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June 17, 1947.
D. K, DEAN
2,422,185
APPARATUS FOR DEODORIZATION OF ANIMAL OILS AND VEGETABLE OILS
Filed Aug. 20, 1%
33 Jar (kmm
INVENTOR
0/0” K. DEA/V
éb
ATTORSEY
Patented June 17, 1947
2,422,185
8
UNITED STATES PATENT orricr:
2.422.185
'
APPARATUS FOR DEODORIZATION‘ OF
ANmAL OILS AND VEGETABLE OILS
Dion K. Dean, ltahway, N. J., asslgnor to Foster
Wheeler Corporation, New York, N. Y., a cor
poration of New York
Application August 20, 1942, Serial No. 455,413
7 Claims.
.1
»
(0!. 23-262)
1
This invention relates: generally to the art of
proven highly successful since theyhave lacked
, re?ning oils, and more particularly pertains to an
the one desirable element inherent in the batch
system. namely, the initial release of the air and
improved process of, and apparatus tor, the con
tinuous deodorization of animal oils and vege
table oils such as cotton seed oil, corn oil, co
coanut oil and the like. The deodorization oi’
such‘ oils is mainly for the purpose oi’ producing
certain undesirable 'volatile constituents at low
temperature.
‘1
The present invention overcomes the aforemen
tioned disadvantages of‘prior practice by causing
certain edible products, although not necessarily
the raw oil which is to be deodorized, to pass con
tinuously through a preliminary deaerating
limited thereto. by the removal from the raw oil
oi’ dissolved air and other undesirable volatile 10 chamber before being heated at all, or before be
ing heated to a‘suiiicient temperature to cause
substances that would otherwise adversely eifect
the product with respect to color and taste, or
any adverse chemical sheet, to remove a portion
cause rapid deterioration.
ofthe vapors and especially the air before the
oil undergoes the high temperature treatment
Heretoiore, the generally accepted method of
deodorizing vegetable oils has been accomplished 16. necessary to complete deodorization. with this
method. steam consumption and operating costs
by the use of the batch system in which a tank
are reduced as compared with prior methods, and
is ?lled with a charge of cold raw oil, which is
the size of the apparatus required for carrying out
thereupon subiected ,to the desired operating
vacuum and then is heated by means of heating
the method is reduced and the cost thereof is cor
coiisrwithin the tank, while at the same time 20 respondingly less.
For a better understanding of the particular
stripping steam is forced through‘ the body of 011.
By this method, the temperature is gradually built
features that characterize the invention, refer
up to the maximum in the presence of vacuum,
ence may be had to the following description con
sidered in connection with‘ the accompanying
and consequently some of the volatile constituents
including air are released, and escape from the 25 drawing, in which the single ?gure is substantially
a vertical sectional view illustrating diagram
oil before it attains its maximum temperature.
matically a preferred form of apparatus for car
This is an advantage to the extent that the oil is
rying out the process of the invention.
not highly heated in the presence of oxygen and
Referring to the drawing, the column in com
thus tends to prevent oxidation. However, heat
ing the oil in bulk is a relatively slow process and 80 prises a comparatively small deaerating section
has the disadvantage that certain other chemical
ii and a main deodorizing section i2, the two sec
changes may take place as a result or the. ex
tions being separated by a division plate or parti
tended heating period. Moreover, only the top
tion It. The raw feed which may be either cold,
most part oi the oil is subjected to full vacuum
or moderately preheated in the heat exchanger
since all other portions of the body of oil are under 35 H, ?ows through conduit is to the deaerating
section Ii. From the upper portion of the de
some hydrostatic head. The action of the direct
aerating section the oil ?ows downwardly over a
stripping steam will. or course, cause a circulation
of the oil and thereby eventually bring all par
plurality of trays ‘l8, which may be bubble trays
ticles to the top surface, but this takes consider
although they are not so illustrated. If desired,
able time, in consequence of which the deodoriza 40 stripping steam may be injected into the lower
tion period is undesirably extended, with the ad
portion of the deaerating section through steam
verse results referred to.
‘
‘
connection i1. Steam and vapors and non-con
Various attempts have been made to make use
densible gases leave the deaerating section
through vapor line I8, and may either flow
of a continuous system of deodorization by heat
ing the raw oil and then exposing it successively 45 through the vapor line I 9 directly to the baromet
in relatively thin layers of large area to sub-at
ric condenser 20, or through the vapor line 2| to
mospheric pressure, while at the same time con
the suction end of the thermo-compressor 22,
tacting the oil with stripping steam, with the
located in the upper portion of the deodorizing
thought that complete deodorization might thus
section I2. These paths of flow are controlled by
be brought about in a much shorter period of 50 the valves 23 and 24, and it will be apparent that
time than would be the case with a batch system,
when valve 23 is closed and valve 24 is open the
thereby minimizing the deleterious chemical re
oil in the deaerating section will be subjected to a
actions produced by subjecting the body of the
higher vacuum than when the reverse is true due
oil to a prolonged high temperature heating.
to the action of the compressor 22. ‘Conduit l9
Generally, these continuous systems have not
and its valve 23 may be omitted if desired, in
2,488,185
which event the vapors and gases from the de
aerating section will pass through conduit II to
the deodorizing section and will be removed
therefrom by the steam Jet 22. Unvaporised oil
leaves the deareating section through conduit 28
and enters the heater 2| in which the oil is heated
to the temperature desired, and then is introduced
through connection 2'! into the deodorising sec
tion, where due to presence of a very high vacuum
produced by compressor 22. and the stripping 10
action of the steam admitted at II, the remain
ing undesirable volatile constituents are released
from the oil as it ?ows downwardly in relatively
thin streams over the bubble tray; 28 to the bot
tom of the column. The steam and vapors, and
non-condensible gases discharged by the com
pressor pass through vapor lines 22' and it to
the condenser 20 where steam and vapors are
condensed and properly disposed of, while the
non-condensibie vapors or gases, or both, are
withdrawn and eliminated by a two-stage air
pump comprising the inter-condenser Ill and the
after-condenser ii. The ?nished product is re
moved from the section l2 through conduit I2 by
pump it and ?ows either directly to storage
through conduits N and 35, or by the proper
adjustment of valves II and II, through the tubu
lar heat exchanger II in heat exchange relation
ship with the raw feed, thus utilizing valuable
heat that otherwise would be lost, although it will
be understood that the raw feed should not be
heated in excess of a moderate temperature.
Check valve 3| prevents the back ?ow oi’ any of
the ?nished product. when for any reason the
oil in the bottom of section II falls below the
operating level indicamd by the float control It.
the pump II is shut down. and the valve ‘I, which
admits operating steam to pump 3!, is closed.
Reference character ll designates generally a
boiler or vapor generator for a high boiling point
4
process and the arrangement of the component
partsofthesystemwillbereadiiyap
parent. Since a considerable volume of the air
and other volatile constituents will he released
from the raw oil, while cold or relatively cool, in
the deaerating section H by means of the vacuum
which can be produced therein either by the con
denser, or to a greater extent by the compressor,
it is obvious that the volume of volatiles remain
ingintheoiitobereieasedwmbesubstantially'
re
quiredofthemaindeodorinegwillbelesgln
consequence. materially less stripping steam will
reduced, and therefore the dut and capaci
be required. and the time during which it would
otherwise be necessary to subject the oil to high
temperature heating will be shortened, thus fur
ther preventing undesirable chemical reactions
and insuring the product against oxidation. Ad
ditionally, due to the fact that considerably less
stripping steam is used by the deodcriur than
would be the case it there were no preliminary
deaeration of the oil, the sine, and therefore the
cost of both the compressor and condenser, can
be reduced.
Itisto henotedthattheuseofstripplngsteam
in the decorating section is of only secondary im
portance. as normally either the moderate vac
uum imposed on the oil by the condenser or the
high vacuum produced by the compressor when
the valves 28 and 2| are properly adjusted, is suf
?cient to bring about the desired deaerating e?ect
as the oil ?ows downwardly from the inlet over
the trays I! to the bottom of the section.
Although an external heater is shown for the
oil as it iiows between the d
section and
thedeodorizer,andalsoanexternalheatex
changer for preheating the raw feed when de
sired, it is possible, and might in some cases be
liquid such as diphenyi, diphenyl oxide or an
equivalent, to be used as a heat transfer agent
or a heating medium for the oil ?owing from the
deaerating section to the deodorizer, and for su
a lower portion oi’ either section.
perheating the stripping steam used in the sys 45 This application is a continuation-in-part of
tem. Other heating methods may be employed if
desired. The boiler ll comprises an upper drum
‘2 and a lower drum 43 connected by banks of
heating tubes l4 and tubes ll. Heat is supplied
by burner 46 and the products of combustion, after 50
being directed over the heating surface by bailles
41. enter outlet due 48. Vapor from the boiler is
conducted by conduits 49 and II to the oil heater
28, and by the conduits l9 and ii to the steam
superheater 52. Both of these heaters are of the 55
shell and tube type, and the oil which ?ows
through the tubes in the heater I6, absorbs heat ,
from the vapors ?owing between said tubes and
the shell. The steam entering the superheater
fggziication Serial No. 129,980, ?led March 10,
It will be apparent that various other modi
ilcations maybe madeintheformoftlioap
paratus herein disclosed-and in thesteps of the
method herein
without departing from
thespiritoftheinventiomwbichisnottobe
clilmited excepting by the scope of theappended
Whatisclaimed is:
1. Apparatus for the continuous deodorization
of animal or vegetable oils comprising a column,
partition means for dividing the column inter
mediate its ends, a deaerating section above said
at II from any suitable source, is superheated in 00 partition means, a deodorizing section below said
a similar manner, and is then conducted by the
partition means, means for continuously intro
steam line II to the perforated discharge connec
ducing oil into the upper part of the deaeratins
tion 28 at the bottom of the deodorizer. Ii’ de
section, means for introducing steam into the
sired, the superheater I! may also be connected
lower part of the deaerating section for counter
by a steam line with the perforated steam dis 65 current contact with the oil introduced therein,
charge connection " in the deaerating section.
means for maintaining a vacuum in the decent
The steam ?ow through these lines may be con
ing section to cause air to be removed from the
trolled by valves, as indicated at 58, while the ?ow
oil ?owing through said section and to be re
of vapor to the oil heater 20 and superheater I2
moved from said section, a heater, a conduit
is controlled by the valves I8 and II respectively. 70 connected with the lower part or the deaerating
The vapor that has been cooled or condensed in
section and with the heater through which 011
the heaters is returned to the boiler by the con
is continuously withdrawn from the d
duits II and Ill and is reheated in a continuous
section and is conducted to the heater, another
cycle during normal operation.
conduit connecting the heater and the upper
The numerous advantages of this improved 75 part of the deodorizhig section through which
2,422,186
6
heated oil is delivered to the deodorizing section,
means for introducing steam into the lower part
of the deodorizing section for counter-current
contact with the heated oil introduced therein,
‘
,
heater through which oil is continuously with
drawn from the deaerating section and is con
ducted to the heater, means for vaporizing a
relatively high boiling point liquid, means for
conducting vapor of said liquid to said heater for
passage therein in indirect heat exchange rela
izing section, and means for continuously with
tionship with the oil therein, another conduit
drawing deodorized oil from the deodorizing
connecting the heater and the upper part of the
section.
deodorizing section through which heated oil is
2. Apparatus for the continuous deodorization
of animal or vegetable oils comprising a column, 10 delivered to the deodorizing section, means for
introducing steam into the lower part of the de
partition means for dividing the column inter
odorizing section for counter-current contact
mediate its ends, a deaerating section above said
with the heated oil introduced therein, a steam
partition means, a deodorizing section below said
jet having its suction connected with the upper
partition means, means for continuously intro
ducing oil into the upper part of the deaerating 15 part of the deodorizing section, a conduit con
meeting the upper part of the deaerating section
section, means for introducing steam into the
with the upper part of the deodorizing section. a
lower part of the deaerating section for counter
condenser, a conduit connecting the discharge of
current contact with the oil introduced therein,
the steam jet with the condenser, and means for
means for maintaining a vacuum in the deaerat
ing section to cause air to be removed from the 20 continuously withdrawing deodorized oil from the
_ deodorizing section.
oil ?owing through said section and to be re
5. Apparatus for the continuous deodorization
moved irom said section, a heater, a conduit
of animal or vegetable oils comprising a column,
connected with the lower part of the deaerating
partition means for dividing the column inter
section and with the heater through which oil
is continuously withdrawn from the deaerating 25 mediate its ends, a deaerating section above said
partition means, a deodorizlng section below said
section and is conducted to the heater, means
partition means, means for continuously intro
ior vaporizing a relatively high boiling point
ducing oil into the upper part of the deaerating
liquid, means for conducting vapor 0! said liquid
section, a heater, a conduit connected with the
to said heater for passage therein in indirect
heat exchange relationship with the oil therein, 30 lower part of the deaerating section and with
the heater through which oil is continuously
another conduit connecting the heater and the
withdrawn from the deaerating section and is
upper part of the deodorizing section through
conducted to the heater, another conduit con
which heated oil is delivered to the deodorizing
necting the heater and the upper part of the
section, means for introducing steam into the
deodorizing section through which heated oil is
lower part of the deodorizing section for counter
delivered to the deodorizing section, means for
current contact with the heated oil introduced
introducing steam into the lower part of the
therein, means for maintaining a vacuum in the
deodorizing section for counter-current contact
deodorizing section, and means for continuously
with the heated oil introduced therein, a steam
withdrawing deodorized oil from the deodorizing
means for maintaining a vacuum in the deodor
section.
3. Apparatus for the continuous deodorization
of animal or vegetable oils comprising a column,
partition means for dividing the column inter
mediate its ends, a deaerating section above said
40 jet having its suction connected with the upper
part of the deodorizing section, a conduit con
necting the upper part of the deaerating section
with the upper part of the deodorizingsection,
a condenser, a conduit for connecting said con
duit between the deaerating and deodorizing'sec
tions with the condenser, a valve for controlling
the last mentioned conduit, a valve for control
ling the conduit between the deaerating and de
section, a heater, a conduit connected with the
odorizing sections, a conduit connecting the dis
lower part of the deaerating section and with the
heater through which oil is continuously with 50 charge of the steam jet with the condenser, and
means for continuously withdrawing deodorized
drawn from the deaerating section and is con
oil from the deodorizing section.
ducted to the heater, another conduit connecting
6. Apparatus for the continuous deodorization
the heater and the upper part of the deodorizing
of animal or vegetable oils comprising a column,
section through which heated oil is delivered to
the deodorizing section, means for introducing 65 partition means for dividing the column inter
steam into the lower part of the deodorizing
mediate its ends, a deaerating section above said
partition means, a deodorizing section below said
section for counter-current contact with the
partition means, means for continuously introheated oil introduced therein, a steam jet having
ducing oil into the upper part of the deaerating
its suction connected with the upper part of the
deodorizing section, a conduit connecting the 60 section, a heater, a conduit connected with the
upper part oi! the deaerating section with the
lower part of the deaerating section and with
upper part of the deodorizing section, a. con
the heater through which 011 is continuously
denser, a conduit connecting the discharge of
withdrawn from the deaerating section and is
the steam jet with the condenser, and means
conducted to the heater, another conduit con
101' continuously withdrawing deodorized oil from 65 necting the heater and the upper part of the de
the deodorizing section.
odorizing section through which heated oil is
4. Apparatus for the continuous deodorization
delivered to the deodorizing section, means for
of animal or vegetable oils comprising a column,
introducing steam into the lower part of the
partition means for dividing the column interme
diate its ends, a deaerating section above said 70 deodorizing section for counter-current contact
partition means, a deodorizing section below said
partition means, means for continuously intro
ducing oil into the upper part or the deaerating
partition means, a deodorizing section below said
partition means, means for continuously intro
ducing oil into the upper part oi.’ the deaerating
section, a heater, a conduit connected with the
with the heated oil introduced therein, a steam
jet having its suction connected with the upper
part of the deodorizing section, a conduit con
necting the upper part of the deaerating section
lower part of the deaerating section and with the 75 with the upper part of the deodorizing section,
2,422, 1 8B
and means for continuously withdrawing deodor
ized oil from the deodorizing section.
7. Apparatus for the continuous deodorization
01’ animal or vegetable oils comprising a column,
partition means for dividing the column inter
mediate its ends. a deaerating section above said
partition means, a deodorizing section below said
partition means, means for continuously intro
ducing oil into the upper part of the deaerating
section, a heater. a conduit connected with the 10
lower part 01’ the deaerating section and with
8
introducing steam into the lower part of the
deodorizing section for counter-current contact
with the heated oil introduced therein. a steam
let having its suction connected with the upper
part of the deodorizing section, a conduit con
necting the upper part of the deaerating section
with the upper part oi the deodorizing section,
and means for continuously withdrawing deodor
ized oil from the deodorizing section.
DION K. DEAN.
the heater through which oil is continuously
REFERENCES CITED
withdrawn from the deaerating section and is
The
foliowing
references are of record in the
conducted to the heater, means for vaporizing a
relatively high boiling point liquid, means for 15 ?le of this patent:
conducting vapor of said liquid to said heater for
UNITED STATES PATENTS
passage therein in indirect heat exchange rela
Number
Name
Date
tionship with the oil therein, another conduit
1,592,112
Lamy-Torrilhon ___- July 13, 1926
connecting the heater and the upper part of the'
Graham ________ ___. June 5, 1934
deodorizing section through which heated oil is 20 1,961,211
2,000,886
Dow ____________ __ May 7, 1935
delivered to the deodorizing section, means for
2,136,774
Hickman _______ ___ Nov. 15. 1938
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