55
terial by vaporizing metal, the metal coating of
the strip represents an ohmic resistance. This
resistance can be increased by the metal layer
running in meandering form on the strip or band.
Forthis purpose, it is only necessary to print the
2
2,139,640
band in meandering form w;th a precipitation
the surface to said metalizing operation to pre
inhibiting substance, such for instance as grease,
cipitate metal on the uncoated portion of said
surface.
5. A method of metalizing surfaces by the
thermal vaporization of metal in vacuo compris
ing applying to a portion of the surface a, thin
?lm-like coating of an organic substance liber
ating vapours when heated in vacuo, and then
subjecting the surface to said metalizing opera
tion to precipitate metal on the uncoated portion 10
of said surface.
6. A method of metalizing surfaces by the
thermal vaporization of metal in vacuo com
before the vaporization, so as to cover those
places which are to remain free from metal in
the vaporizing. Paper bands metalized in mean
ders in this way can be rolled up into rolls, and
very useful ohmic resistances for electro-techni
cal purposes are thus o‘zained which are excel
lent-hv adapted, for exar ole, for combination of
10 resistances and capacities.
Electrical disc coils may also be made in a cor
responding way. It is only necessary to make
longitudinal stripes, for instance with grease, on
a strip of insulating material. On the succeed
15 ing vaporizing, metal stripes are produced be
tween the grease strips and on the winding up
of the paper, form disc coil windings, which can
be connected together in parallel, or, for exam
pie for producing very high voltages, in series.
The method described is also suitable for mak
ing cinematograph ?lms when the picture to be
projected is applied to a transparent ?lm band
in the form of a met :11 grid or screen. The places
left free between the points of the grid are first
imprinted with a precipitation inhibiting sub
stance, such as grease. The ?lm is then treated
with metal vapour. Pictures made in this way
prising a-ppTying to a portion of the surface a thin
coating of a precipitation-inhibiting substance 15
of low surface tension at the temperature of
treatment and liberating vapours when heated
in vacuo, and then subjecting the surface to said
metalizing operation to precipitate metal on the
uncoated portion of said surface.
20
7. A method of metalizing surfaces by the
thermal vaporization of a metal in vacuo, com
prising printing a portion of the surface in vacuo
with a vaporizable precipitation inhibiting sub
stance, and then subjecting the surface to said 25
metalizing operation to precipitate metal on the
unprinted portion of said surface.
8. A method of metalizing strips or bands
have the advantage that the metalized opaque
points strongly reflect the light and do not ab
sorb it, like the black places in the present ?lms
do. When however less absorption takes place,
the ?lm is less strongly heated during the pro
which consists in printing a portion of the surface
of the strips or bands with a vaporizable sub 30
jection.
cipitate metal on the unprinted portion thereof.
The method described can also be employed
for sound-?lm records, by causing for example
an oil-bearing member preferably of flexible ma
terial, to oscillate with light friction on the ?lm
band to correspond to the recorded sound oscil
lations, and thereby mark a touch of oil on the
40 ?lm band running past, the limits of which vary
corresponding to the sound oscillations. After
this recording, the band is developed by metal
vaporization, and can then be employed in known
manner with incident or transmitted light for
. the sound reproduction.
We declare that what we claim is:
l. A method of metalizing surfaces by the ther~
mal vaporization of metal in vacuo comprising
applying to a portion of the surface a thin coat
ing of a precipitation~inhibiting substance liber~
ating vapours when heated in vacuo, and then
stance inhibiting precipitatlon, and then treating
said bands or strips with a metal vapour to pre
9. A method of manufacturing metalized pa.
pers which are provided with a design, picture
or legend, comprising printing the design picture
or legend on the paper in a vaporizable precipi
tation inhibiting substance, and thereupon metal
izing the portion of the paper not covered there
by by thermal vaporization of metal in vacuo.
10. A method of manufacturing metalized pa
pers which are provided with a design picture
or legend comprising printing, all the paper ex
cept the design picture or legend with a vapor
izable precipitation inhibiting substance, and 45
thereupon metalizing the portion of the paper
not covered thereby by thermal vaporization of
metal in vacuo.
11. Method of making a band or strip or in
sulating material coated with metal, for exam 50
ple, paper for roll condensers comprising ap
plying a thin coating of a vaporizable precipita-_
subjecting the surface to said metalizing opera
tion to precipitate metal on the uncoated por
tion of said surface.
2. A method of metalizing surfaces by the ther
mal vaporization of metal in vacuo comprising
said band or strip and then metalizing the un
coated portions of the material by thermal va
porization of metal in vacuo.
applying to a portion of the surface a thin coat
in" of a precipitation-inhibiting substance in a
12. A method for thamanufacture of dielectric
condensers comprising applying to at least one
‘ uid or semiliquid condition which liberates va
pours on heating in vacuo, and then subjecting
the surface to said inetalizing operation to pre~
‘ate metal on the uncoated portion of said
surface.
3. A method of metalizing surfaces by the
thermal varxirization of metal in vacuo compris
ine applying to a portion of the surface a thin
coating of a hydrocarbon or hydrocarbon-like
substance and then subjecting the surface to said
inctaiizing operation to precipitate metal on the
uncoated portion of said surface.
4. A method of metalizing surfaces by the
thermal vaporization of metal in vacuo compris
ing applying to a portion of the surface a thin
coating of a grease or oil, and then subjecting
tion inhibiting substance at spaced points along
65
edge of a strip of paper or the like a thin coat
ing of a vaporizable precipitation inhibiting sub 60
stance and then metalizing the uncoated portion
of the paper by thermal vaporization of metal in
vacuo.
13. A method for the manufacture of metallic
reactances comprising applying a thin coating
of a vaporizable precipitation inhibiting sub
stance in meandering form to a portion of the
surface of an insulating material and then metal
izing said insulating material by thermal va
porization of metal in vacuo whereby the metal is
70
deposited on the uncoated portion of said insu
‘rating material in meandering form.
EUGEN MALL.
WALTER DORN.
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