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Патент USA US2147472

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Feb. 14, 1939.
D. ULREY
2,147,472
HIGH CURRENT IMPULSE DEVICE
Filed Aug. 20’ 1937
2.9
35
Phase
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INVENTOR
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$774494,
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Day/00 U/fby.
'
BY k7L_.
ATTOR EY
'
Patented Feb. 14, 1939
2,147,472
UNITED STATESPATENT OFFICE
2,147,472
HIGH CURRENT IMPULSE DEVICE
Dayton Ulrey,wwilkinsburg, Pa., assignor to West
inghouse Electric .& Manufacturing Company,
East Pittsburgh, Pin, a corporation of Penn
sylvania
Application August 20, 1931, Serial No. 160,109
20 Claims. (01. 250-27)
My invention relates to electric discharge ap
paratus, and it has particular relation to con
trol apparatus for electric discharge devices.
5.
It is an object of my invention to provide ap
paratus for producing a series of periodic current
impulses of short duration and of substantial
magnitude.
Another object of my invention is to provide
apparatus for controlling a discharge device hav
10 ing a control electrode of the immersion type in
such manner that the discharge device shall be
rendered conductive periodically for a short in
terval of time.
A further object of my invention is to provide
15 a system particularly adapted to control the out
put of a discharge device having a control elec
trode 01' the ignition or the immersion type. '
More speci?cally stated, it is an object of my
invention to provide apparatus that shall oper
20 ate with high eiliciency and with as little power
loss as possible to produce a series of periodic
current impulses of short duration.
.
, '
According to one modi?cation of my inven
tion, a discharge device having a control elec
25 trode and a plurality of principal electrodes is
is supplied in 1,600 second and in addition must
be capable of dissipating the power developed.
According to another modi?cation of my in- '
vention, the capacitor whereby the principal po
tential is supplied to the main discharge device
is not used. Instead, the main discharge device
is supplied directly from the source‘ but is ex
tinguished at the proper instant by an auxiliary
discharge device which is ignited when current
is transmitted through the main discharge device. 10
Since the auxiliary discharge device draws con
siderable current, it is desirable that after per
forming its function it remain energized for as
short an interval of time as possible. I, there
fore, provide for the energization of the main 15
discharge device at such points in the successive
cycles of the source that during each operation
the auxiliary discharge device remains energized
for considerably less than a quarter cycle of the
source and during the interval during which the 20
potential of the source is decreasing rapidly.
In accordance with the preferred practice of
my invention, the main discharge device has a
principal electrode of the mercury pool type and
a control electrode of the immersion type. The
expression "electrode (or cathode) of the mercury 25
pool type" shall be taken herein to mean not
only an electrode of liquid mercury, but an elec
trode composed of any other substance which has
electronic discharge properties similar to that 30
of mercury. For example, electrodes of lead,
supplied with control potential and with principal
potential through capacitors that are connected
to be charged from a periodic source. The capaci
tor through which control potential is sup
30 plied is connected to the control electrode of
the discharge device through an auxiliary dis
charge device of the grid controlled type. The cadmium, zinc or alloys of these or other metals
capacitors are charged during a portion of each are contemplated by me to fall within the scope
cycle of the source. During the remaining por ' of the above-de?ned expression.
35 tions of the cycles, the auxiliary discharge device
In referring herein to “a control electrode of
is energized, thus permitting the capacitor in
the control circuit to discharge and to energize
the main discharge device. The main discharge
the immersion type", I mean an electrode which
is composed of a resistant material and which
dips into the mercury electrode. Within the scope
device remains energized for the interval of time
of this expression fall electrodes of boron carbide,
silicon carbide, powdered carbon formed into a
solid rod with a binder of one type or another
and other similar materials.
It is to be noted, moreover, that my invention
required by the capacitor through which the prin
cipal potential is supplied to discharge. Specii
ically, my invention is provided for the purpose of
supplying a current of the order of several thou
sand amperes at a relatively low potential at a
frequency of the order of sixty times per second.
The current is to persist for a time interval of
the order of 1/600 second. Accordingly the periodic
source may have a frequency of 60 cycles, thev
charging circuits for both capacitors and the
magnitude of the capacitors must be such that
they are su?iciently charged to operate the dis
charge device in less than %0 second and the
main discharge device must have suiliciently high
conductivity when energized to discharge the
- a capacitor through which the principal potential
is to be regarded as in no way limited to appara
tus incorporating a discharge device having a
45
control electrode of the immersion type. For
example, my invention may be practiced with a
discharge device having a cathode of the mercury
pool type with which a control electrode of any
general ignition type cooperates. While the elec 50
trode of the immersion type is one form of an
electrode of the ignition type, there are a num
ber of otherforms characterized by the distinc
tion the starting electrode is out of contact with
the mercury pool electrode. The ignition elec
9,147,472
trode may, for example, be separated from the
mercury pool by a short gap, and the main dis
charge may be started by ?rst igniting an arc
in the ‘gap. The ignition electrode may also
consistof a collar mounted externally about the
discharge vessel in the region of the mercury pool.
Finally, where currents of smaller magnitude
than that mentioned hereinabove are desired,
I a grid-controlled discharge device of the gas
10 ?lled hot-cathode type may be utilized, and
' where very small currents are desired, a high vac
uum grid-controlled discharge device may be
used. Of course, the auxiliary discharge de
vices may be of the various types and structures
mentioned hereinabove.
The novel features that I consider characteris
tic of my invention are set forth with particularity
in the appended claims. The invention itself,
however, both as to its organization and its meth
'20 od of operation, together with additional objects
‘and advantages thereof will best he understood
from the following description of speci?c embodi
ments when read in connection with the accom
panylng drawing, in which: I
25'
Figure l is a diagrammatic view showing an
embodiment of my invention; and,
Fig. 21s a diagrammatic view showing a modi
?cation of my invention.
'The apparatus shown in Fig. 1 comprises a
30 source 3 of alternating current which, if the pow
er to be supplied is to have the properties men
tioned above, may be of the ordinary commercial
60-cycle type. A load 5 is to be supplied periodi
‘ 1 cally with current impulses of short duration and
35 to control the supply of power to the load an
electric discharge device ‘I is provided. The dis
charge device 1 has any anode 9, a cathode ll of
the mercury pool ‘type and a control electrode
|3 of the immersion type. Between the principal
40 electrodes 9 vand ll of the discharge device a
capacitor | 5 is connected. One plate of. the
capacitor is directly connected to the anode 9
and the other plate is connected to the cathode ||
through the load 5. The capaciator I5 is charged,
45 from a secondary section I‘! of a transformer |9
supplied from the source 3, through a recti?er 2|,
which is shown speci?cally as-being of the hot
cathode type but which may be of any other type,
as, for example, a dry recti?er of the copper
5,0
copper-oxide type.
'
vControl potential is supplied to the discharge
device [from another secondary section 23 of
the transformer | 9 through a second capacitor
25 which is in turn charged from the latter sec
55 tion through a second recti?er 21. One plate of
the latter capacitor 25 is connected directly to
_ the cathode || of the discharge device 3; the other
plate is connected to the anode 29 of an auxiliary
discharge device 3|. The cathode 33 of the aux
60 iliary device is connected directly to the control
electrode l3 of the main discharge device ‘I.
The auxiliary discharge device 3| is preferably
of the hot-cathode gaseous type and may, for
example, be a “Thyratron” tube. It is provided
65 with a control electrode 35 and a potential is sup-v
plied between the control electrode and the oath
ode 33 from another secondary section 31 through
a suitable phase-shifting arrangement 39.
The capacitors l5 and 25 are charged through
70 the recti?ers 2| and 21 during alternate half
cycles of the source 3, the capacitor IS in the
principal circuit of the main discharge device ‘I
being so charged that the plate connected to the
anode 9 is positive and the other plate is negative
75 and the capacitor 25 connected in the control
circuit being so charged that the plate connected ‘
in the anode 29 of the auxiliary discharge device ,
3| is positive and the other plate is negative.
During the intervening alternate half cycles of
the source 3 and at points in the half cycles which
are selected by the phase-shifting arrangement
39, the control potential supplied to the auxiliary
discharge device 3| attains such a magnitude that
the latter is rendered conductive. Current is
then transmitted from the capacitor 25 through
the anode 29 and the cathode 33 of the auxiliary
discharge device 3|, and through the control elec
trode l3 and the cathode H of the main discharge
device ‘I. The main discharge device is therefore
energized and the capacitor l5 in its principal
circuit discharges through it and through the
load. The discharge device 1 and the load 5 are
of such character that the capacitor I5 is com
pletely discharged in the interval of time re
quired. In the example given, this interval is of
the order of l-/600 second.
In practicing my invention with the embodi
ment shownin Fig. 1, I prefer to use a Westing
house KU—671 “Ignitron” tube for the main dis
charge device ‘I and the Westinghouse KU-628
“Thyratron” tube for the auxiliary discharge de
vice. The recti?ers may be Westinghouse 866-A
tubes and the output potential of each of the sec
ondary sections through which the capacitors
are charged may be 110 volts.
In the apparatus shown in Fig. 2, the load 5 is 30
supplied from a discharge device 1 of the same
type as in Fig. 1. However, the anode 9 of the
discharge device is now connected to the upper
terminal 4| of the source 3 through the load and
the cathode II is connected to the lower terminal
43 of the source through a pair of current limiting
resistors 45 and 41. Control potential is supplied
to the main discharge device ‘I, in the same man
her as in the apparatus shown in Fig. 1, from a
secondary section 49 of a transformer 5| supplied
from the source 3 through a capacitor 53 con
nected in series with a recti?er 55 across the
section. One plate of the capacitor 53 is con
nected to the control electrode l3 of the main
discharge device ‘I through a small resistor 51 45
which may be of the order of two ohms; the
other plate of the capacitor is connected directly
to the cathode 33 of an auxiliary discharge
device 3| similar to that utilized in the Fig. 1
system. The anode 29 of the auxiliary discharge
device 3| is connected at the junction point of
the cathode ll of the main discharge device ‘i
and the current limiting resistor 45 connected
directly thereto. Control potential is supplied
to the auxiliary discharge device 3| from another 55
secondary section 59 of the transformer 5|
through a phase-shifting arrangement 39 similar
to that used in the apparatus shown in Fig. 1.
During each of a series of alternate half cycles
of the source 3, the capacitor 53 is charged so that
the plate connected to the control electrode I3 is
positive and the other plate is negative. During
each of the remaining half cycles of the source,
the auxiliary discharge device 3| is energized by
the potential supplied through the phase shifter
and current is transmitted from the capactor 53
through the control electrode |3 of the main dis
charge device 1, its cathode | |, the anode-oath»
ode circuit of the auxiliary discharge device 3| 70
to the capacitor. In the preferred practice of
my invention, the phase shifter 39 is so set that
the control potential supplied to the auxiliary
discharge device 3| is of su?icient magnitude to
energize the device at points leading the maxi 75
2,147,472
mum points in the half cycles of the source by
an angle of the order of from 5 to 10 electrical
degrees. The main discharge device ‘I is thus
energized substantially at the point of maximum
potential and would supply current during the
remainder of the half cycle if not extinguished.
To extinguish the main discharge device ‘i, I
provide a second auxiliary discharge device 6|.
The latter is of the type having a mercury pool
10 electrode H and a control electrode [3 of the
immersion type and its current carrying capac
ity is'substantially of the same order as that of
the main discharge device 1. The cathode ii of
the second auxiliary discharge device Si is con
15 nected to the junction point of the current-lim
iting resistors 45 and 4'! and the anode 9 is con
nected directly to the same terminal 4| of the
source 3 as the anode 9 of the main discharge
device 1.
Control potential is supplied to the second aux
iliary discharge device Bl from another second~
ary section 63 of the transformer 5| through a
capacitor 65 which is, in turn, charged from the
section through a recti?er 61. One plate of the
25 capacitor 65 is connected directly to the cathode
H of the second auxiliary discharge device it;
the other plate is connected through a resistor
69 of small magnitude to the cathode 33 of a
third auxiliary discharge device ‘H which may
30 be similar to the ?rst auxiliary discharge device
The anode 29 of the latter discharge device
it is connected to the control electrode l3 of the
second auxiliary discharge device 6|. The con
trol electrode 35 of the third auxiliary discharge
35 device ‘H is connected to the cathode 33 thereof
through a suitable biasing battery ‘I3, a third ca
pacitor ‘I5 and the capacitor 65 in the control
circuit of the second auxiliary discharge device
20
GI and is maintained deenergized as long as the
main discharge device 1 is deenergized.
How
ever, one plate of the third capacitor ‘I5 is con
nected to a junction point of the cathode ll of
the main discharge device ‘I and the current lim
iting resistor 45 through a timing resistor 11 of
45 variable magnitude; the other plate of the ca
pacitor 15 is connected to the junction point of
the two current-limiting resistors 45 and 41.
When the main discharge device ‘I, having been
energized by the discharge of the ?rst capacitor
50 53, passes current, a drop in potential is pro
duced across the current-limiting resistor 45
connected directly thereto and the third capaci
tor 15 is charged with its place connected to the
biasing battery 13 positive and the other plate
55 negative. The rate of charging may be deter
mined by the timing resistor 11 in the circuit of
the capacitor and may be adjusted so that the
third auxiliary discharge device ‘II is supplied
' with energizing potentialfrom the third capaci
80 tor 15 when the main discharge device ‘I has
passed current through the load 5 for the desired
time interval. When the third auxiliary discharge
device ‘H is energized, current is supplied from
the capacitor 65 in its principal circuit through
the control electrode I3 0! the second auxiliary
discharge device GI and the latter is energized.
Since the latter device 6| passes substantial cur
rent, the drop in the potential across the main
discharge device 1 and the current-limiting re
70 sistor 45 in series therewith is so reduced that the
device ‘I is immediately deenergized. The second
auxiliary discharge device 6! now continues to
pass current until it is extinguished at the end
of the half cycle. The same procedure is re
75 peated during each half cycle of the source that
3
intervenes between the half cycles during which
the capacitors 53 and 65 are charged.
In the preferred practice of the modi?cation
of my invention as it is shown in Fig. 2, the dis~
charge devices 1 and 61 may be Westinghouse
KU-G'YI “Ignitron” tubes, the recti?er-s 55 and.
61 may be Westinghouse 866-A tubes, the devices
3| and 'H may be Westinghouse KU~628 “Thyra
tron” tubes, the resistors 51 and 69 may have a
magnitude of the order of 2 ohms, the capacitors
53 and 65 may be of the order of 5 microfarads,
the capacitor 15 may be of the order of .1 micro
farad, the resistor 71 may have a magnitude of
the order of 50,000 to 100,000 ohms, the poten
tial of the battery 13 may be 20 to 45 volts, the 15
potential of the source may be 220 volts and the
potential output of the secondary sections 49 and
63 may be 110 volts.
Although I have shown and described certain
speci?c embodiments of my invention, I am fully
aware that many modifications thereof are pos—
sible. My invention, therefore, is not to be re
stricted except insofar as is necessitated by the
prior art and by the spirit of the appended
claims.
25
I claim as my invention:
1. In combination, a main electric discharge
device having a plurality of principal electrodes
and a control electrode, a ?rst capacitor‘con
nected between said principal electrodes, an aux
iliary discharge device having a plurality of prin
30
cipal electrodes and a control electrode, a second
capacitor connected between the control elec
trode and a principal electrode of the main dis
charge devlce through the principal electrodes of
said auxiliary discharge device, a periodic source
of electrical energy, means for charging said
capacitors from said source during a portion of
each of its periods and means for impressing
potentials between the control electrode and a 40
principal electrode of said auxiliary discharge
device to maintain the conductivity of said aux
iliary discharge device small during said last
mentioned portion of the periods and to sub
stantially increase the conductivity of said aux
iliary device during the remaining portions of
said periodsthereby to render said main dis
charge device conductive during the said remain
ing portions, said main discharge device on being
rendered conductive discharging said second ca
pacitor between said control electrode and said
one principal electrode thereof.
2. In combination, a main electric discharge
device having a plurality of principal electrodes
and a control electrode and a gaseous medium,
a ?rst capacitor connected between said princi
pal electrodes, an auxiliary discharge device hav
ing a plurality of principal electrodes and a con
trol electrode, a second capacitor connected be
tween the control electrode and a principal elec 60
trode of the main discharge device through the
principal electrodes of said auxiliary discharge
device, a periodic source of electrical energy,
means for charging said capacitors from said
source during a portion of each of its periods and 65
means for impressing potentials between the con
trol electrode and a principal electrode of said
auxiliary discharge device to maintain the con
ductivity of said auxiliary discharge device small
during said last-mentioned portions of the 70
periods and to substantially increase the con
ductivity of said auxiliary device during the re
maining portions of said periods thereby to ren
der said main discharge device conductive during
the said remaining portions, said main discharge 75
4
8
2,147,479
device on being rendered conductive discharging
said second capacitor between said control elec
trode and said one principal electrode thereof.
3. In combination, a main electric discharge
Cl device having a plurality of, principal electrodes
and a control electrode of theignition type and
a gaseous medium, a ?rst capacitor connected
between said principal electrodes, an auxiliary
discharge device having a plurality of principal
10 electrodes and a control electrode, a second ca
i
dered conductive discharging said second capaci
tor between said control electrode and said one
principal electrode thereof.
6. In combination, a main electric discharge
device having a plurality of principal electrodes G1
one of which is of the mercury pool type and
a control electrode of the immersion type, a
?rst capacitor connected between said principal
electrodes, an auxiliary discharge device having
a plurality of principal electrodes and a control 10
pacitor connected between the control electrode
and a principal electrode of the main discharge
device through the principal electrodes of said
auxiliary discharge device, a periodic source of
pacitor connected between the control electrode
and a principal electrode of the main discharge
device through the principal electrodes of said
electrical energy, means for charging said ca
auxiliary discharge device, a periodic source oi’
pacitors from said source during a portion of
each of its periods and means for impressing
potentials between the control electrode and a
principal electrode of said auxiliary discharge
device to maintain the conductivity of said aux
iliary discharge device small during said last
mentioned portions of the periods and to sub
stantially increase the conductivity of said aux
iliary device during the remaining portions of
said periods thereby to render said main dis
charge device conductive during the said remain
ing portions.
4. In combination, a main electric discharge
device having a plurality of principal electrodes
30 one of which is of the mercury pool type and a
‘control electrode of the immersion type, a ?rst
capacitor connected between said principal elec
electrode and a gaseous medium, a second ca
electrical energy, means for charging said ca
pacitors from said source duringa portion of >
each of its periods and means for impressing
potentials between the control electrode and a
principal electrode of said auxiliary discharge de 20
vice to maintain the conductivity of said aux
iliary discharge device small during said last
mentioned portion of the periods and-to substan
tially increase the conductivity of said auxiliary
device during the remaining portions of said
periods thereby to render said main discharge
device conductive during the said remaining
portions.
,
.
7. In combination, a main electric discharge
device having a plurality of ' principal electrodes 30
and a control electrode, a ?rst capacitor con
nected between said principal electrodes, an aux
iliary discharge device having a plurality of prin—
trodes, an auxiliary discharge device having a
plurality of principal electrodes and a control
35 electrode, a second capacitor connected between
the control electrode and a principal electrode of
the main discharge device through the principal
electrodes of said auxiliary discharge device, a
charge device through the principal electrodes of
said auxiliary discharge device, an alternating
periodic source of electrical energy, means for
40 charging said capacitors from said source during
a portion of each of its periods and means for
said capacitors from said source during alternate 40
impressing potentials between the control elec
trode and a principal electrode of said auxiliary
discharge device to maintain the conductivity of
cipal electrodes and a control electrode, a second
capacitor connected between the control elec
trode and a principal electrode of the main dis
source of electrical energy, means for charging
half periods of said source and means for im
pressing potentials between the control electrode
and a principal electrode of said auxiliary dis
charge vdevice to maintain the conductivity of
45 said auxiliary discharge device small during said said auxiliary discharge device small during said
last-mentioned portions of the periods and to alternate half periods and to substantially in 45
substantially increase the conductivity of said crease the conductivity of said auxiliary device
auxiliary device during the remaining portions - during the remaining half _ periods thereby, to
of said periods thereby to render said main dis
render said main discharge device conductive
50 charge device conductive during the said remain
during the said remaining half periods, said
ing portions.
main discharge device on ~being rendered con
5. In combination, a main electric discharge ductive discharging said second capacitor be;
device having a plurality of principal electrodes tween said control electrode and said one prin
and a control electrode and a gaseous medium, cipal electrode thereof.
55 a ?rst capacitor connected between said princi
8. In combination, a main electric discharge
pal electrodes, an auxiliary discharge‘ device hav
device having a plurality of principal electrodes
ing a plurality of principal electrodes and a con
one of which is of the mercury pool type and a
trol electrode, and a gaseous medium; a second control electrode of the immersion type, a ?rst
capacitor connected between the control elec
capacitor connected between said principal elec
60 trode and a principal electrode of the main dis
trodes, an auxiliary discharge device having a 60
charge device through the principal electrodes of plurality of principal electrodes and a control
said auxiliary discharge device, a periodic source electrode, a second capacitor connected between
of electrical energy, means for charging said the control electrode and a principal electrode of
capacitors from said source during a. portion of the main discharge device through the principal
65 each of its periods and means for impressing electrodes of said auxiliary discharge device, an
potentials between the control electrode and a alternating source of electrical energy, means for 65
principal electrode of said auxiliary discharge de
charging said capacitors from said source dur
vice to maintain the conductivity of said auxiliary ing alternate half periods of said source and
discharge device small during said last-men
means for impressing potentials between the con
70 tioned portions of the periods and to substan
trol electrode and a principal electrode of. said
tially increase the conductivity of said auxiliary auxiliary discharge device to maintain the con 70
device during,v the remaining portions of said ductivity of said auxiliary discharge device small
periods thereby to render said main discharge during said alternate half periods and to sub
device conductive during the said remaining por
stantially increase the conductivity of said aux
75 tions, said main discharge device on being ren
iliary device during the remaining half periods 75
2,147,472
thereby to render said main discharge device
conductive during the said remaining half
periods.
'
9. In combination, a main electric discharge
device having a plurality of principal electrodes
5
means for charging said capacitors from said
source during a portion of such of its periods and
means for maintaining the conductivity of said
auxiliary discharge device small during said last
mentioned portion of the periods and for sub
stantially increasing the conductivity of said aux
one or which is of the mercury pool type and a
control electrode of the immersion type, a ?rst .iliary device during the remaining portions of
capacitor connected between said principal elec
trodes, an auxiliary discharge device having a
10 plurality of principal electrodes and a control
electrode and a gaseous medium, a second ca
pacitor connected between the control electrode
and a principal electrode of the main discharge
device through the principal electrodes of said
15 auxiliary discharge device, an alternating source
said periods thereby to render said main dis
charge device conductive during the said remain
ing portions, said main discharge device on be 10
ing rendered conductive discharging said second
capacitor between said control electrode and said
one principal electrode thereof.
15. In combination, a main electric discharge
device having a plurality of principal electrodes 15
of electrical energy, means for charging said ca
and a control electrode, a periodic source of elec
pacitors from said source during alternate half
periods of said source and means for impressing
potentials between the control electrode and a
principal electrode of said auxiliary discharge de
trical potential, connections for impressing a
potential between the principal electrodes of said
discharge device, a capacitor, means for charg
ing said capacitor during a portion of each period 20
vice to maintain the conductivity of said aux
of said source, an auxiliary discharge device hav
iliary discharge device small during said alter
ing principal electrodes, means for connecting
nate half periods and to substantially increase said capacitor between the control electrode and
the conductivity of said auxiliary device during a principal electrode of said main discharge de
25 the remaining half periods thereby to render said vice through the principal electrodes of said aux 25
main discharge device conductive during the said iliary discharge device, means for rendering said
remaining half periods.
10. Apparatus according to claim 1 character
ized by charging means for the capacitors which
30 includes valve means to prevent the capacitors
from discharging through the paths through
which they are charged.
11. Apparatus according to claim 6 character
ized by charging means for the capacitors which
includes valve means to prevent the capacitors
from discharging through the paths through
which they are charged.
12. Apparatus according to claim 9 character
ized by charging means for the capacitors which
includes valve means to prevent the capacitors
from discharging through the paths through
which they are charged.
13. In combination, a main electric discharge
device having a plurality of principal electrodes
45 and a control electrode, a periodic source of elec
trical potential, connections for impressing a
potential between the principal electrodes of said
discharge device, a capacitor, means for charg
ing said capacitor during a portion of each period
50 of said source, an auxiliary discharge device hav
ing principal electrodes, means for connecting
said capacitor between the control electrode and
a principal electrode of said main discharge de
vice through the principal electrodes of said aux
55 iliary discharge device, means for rendering said
auxiliary discharge device conductive during the
remaining portions of each of the periods of said
source thereby to render said main discharge de
vice conductive said main discharge device on
60 being rendered conductive discharging said ca
pacitor between said control electrode and said
one principal electrode thereof, and means for
rendering said main discharge device non-con
ductive a short time compared to a period ofsaid
source, after it has been rendered conductive.
14. In combination, a main electric discharge
device having a plurality of principal electrodes
and a control electrode, a ?rst capacitor con
nected between said principal electrodes, an aux
iliary discharge device having a plurality of prin
cipal electrodes, a second capacitor connected be
tween the control electrode and a principal elec
trode oi the main discharge device through the
principal electrodes of said auxiliary discharge
75 device, a periodic source of electrical energy,
auxiliary discharge device conductive during the
remaining portions of each of the periods of said
source thereby to render said main discharge de
vice conductive said main discharge device on 30
being rendered conductive discharging said ca
pacitor between said control electrode and said
one principal electrode thereof, and means for
rendering said main discharge device non-con
ductive a short time compared to a period of said 35
source, after it has been rendered conductive, the
last said means including a second auxiliary dis
charge device and means responsive to current
conducted by said main discharge device for
rendering said second auxiliary discharge device 40
conductive.
16. In combination, a main electric discharge
device having a plurality of principal electrodes
and a control electrode, a source of alternating
potential, connections for impressing a potential
between the principal electrodes of said discharge
device, a capacitor, means for charging said ca
pacitor during alternate half periods of said
source, an auxiliary discharge device having prin
cipal electrodes, means for connecting said ca 50
pacitor between the control electrode and a prin
cipal electrode of said main discharge device
through the principal electrodes of said auxiliary
discharge device, means for rendering said aux
iliary discharge device conductive during the re 55
maining half periods of said source thereby to
render said main discharge device conductive
said, main discharge device on being rendered
conductive discharging said capacitor between
said control electrode and said one principal elec 60
trode thereof, and means for rendering said main
discharge device non-conductive a short time
compared to a period of said source, after it has
been rendered conductive.
17. In combination, a main electric discharge 65
device having a plurality of principal electrodes
and a control electrode, a source of alternating
potential, connections for impressing a potential
between the principal electrodes of said discharge
device, a capacitor, means for charging said ca 70
pacitor during alternate half periods of said
source, an auxiliary discharge device having prin
cipal electrodes, means for connecting said ca
pacitor between the control electrode and a prin
cipal electrode of said main discharge device 75
6
2,147,472
through the principal electrodes of said auxiliary
discharge device, means ‘for rendering said aux
iliary discharge device conductive during the re
maining half periods and at the instants in said
half periods at which the magnitude of the po
tential of said source is substantially a maximum
thereby to render said main‘ discharge device
conductive said main discharge device on being
rendered conductivepdischarging said capacitor
10 between said control electrode and said one prin
cipal electrode thereof, and means for rendering
said main discharge device non-conductive a
short time compared to a period of said source,
after it has been rendered conductive, the last
15 said means including a second auxiliary discharge
device and means for rendering said second aux
iliary discharge device conductive a predeter
mined time substantially equivalent to said short
time after said main discharge device has been
2,0
rendered conductive.
-
18. In combination, a main electric discharge
device having a plurality of principal electrodes
one of which is of the mercury pool type and a
control electrode of the immersion type, a source
25 of alternating potential,‘ connections for impres
sing a potential between the principal electrodes
of said discharge device, a capacitor, means for
charging said capacitor during alternate half
periodsof said source, an auxiliary discharge de
80 vice having principal electrodes, means for con
necting said capacitor between the control elec
trode and a principal electrode of said main dis
charge device through the principal electrodes
of said auxiliary discharge device, means for
35 rendering said auxiliary discharge device con
ductive during the remaining half periods and
at the instants in said half periods that corre
spond to points in the corresponding half cycles
which precede the point of maximum magnitude
by an angle of'the order of from 5 to 10 electrical
degrees thereby to render said main discharge
device conductive and means for rendering said
main discharge device non-conductive a short
time compared to a period of said source, after
45 it has been rendered conductive, the last said
means including a second auxiliary discharge de
vice having an electrode of the mercury pool type
and means for rendering said second auxiliary
discharge device conductive a predetermined
50 time substantially equivalent to said short time
after said main discharge device has become
conductive.
>
periods of said source, an auxiliary, discharge
device having principal electrodes, means for
connecting said capacitor between the control
electrode and a principal electrode of said main
discharge device through the principal electrodes
of said auxiliary discharge device, means for
rendering said auxiliary discharge device con
ductive during the remaining half periods and
at the instants in said half periods that corre
spond to points in the corresponding half cycles 10
which precede the point of maximum magnitude
by an angle of the order of from 5 to 10 electrical
degrees thereby to render said main discharge
device conductive and means for rendering said
main discharge device non-conductive a short 16
time compared to a period of said source, after
it has been rendered conductive, the last said
means including a second auxiliary discharge de
vice having an electrode of the mercury pool type
and means for rendering said second auxiliary
discharge device conductive a predetermined
time substantially equivalent to said short time
after said main discharge device has become
conductive.
'
.
20. In combination, a main electric discharge
device having a plurality of principal electrodes
one of which is of the mercury pool type and a
control electrode of the immersion type, a source
of alternating potential, connections including
impedance means for impressing a potential be 30
tween the principal electrodes of said discharge
device, a capacitor, means for charging said ca
pacitor during alternate half periods of said
source, an auxiliary discharge device having prin
cipal electrodes, means for connecting said ca 35
pacitor between the control electrode and a prin
cipal electrode of said main discharge device
through the principal electrodes of said auxiliary
discharge device, means for rendering said aux
iliary discharge device conductive during the 40
remaining half periods and at the instants in said
half periods that correspond to points in the
corresponding half cycles which precede the
point of maximum magnitude by an angle of the
order of from 5 to 10 electrical degrees thereby 45
to render said main discharge device conductive
and means for rendering said main discharge
device non-conductive a short time compared to
a period of said source, after it has been rendered
conductive, the last said means including a sec
ond auxiliary discharge device having an elec
trode of the mercury pool type, means for con
19. In combination, a main electric discharge
device having a plurality of principal electrodes
55 one of which is of the mercury pool type and a
control electrode of the immersion type, a source
necting said second auxiliary device in parallel
with the network including said main discharge
of alternating potential, connections for impres
sing a potential between the principal electrodes
of said discharge device, a capacitor, means for
vice conductive a predetermined time, substan
tially equivalent to said short time, after said
main discharge device has become conductive.
60 charging said capacitor during alternate half
50
device, and said impedance means, and means 55
for rendering said second auxiliary discharge de
V
DAYTON ‘DI-REY.
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