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Патент USA US2148608

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Feb. 28, 1939;
2,148,608
E. c. DE STUBNER
DISPERSION APPARATUS
‘Tiled Nov. 20, 1956
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Feb. 2s, 1939.
2,148,608 '
E. C. DE‘. STUBNER
DI SPERS ION APPARATUS
Filed Nov. 20, i956
4 Sheets-Sheet 2
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Zmz'le C.’ 6765211152762:
BY
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Feb. 28, 1939.
E. c. DE STUBNER
DISPERSION APPARATUS
Filed Nov. 20, 1936
2,148,608
4 Sheets-Sheet 3
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2,148,608
DIS‘PERSIQN APPARATUS
Filledqiqv. 20, 1956
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ATTORNEY5.
Patented Feb. 28, 1939
2,148,608
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,148,608
DISPERSION APPARATUS
Emile C. de Stubncr, Charleston, W. Va.
Application November 20, 1936, Serial No. 111,853
2 Claims. (CI. 83-93)
The present invention relates to a dispersion
Some of the reasons for variations in the rotor
apparatus, and particularly to such apparatus
speed are (1) internal friction of the material in
which may be utilized for the formation or stabi
the disintegrating chamber; (2) inertia of the
lization of emulsions or suspensions, for the blend
ing' either of colors or of ?avors with masses to ' processed mass and back pressure on the dis
be colored or ?avored, for the improvement of charge side of the chamber; and (3) variations in 5
textures of materials passed therethrough, for quantity and character of the materials fed to the
the disintegration and dispersion of solids in liq-_
uid or plastic mediums, for the grinding and ex
traction of ?brous materials, or for other like or
similar purposes.
In a preferred embodiment of the invention
4 herein disclosed by way of example, and herein
after referred to as a “transperser”, a member
I5 in the nature of a colloid mill is employed as one
unit thereof. Such a mill is preferably of the
rotating type and comprises in general a rotary
member, hereinafter termed the “rotor”, mount
ed for rotation within a ?xed or stationary mem
20 ber, hereinafter termed the "stator".
Upon ro
tation of the rotor relative to the stator, mate
rials fed to the space between such members are
subjected to shearing and other stresses as may
be required to accomplish the desired processing
25 thereof. In other of such mills a plurality of
rotor members may be employed.
In part, the present invention provides a meth
od of increasing the ef?ciency of such a member
and the production of superior results therefrom
by providing means for operating such a mem
ber under a diminished atmospheric pressure, 1. e.
a partial vacuum.
In using rotary disintegrating members of
which a colloid mill is an example, the rotor speed
is an important factor in the satisfabtory oper
ation thereof. In using such devices there fre
quently is a reduction in rotor speed of as much
as 50% when the material to be processed is in
troduced into the spaces between the rotor and
the stator, which space is hereinafter referred to
as the disintegrating chamber. In using such de
vices, particularly where the rotors are intended
for operation at high rotor speeds, this reduction
of rotor speed is very serious and greatly impairs
the e?iciency of the machine and the satisfactory
nature of its operation. Variable rotor speeds
due to load conditions in the machine also cause
considerable variation in the quality of the prod
uct processed thereby. Mills which may be used
satisfactorily as a unit of the transperser of this
‘invention may have rotor speeds as high as ap
proximately 6000 to 7000 R. P. M. or higher, or
such speeds may be approximately 3600 R. P. M.,
depending on the design andconstruction of the
particular mill selected.
,
inlet of the machine.
,
In conventional types of such disintegrating
equipment the power utilized in driving the rotor
is also utilized to convey the materials to be acted 10
upon to the disintegrating chamber and to carry
away the processed mass of such materials after
their passage between the rotor and the stator.
This utilization of the same power source for both
conveying the materials and for operation of the 15
rotor requires under certain circumstances ex
cessive power application on the rotor so that the
rotor tends to “race” without properly acting on
the materials to be processed. Under other load
conditions so much of the power is absorbed in 20
conveying the materials that su?icient power is
not available to cause the rotor'to operate at the
required speed to produce the desired result.
Under certain conditions, the materials to be
processed are a mass which is not of uniform con
sistency, density or size. The power requirements 25
to convey such materials, therefore, will vary con
siderably. Also, the load imposed on the rotor
will vary with variations in the consistency, den
sity or size of the materials to be processed.
In processing many types of materials in such
devices, gas pressures also may be built up within
the disintegrating chamber and such pressures
are undesirable and may lead to unsatisfactory
results in the finished product, due undoubtedly 35
to variations of pressures in the chamber caus
ing variations in rotor speeds.
In certain uses of such equipment it is also de
sirable to reduce oxidation in the chamber of the
materials being processed. The present inven- 40
tion in one of its aspects makes possible the con
trol of such oxidation reactions occurring within
the disintegrating chamber.
.
It is, therefore, an object of the present inven-v
tion to provide a method of creating dispersions 46
or similar states of matter under reduced atmos
pheric pressures.
A further object of the invention is to provide
a device for creating dispersions or similar states
of matter wherein a rotor member is employed 60
and wherein the rotor speeds are maintained
under varying load conditions with a greater de
gree of uniformity than is possible with presently
known devices of this type.
‘
Another object of the invention is to provide 55
2,148,608
2
Before explaining in detail the present inven
a device utilizing a rotor member for creating
tion it is to be understood that the invention is
not limited in its application to the details of
dispersions or similar states of matter and where
in a substantially uniform flow of pre-mixed ma
terials to be further processed is eifected.
construction and arrangement of parts illustrated
in the accompanying drawings, since‘ the inven
Another object of the invention is to provide a
device for creating dispersions or similar states
tion is capable of other embodiments and of be
ing practiced or carried out in various ways.
of matter in which back pressures occurring with
in the disintegrating chamber are reduced.
Another object of the invention is to provide a
device for creating dispersions or similar states
Also it is to be understood that the phraseology
or terminologyemployed herein is for the pur
pose of description and not of limitation, and W
that it is not intended to limit the invention
claimed herein beyond the requirements of the
10 of matter in which a power source, subject to sep
arate control, performs the function of material
handling and another power source also inde
prior art.
pendently controlled drives the disintegrating de
vice within the disintegrating chamber.
15
Another object of‘the invention is to provide
a device for creating dispersions or similar states
of matter in which a rotor and a stator are utilized
which may include a rotor ii and a stator i2 W)
and wherein heating of the materials in the dis
chamber is reduced.
_
20 integrating
Another object of. the invention is to provide
a device for creating dispersions or similar states
of matter by utilizing a rotor moving within a
stator in a, chamber under reduced atmospheric
pressures whereby pressures within the chamber
25 are controlled and gases or vapors generated by
(Fig. 2). The details of construction of the de
vice 90 do not form a part of the present inven
tion and therefore the invention is not to be
limited thereto. In place of a single rotor as here
shown, a plurality of rotors may be utilized, and
such rotors may be smooth surfaced or grooved,
processing of the materials in the disintegrating
chamber are continuously removed therefrom.
Another object of the present invention is to
provide a method of creating dispersions or simi
30 lar states of matter and apparatus for use with
and may rotate in a stator or not.
In the particular embodiment here shown the
rotor ii is surrounded by and revolves within‘
the stator i2 and both the rotor ii and the stator W
i2 are'provided with grooved portions Ma and
i2a on adjacent mating surfaces. The rotor ii
is ?xed to a power driven rotary shaft is mount
ed on bearings Ma and is suitably coupled with
a source of power it. In the embodiment here 85
shown the shaft i3 is directly coupled with an
electric motor through a flexible coupling it of
any preferred type. In other instances the rotor
is connected with the source of power through
such method whereby there is assured a con
trolled ?owto the processing chamber of the
materials to be processed in the state of a pre
liminary admixture of predetermined and con
trolled ?ow characteristics.
Other objects and advantages of this invention
will appear‘ in the following description and ap
pended claims, reference being had to the ac
companying drawings ‘forming a part of this
40 speci?cation wherein a preferred embodiment of
. 35~
the present invention is illustrated.
eral views,
40
suitable gear mechanisms.
The adjustment of the rotor l I relative to the
stator I! may be effected by an adjusting mem
ber it which is movable longitudinally of the
'
In the drawings, wherein like reference char
acters designate corresponding parts in the sev
45
_
. device so as to increase
.
Fig. 1 is a view in perspective of a device em
bodying the present invention;
\
'
Fig. 2 is a fragmentary section of a form of
the disintegrating equipment shown in Fig. 1
taken substantially on the line 2-2 of Fig. 1 in
50 the direction of the arrows;
Fig. 3 is a fragmentary section of the conveying
and vacuum creating pump taken substantially
on the line 3-3 of Fig. l in the direction of the
55 arrows;
Fig. 4 is a,‘ sectional view taken substantially
on the line 4‘--4 of Fig. 3 in the direction of the
arrows;
Figs. 5 and 6 are diagrammatic views illustrat
ing the ?rst and second stages respectively, of a
60 dispersion method embodying the present inven
tion;
Figs. '7 and 8 are fragmentary sectional views
of modi?ed types of disintegrating equipment
which may be used in carrying out the present
invention;
70
‘
Referring to the drawings and particularly to
Fig. 1, a preferred form of device embodying the w
present invention comprises a disintegrating de
vice indicated generally by the numeral it' which
may be of any type of colloid mill, Jordan engine,
emulsi?er, homogenizer, or similar equipment,
or decrease the spacing
between the adjacent mating surfaces of the ro 45
tor II and the stator [2. This adjustment per
mits control of the device for operation for vari
ous purposes and for effecting various changes in
the individua1 particle sizes of the materials be
ing processed. Various types of adjustments are 50
provided in various types of devices which may
be utilized in carrying out the present invention
The rotor ii and the stator i2 operate in what
is herein termed the disintegrating chamber,
which is designated generally by the numeral ii. 55
The disintegrating chamber ill communicates
with an inlet port Hi to which is suitably con
nected an inlet conduit IS. A discharge port 20
-,communicates with the disintegrating "chamber
l1 and connects with a discharging conduit 2!. 60
The rotor ii and the stator l2 are interposed in
the chamber‘i‘l between the inlet port i8 and
the discharge port 20 so that materials flowing
_ from the inletport l8 will pass between the rotor
and the stator before passing to the discharge
port 20.
In order to insure the maintenance of proper
Fig. 9 is a view in perspective having a part
,rbroken away showing a device similar to that
{shown in Fig. 1 but having a modi?ed form of
1 material chamber and a modi?ed form of con
temperatures within the disintegrating chamber
H, a jacketed portion 22 may be provided
‘ nection therewith; and
jacketed housing 23 is also provided surrounding
Fig. 10 is a fragmentary sectional view of a
modi?ed type of material chamber adapted for
use with a device embodying vthe present in
vention.
'
'
through which may be circulated either a heating ft
?uid or a cooling ?uid as may be desired.
A
the shaft 13 through which a suitable cooling
medium may be circulated to carry away the
heat of friction due to operation of the shaft i3.
2,148,608
The circulating medium may be i'edv into the
housing 23 through a conduit 24 (Fig. 1) and
may be continuously withdrawn from the jacket
through suitable conduits (not shown)- Mate
rials to be processed may be supplied to the dis
integratingchamber I‘! through the conduit i9
(Fig. l) as from a hopper 25 or other storage
chamber which is suitably connected with the
conduit l9 through a conduit 26 and a valve
10 portion 21.
.
The discharge conduit 2! is connected through
a valve 28 and a conduit 29 with the suction side
of apump 36. On the discharge side of the pump
36 a conduit 3| communicates with the hopper 25.
15 A by-pass is provided between the hopper 25 and
the pump 36, this by-pass comprising a valve 32
and a conduit 33 which connects with the suction
side of the pump 36.
Any preferred type of pump capable of creat
'20 ing the desired amount of suction may be used as
the pump 36. One type which I have found to
be satisfactory is a rotary plunger type of pump
as shown in greater detail in Figs. 3 and 4. Such
a pump comprises a cylinder casting 46 provided
25 with openings 4| and 42 on the suction and dis
charge sides respectively of the piston 46. A drive
shaft 43 serves to operate. the pump and a cam
or eccentric 44 is secured thereon, as by the key
45. A rotating piston member 46 is connected
with the cam or eccentric 44 and is driven thereby.
In the embodiment here shown by way of ex
ample, two 01' the rotating pistons 46 are provided.
The pistons 46 each have a sliding valve portion
56 which serves as a conduit between the cham
35 ber 5| and the upper chamber 52. Upon rotation
of the shaft 43 the pistons 46 slide in the slide
valve 53 and due to the motion of the cam or
eccentric 44,‘ a portion of the piston 46 contacts
with a portion of the wall of the chamber 5i
40 and serves to compress the material ahead of the
discharge conduit 2! which communicates with
the discharge chamber.
In the modi?cation shown in Fig. 8 the dis- '
integrator which is employed may be of the type
known in the paper industry as a “Jordan en
gine”. Such a device includes a rotary plug 16
and a stationary shell 1|, both of which are pro
vided with disintegrating knives '12. The plug
16 is driven by a suitable motor 13 and the clear
ance between the plug 16 and the shell ‘H is con
trolled by the adjusting mechanism indicated gen
erally by the numeral 14.
The material to be processed is fed in through
the inlet conduit i9 to an inlet chamber 15. The
material then passes between the knives 12 car- .'
ried by the shell ‘H and the plug 16 and is dis
charged into the discharge chamber16 and then
is carried away through the discharge conduit 2i
connected with the suction side of the pump 36.
While I have illustrated and described gen- '
erally three di?erent types of disintegrating de
vices which may be used in connection with the
present invention, the invention is not limited to
any particular type of such devices nor, as previ
ously stated, is it limited to any particular type
of pump equipment. My invention‘, therefore, is
not limited to any particular structures either of
the disintegrator or of the pump equipment.
In certain instances it may be desirable to
provide for agitating and admixing the materials '
in the feed tank or chamber. Two types of de
vices adapted for this purpose are shown in Figs. 9
and 10. In Fig. 9 the device is of the type known
generally as a “pony mixer” in the paint and
allied industries and may comprise a tank 86 in
which a suitable agitating or ‘stirring device is
provided, such for example as the power driven
arms or rakes 8i.
Stationary arms 82 may be
secured inside the tank 86 and extend between the
piston and to exert a force on the material caus
power driven arms or rakes 8| to break up the
ing it to ?ow through the conduit 56 when it
reaches a point where the intake opening therein
communicates with the chamber 5 l. During this
The arms or rakes 8| are driven by a suitable
power source 83 and power transmission device
45 motion a suction is created in the suction cham
ber 54 to which the conduit 29 is connected.
While the pump which has just been described
is generally known as a rotating plunger type
oi.’ suction pump, any other suitable type of pump
50 may be employed whichhas both a suction and
discharge opening therein and I do not desire to
be limited by the foregoing description to the use
of any particular type of pump in connection with
the invention herein described = and claimed.
55
3 .
In place of the disintegrating equipment previ
ously described, I may utilize in a modi?cation
the type of disintegratonshown inFig. 7 which
will connect with the inlet conduit l9 and the
discharge conduit 2| and which comprises a rotor
60 66 and a stator 6| interposed between the inlet
chamber 62 and the discharge chamber 63, the
rotor being mounted on the shaft 64 and being
power driven. The chamber in which the rotor
and stator are mounted is surrounded with
65 jacketed portions 65 and 66 through which may
circulate ,any suitable type of ?uid heat control
ling medium. ’ In some instances this will be for
the purpose of cooling‘the device and in other
instances for the purpose of heating the material
70 passing therethrough. In using the modi?ed de—,
vice shown in Fig. 7 the inlet conduit i9 is con
nected .with the inlet chamber 62 and materials
to be processed by the disintegrator are fed
therethrough. The suction side of the pump 36
75 _ is connected through suitable conduits with the
circular flow of the materials inside the tank 86.
84. In this instance, the feed line i9 is connected
through the valve, 21 with a supply line 85 which
terminates inside the tank 86 and at a point
adjacent the bottom thereof. This permits con~
stant withdrawal from the tank 86 of the heavier
portions of the materials therein which drop into
the lower levels in the tank 86. The suction
exerted on the line 85 through the disintegrating
device i6 by the pump 36 is suiiicient in the nor
mal case to raise the materials from the lower
levels 01' the tank 86 to the higher level of the
feed inlet l9.
.
v
The materials after passing through the dis
integrator i6 are returned to the tank 86 through
the pipe 86, which terminates at a point adjacent
the top thereof.
.
If desired, instead of the feed tank or chamber
shown in Fig. 9, a modi?ed form as shown in Fig.
10 may be employed. This device is of the type
known commercially as a “Vissolver” and com
prises a tank 96 having. a conical or hopper
shaped bottom 9!. Suitable supports 92 main—
tain the tank in an upright position so that ma—
terials fed into the tank drop or ?ow into the
bottom 9|. In the bottom portion 9| a station
ary baille element 93 is provided, which in the
instance here shown is formed of a perforated 76
metal sheet. Inside the baiile element 93 a rotary
member 94 is provided, which in this instance is
also formed of perforated sheet metal. The
rotary member 94 is power driven from a suit
able power source such as-the motor 95. Upon
4
arcades
through
rotation of the member 94, the material in the
bottom ill will flow through the ba?le member
93 and be subjected to working and shearing be
tween the ba?ie 93 and the rotary member 94.
?ows through the member 94
and is discharged. upwardly, through the open
top thereof. By this action, the materials inside
stantial demands on the power on the rotor. The
materials then ?ow through the valve it to the
pump 30, from which they are returned con
tinuously through the conduit 3i to the feeding
hopper 25.
The materials may be circulated
through the disintegrating equipment as many
the tank 90 are constantly circulated in the di
times as is desired for the purpose of completing
rection indicated diagrammatically by the di
the processing of the materials and adjustments
10 rection of the arrows. The feed pipe it of the
device iii is connected in this instance with
supplypipe 96 which draws materials from a
point adjacent the top of the member M. Ma
terials which have passed through the device it
are discharged through the pipe 971 which com
municates with the discharge port of the pump
3t and discharges within the tank 90 at a point
adjacent the top and at one side thereof.
A method embodying the present invention and
20
the disintegrator and be discharged
through the discharge conduit it without sub
adapted for use with any suitable kind of the
previously described classes of equipment is
shown best by the diagrammatic sketches of
Figs. 5 and 6. In Fig. 5 is shown the method of
the present invention during the ?rst stage of its
operation for the purpose of creating a prelimi
25 nary admixture of the materials to be processed.
The materials to be processed are charged into
can be made in the disintegrator to secure suc
cessively greater action on the materials. Dur
ing this operation the pump it thus is acting
not only to convey the materials from the feeding
hopper through the disintegrator but also to 115
convey the processed materials from the disin
tegrator to the feeding hopper. Also, during
this time a suction is being created by the pump
30 in the disintegrator so that the operation of
the disintegrator on the materials passing there
through is carried out while a diminished atmos
pheric pressure is maintained therein.
From the foregoing it is obvious that the com
bination of the conveying system with the disin
tegrator will achieve a desirable result in the op 28
eration of the disintegrator since it eliminates a
great deal'of load from the power source of the
disintegrator due to the conveying of the mate
the storage hopper 25, which may be in any de
rials to be processed and of the ?nished mate
sired plane relative to the plane of the disinte
rials through the pump 30. Also, a superior op
grator. The materials are drawn from the hup
30 per 25 through the feeding conduit 26. The eration is assured because of the provision of the
pump 30 and the cycle of operation shown dia
valves 2‘! and'28 are in the closed position as grammatically in Fig. 5 wherein the pump acts
shown in this sketch and the disintegrator‘ i0 is to form a preliminary uniform admixture of the
not utilized in this stage of the operation. Dur
raw materials having controlled flow character
ing this stage‘of the method, the valve 32 is open
85 so that the by-pass 33 is open and the charged istics. Also, in the event any gas or vapor is
created in the disintegrator, such gas or vapor is
materials ?owing from the feeding hopper pass continuously carried away by operation of the
through the by-pass 33 and the valve 32 to the
30.
suction side of the pump 30. The action’ of the pump
The processed materials may be returned to the 40
pump 30 then serves to create a further pre
hopper 25 and stored, or if desired the materials
liminary admixture of the materials charged in can be discharged directly into containers or
the hopper and to return such admixture con
other packages therefor.
tinuously through the conduit 3! to the hopper.
It is known that the action of a disintegrating
This ?ow of materials is indicated by the ar
device as herein described imparts high speed ro 45
rows in Fig. 5 and may be continued as a con
tary movements to the individual particles in the
tinuous cycle until such time as the materials materials being processed. In the case of disper
have attained the state of a satisfactory pre
sions of ?nely divided solids in fluid dispersion
liminary admixture. This stage of the process mediums, it is my belief that centrifugal forces
actually produces a preliminary admixture of are built up in the solid particles which tend to so
the materials whose ?uidity or ?ow character
throw the particles from the dispersion and thus
istics can be thus de?nitely controlled. This tend to counteract the action of the disintegrat
produces a substantially uniform mix of the ing device in stabilizing the dispersion. I have
materials which are subsequently to be acted found that the action of the pump 30 on the mass
upon by the, disintegrating equipment. During passing from the disintegrator exerts compres 55
; this stage of the operation the only part of the sion forces on the mass which neutralizes the
equipment which is operating is that of the con
centrifugal forces in the solid particles and sta
veying devices which in this use create the de
bilizes the dispersion to a considerable extent.
sired preliminary admixture of the charged ma
The present invention is particularly useful in
terials. In this manner there is assured a uni
creating or stabilizing dispersions of ?nely divid 60
formity of ?ow of pre-mixed materials to the ed solid particles in ?uid dispersion mediums,
disintegrating equipment.
such for example as dispersions of pigment in
In Fig. 6 the second step of the method is paints, varnishes, lacquers, printing inks, and
shown. Here the valve 32 is closed so that the the like, as well as in other types of manufactur;
by-pass 33 no longer acts to convey the materials ing wherein dispersions, emulsions, and homo 65
materials from the hopper
, to the pump 30. The
genized masses are produced from the component
25 are now in the condition of preliminarily ad
ingredients. Such ingredients may be charged
mixed bodies of predetermined fluidity or ?ow in the hopper and the preliminary admixture is
characteristics so that when the valves 21 and 28 created either in the hopper, as shown in Figs.
are opened the material is drawn from the stor
9 and 10, or by the operation of the pump 36 in 70
age hupper 25 through the conduit 26 and then circulating and admixing the materials.
70 through the disintegrator ID. The disintegrator
i0 is connected with the suction side of the pump
30 through the discharge conduit 2!, so that the
difference in pressures in the hopper 25 and in
the disintegrator I0 causes the materials to ?ow
It is to be understood that the method herein
disclosed may be operated in accordance with
production manufacturing conditions, in which
event the relative sizes of the constituent units ‘
2,148,808
of the device herein disclosed will differ from
. those shown in the drawings. For example, the
unit designated as the storage hopper may be of
room size to hold the required amounts of mate
rials. It also is to be understood that the re
turn line may be modi?ed so as to discharge the
?nished product at any desired point.
Inaddition to the use of the device and method
herein disclosed for the purposes and uses here
10 inbefore set forth, I have found that the device
and method of this invention is very useful in
carrying out processes wherein a uniform precip
itation of a constituent element is desired. For
example, nitrocellulose dissolved in acetone forms
15 a solution which is circulated through the ?rst
stage of the operation herein set forth. In the
disintegrating chamber of the disintegrator, wa
ter is introduced and when the nitrocellulose so
lution is passed through the disintegrator, the
20 water in the disintegrating chamber precipitates
the dissolved nitrocellulose. Since the mass then
is directly acted upon by the disintegrator, the
uniform precipitate form. of the nitrocellulose is
preserved. Instead of the nitrocellulose-acetone
25 solution, an alcoholic-resin solution or a benzol
wax solution may be utilized. The resin or the
wax may be precipitated from the solution by the
addition of suitable precipitating agents to the
solution in the disintegrating chamber.‘
5
globules of the mixtures. In this instance there
is no disintegration of solid particles but there is
a disintegration of globular masses.
I claim:
1. In an apparatus for forming a uniform and
stable dispersion from a mixture of ?nely divided
solids and ?uid‘media, the combination which
comprises a feed tank, a centrifugally acting dis
integrating device, and a vacuum pump of the
rotary plunger type, said disintegrating device
and pump each having an inlet port and a dis
charge port, a conduit connecting said tank with
the inlet port of said disintegrating device, a con
duit connecting the discharge port of said dis
integrating device with the inlet port of said
pump, a conduit connecting the discharge port of 15
said pump and adapted to discharge materials
into said tank, a by-pass connecting said ?rst
mentioned conduit and said pump, and control
members associated with said conduits and said
by-pass for regulating the ?ow of materials 20
through said apparatus, said pump being capable
of producing suction in said disintegrating device
and having a reciprocating plunger element
adapted to forcibly straighten the rotary path of
movement of the particles of dispersed material 25
as said material passes therethrough.
2. In an apparatus for forming a uniform and
by this method are dispersions of carbon black
or other ?nely divided solids into dispersion me
stable dispersion‘from a mixture of ?nely divided
solids and ?uid media, the combination which 30
comprises a feed tank, a disintegrating device
diums of aqueous nature, Waxes, oils, resins and
synthetic plastic bodies- Also various types of
operatively connected with a source of power
and a vacuum pump operatively connected with a
35 emulsions may be formed and various materials
separate source of power, said disintegrating
device and said pump each having an inlet port
and a discharge port, a conduit connecting said
,30
Among the materials satisfactorily processed
may be homogenized or ?brous or pastic masses
disintegrated and their individual solid particles
reduced in size.
The term “disintegrator” or "disintegrating de
, vice”
as used herein refers to any type of device
" wherein materials acted upon by the device are
subjected to forces either to deform the indi
vidual particles thereof or to break up such par
ticles or tear apart ?occulates or agglomerates
thereof. This includes the concept of devices for
the reduction of coarser particles to ?ner par
ticles but is not limited solely to such devices.
Such devices may deform plastic masses without
in a strict sense causing disintegration thereof.
5 0 However, some disintegration of solid particles
may result from deformation of plastic masses
containing such particles. In the use of such
devices for homogenization of mixtures, ?uids,
GI
or stabilization of emulsions, the deformation of
the masses may result in a change in size of the
tank and the inlet port of said disintegrating de
vice, a conduit connecting the discharge port of
said disintegrating device and the suction port
of said pump to permit said pump to create a con
trolled amount of suction in said disintegrating 40
'
device, a conduit connecting the. discharge port
of said pump and said tank, a by-pass connecting
said ?rst mentioned conduit and said pump, and
valve means for directing said mixture alternately 45
into said by-pass and into said disintegrating de
vice, said pump being capable of creating a mix
ture of uniform and predetermined ?ow charac
teristics when said mixture is directed by said
valve means through said by-pass and having a 50
reciprocating plunger element adapted to forcibly
straighten the rotary path of movement of the
particles of dispersed material emanating from
said disintegrating device.
1
EMILE C. on STUIBNER.
56
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