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Патент USA US2412967

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Dec. 24, 1946.
Filed April 23, 1941
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Patented Dec. 24, 1946
Joseph H. Church, Austin, Min” and Wilfred
E. Thibodeau, Cleveland, Ohio
‘Application April 23, 1941, Serial No. 389,923
13 Claims. (01. 102-56)
(Granted under the act of March 3, 1883, as
, amended April 30, 19 28; 370 0. G. 757)
The invention described herein may be manu
factured and used by or for the Government for
governmental purposes, without the payment to
us of any royalty thereon.
This invention relates to explosive missilesyand
in particular to a petard to be applied from a
tion work on moving fortresses such as tanks or
other automotive vehicles, ships and aeroplanes,
armored or otherwise.
Application of a petard
in the case of moving targets would necessarily
take place from a remote position, a procedure
heretofore not considered.
Petards ‘are particularly well adapted for use
Petards have been known from the earliest
as comparatively slow-moving offensive missiles,
days of gunpowder. They consisted of a hood
shaped or bell-shaped container with a planar 10 in which in a more modern view, emphasis is
placed upon penetration rather than demolition
rim at the large open end for application at the
work. The ?at-faced missile is, therefore,
face of the work to be blasted, and were ?lled
mainly a carrier for an explosive which is, itself,
with an explosive which was set off from the
designed to effect penetration, and the missile,
apex end of the petard. The peculiar destructive
by its shape, serves to position the explosive at
action of a petard is due to the fact that the con
the target for most effective results. With a large
tainer holds the explosive at the face of the ob
area of explosive presented to the target at im
ject to be destroyed for a very small time interval
penetration is enhanced, even at glancing
which is su?icient to give direction to the blast.
angles of impact. However, the optimum case
After this very small time interval, the container
may fall away or recoil, but the main result of 20 will obtain where the explosive body is detonated
with its axis perpendicular to the target and. the
directing the blast has already been accom
?at-faced missiles are admirably adapted to» swing
plished. Early petards were heavy affairs as to
into such position in the case where angular con
the container and thus lent some degree of
tact is made. However, such a righting‘ action
emcacy by reason of their inertia. However, the
provision of a heavy container is burdensome and / will not take place if the projectile rebounds or
ricochets from the target. A rebound or ricochet
unnecessary since a petard will function as well
would also vitiate the delicate matter of timing
with a light container, especially when a close
of the detonation of the main charge, important
seal is maintained between the petard rim and
in penetration missiles of the type herein de
the target. Petards have been used in under
water blasting, wherein the weight of a column 30
We have found that by including on the front
of water lends its inertia to the holding of the
face of our missile, especially at the rim, a leading
container during the necessary time interval. At
impact unit of a material of low resilience, or
detonating, and even defiagrating, time intervals,
of a hollow structure to simulate, by collapsing,
the inertia of the atmosphere becomes ap
the shock-deadening effects of a material of low
preciable for this purpose and petards with light
containers have been used in modern blasting Li resilience, the missile is improved in its function
ing as regards impact and penetration. The cal
(Patent No. 1,440,601). As noted in the afore
culated timing is preserved and the detonation
mentioned patent, a dead air space at the blasting
takes place with the missile at a favorable angle.
face forms a desideratum of petard practise, and
Furthermore, such agleading impact unit will
this well-known expedient is contemplated in
the petards of the present invention. The patent 40 serve to hold the face of the missile in sealed rela
tion with the target for the small period of time
further advises that the “ ‘striking gap’ . . . may
between impact and detonation which is requisite
be varied in shape and volume to secure different
for petard action. This full rim contact for
effects.” In this regard, the teaching in
petard action is but a cumulative incident in the
Zeitschrift fur clas gesamte Schiesse und
series of advantages presented by the shock
Sprengsto?wesen, May 15, 1914, pages 183-187
absorbing impact member of the invention. If
will be found of considerable importance.
lead is used as an impact unit, a further advan
In a military sense petards have been used in
tage is noted in that the center of gravity of the
the past to good advantage in siege work to batter
missile will be moved forward, especially where
down doors and other obstacles. In these cases,
a light container is employed, and aid the missile
the petard, usually a cumbersome object, was
in aligning itself in ?ight for proper approach
carried by the petardier to a stationary object
to the target with a view to petard action. Soft
and secured, facing thereto, or positioned as with
noses on ogival projectiles are common, but their
a bipod and sling, and touched off. In modern
warfare it becomes desirable to perform demoli 56 use was never conceived with such problems in
mind as are dealt with in the present invention
‘ which concerns a faced missile. ‘ The problem of
preferably lead, but which may be constructed
the present invention is to dec'elerate, align and
seal a plane-faced missile at the target as well as
direct it in ?ight, or any combination of these
copper, felt, pressed paper, or various plastics.
The invention further contemplates the pro
vision of, a percussion ?ring unit which is so
coordinated with the impact face of a missile as
to remain unarmed after impact until or unless
of other shock-deadening materials, such. as
or it may consist of loose material such as shot
or sand con?ned in a container. The anti-skid
features of the annulus 5 are enhanced by the
addition of an annular trough 3 on its front
face. Instead of an annular trough, a series
of circular cup-like depressions may be employed
the missile is aligned perpendicular to the target. 10 in the front face of the annulus 5.
In the rear stem 3 is located the percussion
It might well be mentioned that toy darts are
?ring means operating on the inertia principle.
known which are built with a target-gripping
cup, usually of rubber, but these do not involve
problems attending the use of an explosive, nor
are they concerned with penetration of a target
or other objective. Neither do they involve an
impact unit of low resilience which will bring
Within stem 3 an inner sleeve 1 with closed
bottom 8 isthreaded. Slidably received in sleeve
1 and resting on the sleeve bottom 8 is a ?ring
- pin 9 of appreciable mass.
The ?ring pin 9 is
immobilized by shear pins l0 and is additionally
secured by a pull pin Hr passing through the
stem 3, sleeve v‘I and ?ring pin 9. Threadedly
The petard of the present invention is distin 20 received in the top of sleeve 1 is another sleeve
I2 carrying a primer capsule l3. Prior to of
guished from known devices of a similar nature
fensive use of the missile, the pull pin H is with
in that it is essentially a petard missile for ap
drawn, and on impact the pins [0 are sheared
plication from a distance and-carries an impact
while the ?ring pin 9 continues into the primer
?ring means. It is believed that such a com
detonating capsule 13.
bination spells a novel concept in the art.
25 or In
Figure 8 is shown the rim of a missile gen
It is therefore an objectof the invention to
erally similar to that of Figure 1, but wherein
provide a plane-faced explosive missile with a
about a deceleration of the missile without re
non-resilient, shock-absorbing impact member.
It is a further object of the invention to pro
vide a petard missile with a coronal impact mem
the shock-absorbing impactmember is provided '
with a flange l4. Considerations of design may
30 require that the missile body proper bear a high
length/width ratio which would not favor re
tention of the missile in righted position after
inclined impact on' the target, but rather a con
tinued tumbling. The ?ange operates to reduce
?ight, decelerate at the target, align itself and
adhere thereto, or respond in any combination of 35 this ratio at the impact section and hence lower
the probability of continued tumbling. The
these functions as the exigencies require.
?ange may be employed on any of the modi?ca
It is a further object of the invention to pro
tions shown.
vide a petard for application from a distance,
In Figure 3 isshown a missile like that of Fig
and having impact ?ring means.
It is a further object of the invention to 40 ure 1, in which the shock-deadening annular
member [5 is of sheet material lapped about the
provide an explosive missile which will ?re only
rim of the body and keyed therein by indentations
when positioned normal to the target.
at I6, leaving a hollow space I‘! above the rim.
To these and other ends, the invention con
, Here, the ?rst action of the shock member I5 on
sists in the construction, arrangement-and com
bination of elements described hereinafter and 45 impact is to deform in shape, followed by com
pression. This initial change of shape serves to
pointed out in the claims forming a part of this
soften the shock and lengthen the time
of deceleration of the solid body, thus adding time
A practical embodiment of the invention‘ is
for righting the missile prior to detonation.
illustrated in the accompanying drawing where
In Figure 2 is shown a form of missile in which
the priming is accomplished by relative forward
Figures 1, 2 and 6 are elevational views, partly
motion of an inner charge container with respect
in section of petard missiles.
to the outside framework. An inner explosive
Figures 3, 4 and 8 are fragmentary views,
container I8 is carried in a framework compris
partly in section of petard missiles in elevation.
Figure 5 is a detail of a ?ring mechanism in 55 ing longitudinal bar members l9 held rigidly in
spaced relation by a ring member 20. The for
sectional elevation.
ward rim of container 18 is spaced rearward of
Figure '7 is a detail showing a modi?cation of
the forward ends of bars 19 and within the step
the device of Figure 6, and
formed by members I8 and I9 is placed a tubular
Figure 9 is a modi?ed ?ring mechanism for
‘use in a missile such as that of Figure 6.
60 shock-deadening member 2|, protruding forward
of all other front members. The tube 2| is shown
Referring to the drawing by characters of
as welded or soldered, but may be riveted or se
reference, there is shown in Figure 1 a missile
cured by any other fastening means.
composed of a cup-form main body I. An ex
The bars [9 are integral with a’ tubular tail
plosive charge is held therein by a closure mem
piece '22 about which is threaded a tubular han
ber 2, partially shown in the drawing. The par
dling member 23 having a threaded closure plug
ticular shape of inner containers or closure mem
24 held therein. The explosive container 18
.bers forms no part of the present invention. The
threadedly carries a tubular tail piece 25 which is
closure member, for instance, may be ?at or it
slidably received in the tail piece 2!. Tube 25
may be formed with a hollow charge as shown
in British Patent No. 28,030 of 1911. v A rear stem 70 contains priming material 26 within which is
contained a smooth portion of a friction pull
3 is indicated on the missile. This may be a ,
igniter 2'l‘having a serrated or otherwise rough
handle for carrying and manual delivery, or any
ened portion 28 above the priming material and a
conventional unit for attachment to a project
lower bent portion received in slots 29, 30 in the
ing device. Received about the rim 4 of the body
I is an annulus 5 of a non-resilient material, 75 tubes 25 and 22 respectively. The thickness of
ber of shock-dissipating material.
It is a further object of this invention to pro
vide an explosive missile which will align in
igniter 21 is slightly greater than'slots 28, 30 so
that when handling member 23 is screwed up
tightly the igniter 21 is securely held against the
tube 22.
will operate proportionately to their proximity
to the point of impact and the angle of the im
pact, to swing the spherical bolt 31 and cause
the opposite strips to recede and raise that por
Upon impact, the charge-carrying
member I8 will advance, crushing the shock tube CI
2| and carrying primer 26 past serrations 23 to . tion of the impact rim 5| opposite the point of
ignite the ‘primer. The shock member 2| will 1 impact. With the turning of the bolt 31 the
?ring pin 40 is directed away from the primer,
function in the same‘ general manner as the an
nulus 5 of Figure 1.
' >
and when the full shock of impact comes through
In Figure 4 is shown a fragment of a missile of 10
the same general type as that of Figure 2 wherein
the shock member
3| is a tube of coiled section,
and has a portion 32 extending into an opening
33 between the charge container l8 and the outer
This form requires considerably
member I9.
31 and permittingspring 4| to force ?ring pin 40
into the primer.
more work on the shock member before the con
Since -
tainer I 8 can advance to charge-initiating posi
primer, ?ange 52 is chamfered as at 53 to regu
tion. Obviously other forms of initiators than
late the sensitivity to angle of detonation.
that shown in Figure 2 may be employed.
It will be understood that the pockets 49 will
In Figure 6 is shown an explosive missile with a 20
?ring unit designed to set
be of such size as to offer no substantial hin
drance to the ends of those strips 44 which are
only when the missile is axially per
pendicular to the target. This‘is accomplished
by a coordination of the crown-shaped forward
a complete annular shoulder and a. neck portion.
end of themissile with the primer-actuating unit.
In Figure 7 is shown a detail of a modi?cation
A cup-like main charge container 34 threadedly
carries a tail piece 35 having a primer 36, a
spherical bolt 31 and a screw plug keeper 38. The
spherical bolt 31 has a central bore 39, and in this
bore is slidably ?tted a ?ring pin 40 held against
the bars 54 meet the target prior to the body
a spring 4| under full compression by a shear pin
portion to unarm the ?ring mechanism as ex
42, and, in addition, by a pull pin 43 extending
plained in connection with Figure 6. through the sphere 31 and the tube 35.
In Figure 5 is shown another form of ?ring
Encompassing the outside of container 34 is a
mechanism. A tubular tail piece 51 with closed
series of longitudinal strips 44 attached at their
bottom 58 has a through perforation 59. An ex
forward ends to a ring member 45 as by a turned
tension 60 of the tail piece 51 is telescoped there
end 46 ?tting in an annular channel 41 in the
about and carries a pin 6| which passes through
ring, or in individual recesses, passing through
the perforations 59. Pin 6| passes through and
carries a slidable ?ring pin 62.
may be removed
cases, especially where the curvature of the mis
sile is slight. In such case, also, the sphere may
be engaged by the strips in pockets in its lower
A shock-deadening impact unit 5:1 is fixed to
ring 45 and the forward rim of container 34.
Assembly is easily effected by inserting ?ring
pin 40 into the sphere 31 against spring 4 i, which
when fully compressed forms a guard against set
back forces, and inserting the shear pin 42. The
sphere 31 is then placed in tube 35 and pull pin
43 inserted. Plug 38 and primer 36 are then
added. Strips 44 are then threaded
44 are then gathered in and permitted to expand
into the receiving channel 41 in the ring 45. The
tail piece is now threaded into container 34 car
rying with it the strips 44 and ring 45.
all are in place the impact member 5|
by any convenient means and the
added if necessary or desirable.
At impact, assuming pull- pin 43 previously
withdrawn, the pin 42 will be sheared and the
?ring pin 40 started toward the primer. How 70
' ever, if the missile has hit the target at a glanc
ing angle, the outer portion of shock-deadening
member 5| and ring 45 will first yield without
affording the proper stoppage to shear the pin 42.
Thus those strips 44 nearest the point of contact 75
under setback forces or manually, in the’ latter
case, by motion forward or rearward. The arms
53 may be of spring material with position of
on removal of the band 66. Or, the arms 53,
springy or otherwise, may have their normal posi
tion with ends 65 within the perforations 59 in
which case the missile remains safe even with the
band removed until a sufficient shock is encoun
tered to force arms 63 outward by tail 5'! acting
on slant surfaces 61 of bent ends 65. The slant
surfaces should be so designed as to function
only at impact forces.
In the embodiment shown in Figure 6, the ?r
ing mechanism may be considerably simpli?ed by
omitting the spherical bolt. ' As shown in Figure
9 the ?ring pin 40 moves in a bore 68 in a tail
piece 69. This tail piece 69 is threaded into a
plug 10 which is threadedly held in the body 34.
Plug 14 and tail piece 63 are spaced to accom
modate a. ring 1| of internal diameter equal to or
slightly greater than bore 68, and to permit trans
verse sliding of said ring. Bars 44 pass through
bores 12 in plug 10 and contact the ring 1|. At
glancing angles of impact of the missile the ring
1| will be forced by some of the bars 44 into the
path of the ?ring pin ‘and will be' restored to
normal position, clearing the pin, when the mis
sile is brought to full-faced engagement, as in
the case of Figure 6. The sensitivity may be reg
ulated by chamfering the ring as at 13.
We claim:
1. A petard of the type designed for front ex
plosion comprising an axially symmetric body,
prising a tubular tail piece ?xed to said missile
and having a closed bottom, diametrically oppo
_site openings in said tail piece, a tube telescoped
on said tail piece, a ?ring pin in said tail piece,
a pin passing through said ?ring pin, openings
and tube, arms ?xed to the exterior of said tube
percussion fuse means and an explosive charge
and having ends bent over the top of said tube
therein, an axial tail piece adapted for handling
and engaging said openings, and a band sur
the petard, a projecting annular rim forward of
rounding said arms and holding said bent ends
the petard de?ning a ?at impact face of substan
said openings.
tial cross¢section with respect to the petard, and 10 in
' 9. An explosive missile comprising a ?at front
an annular shock-deadening unit of low resilience
impact portion and a percussion ?ring means,
with respect to that of the petard ?xed to said
compressed spring means tending to move said
rim on an annular line concentric with said rim
percussion means to ?ring position, shearable
and extending forward thereof.
means holding said percussion means prior to im
2. A petard of the type designed for front ex 15 pact, spaced movable impact members on the
plosion as in claim 1 in which said shock-deaden
missile and an operative connection between said
ing unit comprises lead.
impact members and said percussion means, said
3. In an explosive missile having a faced im
operative connection arranged to disarm the per
pact portion with projecting annular rim onthe
cussion means from ?ring position after shearing
said portion, ,an annular shock-deadening mem 20 of said shearable means by impact unless or until
ber comprising a crown piece looped over and
the said impact means makes ?at contact with
enveloping the said rim, said member compris
a struck target.
ing a material of low resilience relative to the
10. A petard missile of the type designed for
material of the missile.
front explosion, comprising a body having a ?at
4. A petard missile of the type adapted for
impact portion and having an annular member
front explosion comprising a container having an
of material of low resilience with respect to that
opening and a planar impact portion de?ned by
of the missile secured to saidimpact portion and
a rim of the container at said opening, an ex
extending slightly beyond said portion, to e?ect
plosive charge in said container, a closure mem
sealing contact between said impact portion and
ber in said opening con?ning said explosive 30 a struck target, deaden the shock of said missile,
charge, and an annular shock-deadening unit of
and inhibit rebound, and impact ?ring means in
low resilience with respect to the material of said
said missile.
container on said rim only of said container and
11. A petard missile of the type adapted for
extending into the opening and overhanging said
front explosion comprising an explosive charge,
closure member.
5. An explosive missile having a rim-shaped
a handling portion for engagement with a pro
jector and a ?at faced front portion, an annular
impact portion and rear percussion ?ring means,
shock deadening unit of low resiliency relative to
said ?ring means comprising a universally
the material of the missile, for impact with a
mounted bolt, a recess therein, a primer adjacent
target, peripherally attached to and protruding
said recess and a ?ring pin in said recess, held 40 forward of said ?at faced portion, said shock
against spring pressure by a shearable pin, spaced
deadening unit being of a diameter substantially
longitudinal impact transmission members con
necting said impact portion and said bolt whereby ,
to swing said bolt recess out of alignment with
commensurate with the largest diameter of the
missile, and an impact ?ring means at the rear
45 of the missile.
said primer when less than all of said transmis
12. A petard missile of the type adapted for
sion members are actuated at impact.
front explosion, as in claim 11, wherein the shock
6. An explosive missile having a faced impact
deadening unit comprises lead.
portion, a spring member in the rear of said mis
13. In combination, a petard missile of the type
sile, a ?ring pin forward of said spring and shear
designed for front explosion comprising a hollow
able means holding‘ said ?ring pin against the
body containing an explosive charge and having
pressure of said spring, blocking means in ad
a front ?at faced end of substantial cross-sec
vance of said ?ring pin and movable into and
tional area, impact ?ring means in the base of
out of the path thereof and spaced members ex,
the missile‘ and an annular shock deadening unit
tending from the periphery of said faced impact
of low resiliency with respect to the material of
portion to the said blocking means and slidable
the missile on the front of the missile and of a
longitudinally relative to said missile to move said
diameter commensurate with that of the missile
blocking means at oblique impact of the missile.
adapted to seal the missile against the target‘
'7. An explosive missile as in claim, 6 wherein
upon impact of the missile. '
said blocking means comprises a ring with inside
diameter suf?cient to pass the ?ring pin and nor 60
mally surrounding the path of travel thereof.
8. In an explosive missile, a ?ring means com
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