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Aug- 19, 1947-
w. K. SONNEMANN
2,426,062
DISTANCE~TYPE RELAY WITH CURRENT-COMPENSATED VOLTAGE RE-STRAINT
Filed Feb. 16, 1945
L
my:
WITNESSES:
m
M
72w 4. W
Fl. . x3.
INVENTOR
j
' W1‘ [Ham [1’. Sonnemcmn.
BY
WM
ATTORN EY
Patented Aug. 19, 1947
2,426,062
UNITED STATES PATENT orrice '
COMPENSATE-D VOLTAGE‘ ,RESTRAINT
- William/K. Sonnemann, RoselleiPark, “N. J.,,.as
signor to Westinghouse Electric =CQl3DQration,
,EastvPittsburgh, Pa., acorppration ofnr-lfennsyl
Vania
Application February 16, 1945, Serial'No. 578,263
1
. 4 Claims.
(01.1757234)
,2
My invention ‘relates toadjustable distance
type relays having modi?ed impedance charac_
teristics which, can be readily adjusted. vThis‘I'El
lay isadapted to bevutilizred on. alternating-cur
rent lines for the purpose of detecting faults 5
thereon.
Recent trends-‘in the .art of high-speed relay-
Justine, theleneth. of. the radius, of), the repente
circle, witholltssubstantially jaftectingthe posi
tion of the. centers of, the, circle,‘ while thegadjust
merits, of thevariab-le resistance andithe ,variawle
ordinates of the center o'fl'the ‘respQnSeLcircle,
reactancerrespectively ,controlthie‘R‘ andiXico
withoutfrnateri'ally affecting its radius;
ing for transmission lines, and more particularly
'
"
' ‘
‘ Ax'further'cbje‘ct' "of lmyinvention relates’ to- the
for the so-called long transmission lines, ,haVe
provision of means forbbthmeversing and ad
indicated the need for high-speed impedance re- 10 justingthe ‘magnitude. of “both the inL-phase and
lays having modi?ed characteristics, that is,'hav-
the outer-phase, components of, the currentere
ing predetermined directional, as well as impedance, characteristics. The response-circle, rep-
sponsive compensator, independently of veach
other, so that the .centercofsthe response-circle
resenting the locus of the line-impedance values
canlbe .readilylocated in anyposition in anyone
at the balance-point. ‘of such arelay, when plot- 15 of thetfour. quadrants.
'
ted on rectangular coordinates of the une-resistswiththeforcgoing ‘and, other lobiectsinuview,
ance R and the line-reactance X, will have a cenmy vinvention, cctnsists in the apparatus, ombina
ter which is, in general, displaced from the origin
,tions, systems, parts, , and methods er‘ 'nafter
and adjustable in position, anda radius which
is also adjustable in magnitude.
If these adjust-
describedanid claimed,‘ and illustrated-inlthefa'c
20
ments are properly calibrated, and of such na-
t'ompaaymggdrawmg,wherein=
'
' “ “
’ '
'
"
'lii‘igureglfisQaldiagrammatic?vicwpf.Pimtlits and
ture that they can, readily be made by the user
apparatus " ilIstrating the 'c'ohne “ ‘ lfo'r'iia
of the relay, they thusa?ord a means whereby
phase-A}. phaSe¥€aultfrelayembodyi g'iiryihyem
the particular exigencies of each protective sys-
use,‘
tem may be properly adjusted to the transmis- 25
' ‘
‘
'
"
"
@Fig. /2_ is a response-circle, diagram illustrating
sion system to which it applies.
the invention, and
An object of my invention is to provide a new
and improved means whereby these» adjustments
may be separately and independently made, so
"Fig. '3' is ‘a diagrammatic view of parts oflthe
energizing circuits, of. aTmodified form. of embodi
mentof my invention.
that a calibrated adjustment may be made as to 30
‘
"
'
" '
.In ,Fig. . 1, ;I,have;_i11ust_13ated.,n_1y inyentiomas
the circle-radius, or as to either the R or X 00ordinates of the centerof the circle, without sub-
beingapplied toi thejprotection ‘of, athree-phase
transmission line '5, the three phases of which
stantially changing the other two adjustments
or settings; or the position of the center may be
are ,indicatedat, A, ‘B and C. ‘The, line 5_ is."con
nectcd ,togavbus, B. My invention isusholwn, ,hy
?xed by independentlyadjusting the angle of the 35 wayjfofplillusjtration,‘as ap‘ ' 'd, we, phaseri’ault
line along whichlthe ‘center is .displacedfrom
reIayLs‘hQWn. at v,lhgfpr“ .lTESPOQdingjltogphasé?
the origin, ‘and theamount or distance of such
faults, ,or, ,more I accurately,‘ "faults
,vixng
displacementof
:A- further object
thelcenter
of my invention
from the isorigin.
to ‘provide
one
phasesuAfand
isll'qhlelayBot
.is illustrated,
the ‘transmission
as Ishsystem.
relays
l for
awrelay of the; differential type, that is, a relay 40 but ,asinglephase. j Ordinarily there‘lwo‘uld “be
having an‘ operating force and a restraining
sfeyeralx such rela'ys,,one ifzore'ach phase, andelso
force, and means for causing theoperating force
aivglTQllndrfaultfrelay, ,or else‘ some special phase
to be dependent solely‘upon the magnitude of the
sequence energizaition-meansl wherebya ‘single
line-current,but variable or adjustable ‘incl-ts ,rerelay is _made‘to respond to a plurality ofjtypes
sponse, while causing the restraining force to be 45 of faults on different phases, allofwhichtthings
responsive to a current-compensated linewolt-
are Well known in the art.
age, which is equal ,to the vectorial sumiof an alternating-current,functionof ajline-derived vo1t_
The relay 1. isintentl?dstqbe representative 01'
symbolic of any differential type 01‘ relay, by
'
'
‘
M
‘
' " "
age,an‘alternating-current‘function of a linewhich laymen-Meier.White-hasten;wanting
derived current times a variable resistance} or 50 forcecnposed- by a restraining- lfoxcer- ~-,-The par
itslequivalentvanaanalternatine-cu'rrent functicular differential-type relay 1 which ?is'shojwn
tionof aline-vderived current .timesaivaigiable' reactance, or its equivalent. The energizationof
the relayis suchthat the adjustability of the_e_p_
crating-force 'i'esp'onseia?ords a means for ad- 55
in Fig. 1 is of the balanced-beam type, having
an operating C011 01' Winding}, andliWO Split
phase restraining coils or windings 9 and l 0. The
magnetizing currents in the two restraint-wind
2,426,062
3
4
If the restraint-voltage ER is taken as the am
pere-turns on the restraint-side of the differen
tial relay ‘I, and if the current KI is taken as
ings 9 and ID are approximately 90° out of phase
with each other, this dephasing being accom
plished by means of a capacitor C in series with
the ampere-turns on the operating side of the
relay, then the balance-point condition occurs
when
the winding ID, the two windings 9 and It] being
energized in parallel from a common energizing
circuit having a voltage ER. This is a well-known
means for obtaining a substantially steady or
ER=KI'LB
(3)
non-pulsatory restraining~force for insuring the
where B is the angle by which the restraint-volt
proper operation of the relay.
age Ea leads the line-current i.
The relay 1 is illustrated as having a single 10
From the energizing circuit for the restraint
make-contact II on the operating end of the
beam. The relaying circuits which are controlled
windings 9 and H} in Fig. 1, it is seen that the
restraint-voltage ER is
by the make-contact H are not shown, as my
present invention relates primarily to the means
for controlling the closure of these contacts, 15
rather than the relaying system which is chosen
,.
R
.
E-KJZ',
RZR
Zl+ZR
.
ZR
(4)
Equating Equations 3 and 4, substituting
Ezl'ZZ from Equation 2, and rearranging the
to make use of the relay-contacts in the proper
protection of the transmission line 5.
.
_
The operating coil 8 of the relay is energized
by means of a line-derived current i which is
terms, we find
(5)
furnished by any suitable means such as line
current transformers 12. The restraining wind
ings 9 and ID are energized from a current-com
pensated line-derived voltage he. The restraint
whence the locus of the line-impedance Z'=R+9'X,
up to the fault, that is, at the balance-point of
the relay 1, is found to be
voltage ER is obtained from a line-derived volt
age
which is derived by any suitable means
(6)
such as a potential transformer l3, in series with
a compensator comprising an impedance Z1 which
If 21/28, is negligibly small, as compared to
is traversed by a function of the line-current, 3O unity, Equation 6 becomes, approximately,
produced by means of an auxiliary current-trans
former l4 connected in series with the current
supply for the operating coil 8. The auxiliary
which is a circle, as shown at H5 in Fig. 2, hav
current-transformer I4 has a primary-winding
ing a center (shown at C) which is displaced
35
tap K1, or other ratio-adjustment means where
from the origin 0 by a distance (impedance
by an adjustable current K11 is supplied to the
ohms)
impedance Z1. The impedance 21 consists of a
Z0=K1Z1
(a)
variable resistance R1 in series with a variable
reactance X1, the latter being indicated as an
and having a radius
inductive reactance, although it could be either
inductive or capacitive. The current-compens
ated voltage-responsive energizing-circuit for
Qo=K
producing the restraint-voltage Ea thus com
prises, in series-circuit relation, the line-derived 45 and
voltage-source E, the in-phase compensator
component KiiRi, and the out-of-phase com
pensator-component 7'K1'IX1. The combined im
pedances of the split-phase restraint-windings 50
(9)
The coordinates of the center C are
ROIKIR]
(10)
Xo=K1X1
(11)
The slope or angle S0 of the center-line Z0 is
9 and ID are indicated as Zn, and the total re
S0=tan”1—&=tan—1i!
straint-winding magnetizing-current is indicated
at in.
(12)
The distance by which the center C‘ is dis
placed from the origin 0 is
In Fig. 1, the magnetizing force or ampere
turns on the operating coil 8 are adjustable by 55
ZO=K1\/R%+Xi
(13>
means of a tap K on the operating coil 8, or by
In Fig. 2, the response-circle I5 is plotted on
any equivalent means, so that the operating force
rectangular coordinates representing the line-re
is responsive to the magnitude of the quantity KI.
sistance R and the line-reactance X, or y'X. If
The operating and restraining forces of my relay
P is any point in the circle I5, the line OP=Z
may be responsive to either the ?rst power, or 60 represents the line-impedance at the balance
the square, or any other power, of the respective
point of the relay. The relay will respond for
magnetic ?uxes on the two sides of the relay, or
any line-impedances terminating within the cir
the two ends of the balanced beam of the relay.
cle !5. For line-impedances terminating outside
If the line-current i, as applied to the relay 1,
of the circle 15, the restraining force of the relay
lags the line-voltage E by an angle 0, the line 65 exceeds the operating force, and the relay will
current may be written
not respond.
_ Equations '7, 8 and 9 show that the impedance
Z0 of the line-ohms up to the center C of the
circle I5 is substantially equal to K121, while the
The line-impedance Z'=R+7'X, or the line
circle-radius GP, or Q0, is substantially equal
ohms to the fault, in terms of the relay-quan
to the variable quantity or ratio K. These vari
titles E and l, is
ables are all substantially ‘independent of each
E
other.
‘
I
(2)
The complete expression for the radius Q0 of
in
2,426,062
the circle involves the expression (l-l-Z'1/Z'e),
which is not quite equal to'unity. In any practical
relay, the ratio Zi/ZR will actually be rather small
6
being responsive to any suitable line-derivedcur
rent l, and any suitable line-derived voltage E.
I have intended that this discussion should be
compared to unity. and it can be made as small
perfectly general. In the particular relay which
as may be desired. at the expense of a somewhat 5 is indicated in Fig. l, the response is to ‘the delta
increased burden on the current-transformers i2.
line-current IAe=iA—Is, and the delta line-Volt
In a practical relay-design for 115 volts. 60 cycles.
age EAB. It is to be understood, however, that
the restraint-circuit impedance ZR is of the order
any other lineiderived current and line-derived
of 12,000 ohms, whereas an impedance of the order
voltage might have been utilized.
or" 200 or 360 ohms will be ample for Z1 when used
Also, while I ‘have shown speci?c illustrative
with a suitable ratio K1. In the restraint-voltage
adjustment-means in Fig. 1, any equivalent ad
circuit, the effect of Z1 in producing a burden is
justment-devices might be utilized.
proportional to KiIZi, but in the current-circuit
In some cases, it may be desirable that the
of the line-current transformers E2, the effect of
effects of the variable resistance R1 and the vari
Z1 in producing an extra burden is proportional
able reactance X1 shall be separately adjustable
to K12I2Z1. It follows that an increase in Z1,
in sign or direction as well as in magnitude, each
accompanied by a corresponding decrease in K1,
independently of ‘the other, so that the circleretains the same effect in the voltage-circuit, but
center C may be readily located in any one of
reduces the burden in the current-circuit. The
the four quadrants of the rectangular systemof
impedance-values which I have suggested give
the coordinates R and X.
satisfactory operation, with an acceptable burden
on the current-transformers l 2, and with a negli
gible error in the length of the circle-radius, even
though the adjustable impedance Z1 is changed
from zero to its maximum value of 200 or 309
ohms.
There are several ways in which my invention
Thus, in Fig. 3, I have shown the inductanceaXi
as a ?xed secondary coil X1 of a mutual'r‘eactance
M, having a primary winding I 6. The line-de
rived current I is circulated through the primary
winding iii of the mutual reactor M, and also
through the primary winding I 1 of a transformer
E3, the secondary winding of which is connected
across the resistor R1. The primary'windings l6
can be utilized. Splitting the variable impedance
Z1 into its in-phase and out-of-phase components
and ll of the mutual reactor M and the trans
R1 and X1, it will be seen, from Equations 7 and 30 former it are provided with tap-blocks or other
tap~changing means for providing the adjustable
8, that the coordinates of the center C of the
response-circle [5 are as stated in Equations 10
taps it and 26 on the winding l6, and the adjust
able taps 2i and 22 on the winding I'I, so that
and 11, the R-coordinate being K1R1, and the
X-coordinate being K1X1. Thus, leaving the ad
the direction or current-?ow can be changed, at
justment K1 alone, on the auxiliary current-trans
will, in either one of these windings, as well as
the effective number of turns. Thus, while the
former M, the resistance R1 may be varied or
adjusted, in order to ?x the R-coordinate R0 of
resistor R1 in Fig. 3 and the reactor secondary
X1 in Fig. 3 may both be constant in magnitude,
the center, while the inductance X1 may be ad~
justed in order to independently ?x the X-coor
the impedance eiTects, or the effective imped
dinate X0 of the center. It will be readily seen
ances, of these elements may be changedyboth
in magnitude and in sign, by proper choice or
that these two adjustments could be calibrated
directly in line-ohms.
adjustment of the adjustable taps 19,120, 2| (and
The radius Q0 of the circle l5 can be controlled
by varying the relative magnitudes of the re
sponses of the operating force and the restraining
22.
force of the relay, with respect to the operating
?ux and the restraining flux, respectively. Thus,
in Equation 3, the variable K may be either re
tained, as K, on the right-hand side of the
equation, or it may be put in the left-hand side
of the equation as l/K. In the particular type
of relay shown in Fig. 1, it is more convenient
_ to adjust the ratio K on the operating end of the
relay, than it is to adjust the ratio l/K on the
restraint-end thereof, but it will be readily under
stood that either adjustment may be made. This
In Fig. 3, a network is shown-for utilizing ‘any
voltage-source E, which is applied to the net;
work—terminals 23 and 24, and for utilizingany
current-source I, which is applied to the network
terminals 25 and 26. The network produces a
current-compensated output-voltage ER, which
is produced across the output-terminals 21 and
23 of the network, while the current-circuit of
the network is opened at the output-terminals
29 and to, so that an operating current Io may be
circulated in any differentially responsive relay
mechanism, which is broadly indicated by the
rectangle 3| in Fig. 3.
The rectangle 3| in Fig. 3 is intended to be
representative of any relay circuit, or combina
the radius of the response-circle 15, without
tion, or means, which compares magnitudes of
affecting any other characteristic of the relay, so
that this adjustment can be calibrated directly in 60 two electrical quantities, which have been indi
cated, for convenience in reference, as an operat
line~ohms, if desired.
ing current In and a restraining voltage ER, al
There are other ways in which my novel ad
though both quantities might be voltages, or both
justment-means may be utilized. Thus, as shown
currents, or any other electrical quantity. The
by Equation 13, the center-displacement is simply
relay 3! has a relay-contact which is symbolically
the distance Z0, which can be controlled by vary
indicated at 32 in Fig. 3, corresponding to the
ing the ratio K1 of the auxiliary current-trans
relay-contact I I in Fig. 1.
former l4, while keeping the magnitude of the
While I have shown my invention in two dif
impedance Z1 constant. The angle So of the
ferent illustrative forms of embodiment, I wish
center-line Z0 can then be changed, as indicated
provides an easy way of independently adjusting
by Equation 12, by changing- the phase-angle of 70 it to be understood that my invention is suscep
tible of considerable modi?cation, by way of a1
the impedance Z1, without changing its magni
terations,
substitutions, additions, and subtrac
tude Z1.
tions, without departing from some of the es
In the foregoing discussion and explanation of
sential features of the invention. I desire, there
my invention, I have described my invention as 75 fore, that the appended claims shall be accorded
2,426,062
7
the broadest construction consistent with their
language.
I claim as my invention:
1. An adjustable distance-type relay having an
operating-circuit means, for producing an oper
ating force responsive to the amount of energiza
tion of the operating circuit; a restraint-circuit
means, for producing a restraining force respon
sive to the amount of energization of the re
8
sponsive to the amount of energization of the
restraint circuit; current-responsive energizing
circuit means, for energizing the operating-circuit
means so as to be exclusively responsive to a line
derived current; current-compensated voltage
responsive energizing-circuit means for energiz
ing the restraint-circuit means, including an al
ternating-current source of a line~derived volt~
age, a serially connected resistance, and a serially
straint circuit; current-responsive energizing
connected inductance, a reversible and variable
circuit means, for energizing the operating-circuit
ratio transformer-means associated with said re
sistance, a separate reversible and variable-ratio
means associated with said inductance, and a
means so as to be exclusively responsive to a line
derived current; current-compensated voltage
variable alternating-current source of a line-de
responsive energizing-circuit means, including a
resistance, an inductance, a reversible and varia 15 rived current associated with said reversible and
variable-ratio means for energizing both said re
ble-ratio transformer-means associated with said
sistance and said inductance; and means for vary
resistance, and a separate reversible and variable
ing the relative magnitudes of the responses of
ratio means associated with said inductance, for
the operating force and the restraining force.
energizing the restraint-circuit means in response
4. An adjustable distance-type relay having an
to the vectorial sum of an alternating-current 20
operating-circuit means, for producing an oper
function of a line-derived voltage, an alternating
ating force responsive to the amount of energi
current function of a line-derived current times
zation of the operating circuit; a restraint-cin
said resistance, and an alternating-current func
cuit means, for producing a restraining force re~
tion of a line-derived current times said react
ance; and means for varying the relative magni 25 sponsive to the amount or energization of the
restraint circuit; current-responsive energizing
tudes of the responses of the operating force and
circuit means, for energizing the operating-circuit
the restraining force.
means so as to be exclusively responsive to a line2. An adjustable distance-type relay having an
derived current; current-compensated voltage~
operating-circuit means, for producing an oper
ating force responsive to the amount of encrgi~ 30 responsive energizing-circuit means for energiz
ing the restraint-circuit means, including an al
zation of the operating circuit; a restraint-circuit
ternating-current source of a line-derived volt
age, a serially connected resistance, and a serial
means, for producing a restraining force respon~
sive to the amount of'energization of the restraint
ly connected inductance, a reversible and variable
current-responsive energizing-circuit
means, for energizing the operating-circuit means 35 ratio transformer-means associated with said re
sistance, a separate reversible and variable-ratio
so as to be exclusively responsive to a line-de—
circuit;
means associated with said inductance, and a
variable alternating-current source of a line-tie»
rived current; current-compensated voltage-re
sponsive energizing-circuit means, including a re
sistance, an inductance, a reversible and varia
rived current associated with said reversible and
ble-ratio transformer-means associated with said 40 variable-ratio means for energizing both said re
sistance and said inductance; and means for
resistance, and a separate reversible and varia
varying the magnitude of the response of the
ble-ratio means associated with said inductance,
operating force.
for energizing the restraint-circuit means in re
sponse to the vectorial sum of an alternating
current function of a line-derived‘ voltage, an al
ternating-current function of a line-derived cur
45
WILLIAM K. SONNEMANN.
REFERENCES CITED
rent times said resistance, and an alternating
current function of a line-derived current times
The following references are of record in the
said reactance; and means for varying the mag
?le of this patent:
nitude of the response of the operating force.
3. An adjustable distance-type relay having an
UNITED STATES PATENTS
operating~circuit means, for producing an op
Number
Name
Date
erating i'orce responsive to the amount of ener
Goldsborough ____ __ July 10, 1945
gization of the operating circuit; a restraint-cir 55 2,380,164
2,393,983
Goldsborough _____ __ Feb. 5, 1946
cuit means, for producing a restraining force re~
‘
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