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SePt- 15, 1947
Filed Aug. 8, 1942
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
/7 22
) a/
Sept 15, 1947.
Filed Aug” 8. 1942
3 Sheets-$21991’. I5
i l lh
Patented Sept. 16, 1947
' 2,427,549
Bert G'. Carlson, Gates Mills, Ohio, assignor to
- The Weatherhead Company, Cleveland, Ohio,
\ a corporation of Ohio
I vApplication August 8, 1942, Serial No. 454,155
2 Claims.
(Cl. 114-144)
In the drawings accompanying and forming a
part of this speci?cation and in which certain
embodiments and modifications of the present in
This invention relates generally to gyroscopic
‘ devices, and more particularly to an automatic
pilot, including a gyroscope of the two degree
freedom type.
vention are disclosed,
Heretofore the rotors of gyroscopes have been
rotated by means of air orl electricity. These
rotors had to be balanced both statically and dy
namically, particularly where they were to ro
Figure 1 shows diagrammatically an embodi
ment of present direction control apparatus for a
single direction control member of a ship;
Figure 2 is a central, longitudinal, cross-sec
tate at the higher speeds. The work of dynami
cally balancing the rotors was tedious, time-con
which the rotor is actuated by liquid traveling at
tional view thru a gyroscope of this invention in
suming and expensive, and even when it was
high velocity.
carefully done the rotor was only approximately
Figure 3 is a transverse view, partly in section,
taken on lines 3-3 of Fig. 2;
in balance.
This dynamic balancing may be
avoided by the present invention even when the
rotors are to rotate at the highest speeds. Brie?y
Figure 4 is a transverse sectional view taken on
line 4-4 of Fig. 2;
Figure 5 is a transverse sectional view taken on
stated, this result is obtained by employing a
liquid traveling at high velocity to rotate the rotor
line 5-5 of Fig 2;
Figure 6 is a longitudinal sectional view, partly
of the gyroscope.
In-each of the manyautomatic pilots which
in elevation, of the auto by-pass of Fig. 1; and,
gyro. That is, whether the ring precessed only
with ships of various kinds, for example. boats.
submarines, torpedoes and airplanes. The by
have been used heretofore and of which I am ad 20 Figure 7 is a diagrammatic view similar to Fig.
1 but including means for controlling three dif
vised a relay of some kind was disposed between
ferent direction control members of a ship.
the gyroscope and the direction control member,
Figure 1 shows diagrammatically the combina- '
and this relay actuated the direction control
tion of a hydraulic system and steering mecha
member at a constant rate regardless of the
nism embodying the present invention for use
amount of precession of the gimbal ring of the
a small amount or the maximum amount the
relay actuatedv the direction control member at
the one rate. This rate of actuation made the
action of the pilot quite sluggish and unsatisfac
tory. Furthermore, the actuation of the direc
tion control mechanism was not proportional to
the precession of the ring. When the ring pre
draulic system of Fig. 1 comprises a tank, a pump
' and piping leading to and from the tank. The
30 steering control mechanism includes a gyroscope.
a servo-motor, a steering member, a valvefand
pipe lines.
In the hydraulic system of Fig. 1, tank A is pro
vided as a reservoir for liquid. Pipe line B con
cessed only a small amount and remained in that
position a long time the relay actuated the di 35 nects tank A with pump C, which in turn is con»
nected to pipe line D, which'has several outlets.
rection control mechanism to the maximum ex
One outlet is thru pressure regulator E to tank A.
tent. Similarly, if the ring precessecl to its max
Another outlet is thru a nozzle (Fig. 2) of the
imum extent and retained that position only for
gyroscope assembly F from which assembly liq
a short time, the relay would not actuate the
direction control member to the maximum extent. 40 uid may return to tank A thru pipe line G. An
other outlet from pipe D is thru the valve (Figs.
2, 4'and 5) of the gyroscopeassembly F to pipe
This failure to actuate the direction control
mechanism at a rate‘ and to an extent‘ propor
line G and also pipe lines H and I which are con
tionate to the precession of the ring made unsat
isfactory the operation or the prior automatic . nected with opposite ends of servo-motor J by
pilots of the two degree freedom type with which 45 way of auto by-pass K. Another outlet from pipe
line D is thru line L to the cylinder of auto by
I am familiar.
pass K and thru valve M to pipe line B by way of
The present invention dispenses with the re-_
lines N. ‘
lays which prior workers in the art apparently
The parts comprising the direction control
considered to be essential and provides apparatus
by which not only the expensive dynamic bal 50' mechanism, above brie?y described, can now be
described in some detail. In Fig. 1, F designates
ancing of the rotor may be avoided but also makes
a gyroscope assembly,-the details of which are
it possible to actuatethe direction control ap
better shown in Figs. 2 to 5 inclusive. This as
paratus at a rate and to an extent which are pro
sembly, as shown, consists of a housing composed
portional to the extent of rotation of the ring of
the gyroscope.
of. a base or bottom I, side walls 2, end walls 3
2,427,349 *
and a top wall 4.
This housing may be supported
on s, r0 1 screw-threaded in opening 6 in base I
or on a pipe screw-threaded into that opening
1 ‘and connectingjw'ith the interior or tank A.
other suitable means or mounting the housing
may be employed.
Within the housing a pair or brackets 6 sup
port, on bearings, .the gimbal ring ‘I of a gyroscope,
which ring rotatably supports the rotor 8 or the
I opposite ends of the endwise movable member 44
which may slide in either direction in housing
44. The slide member 43 is rod-like in shape with
enlarged cylindrical portions 45 thereon on On
posite sides of its transverse center line and with
other mutilated cylindrical portions 46 between
portions 45 and the ends of the member 43. The
housing 44 is open at each end and its interior
has circumferential recesses. as at 41. said re
gyroscope. ' A nozzle e is connected to base I of 10 cesses communicating thru passages in the hous
the housing with the interior or the nomle com
municating thru passage it in base i with pipe
"D of the hydraulic system. The outlet ii irom
ing with pipe lines H and I respectively. The
space in housing u between recesses 47 com
municates thru a passage 48 with passage In in
nozzle 9 is so disposed as to direct a stream of
the base of the gyroscope housing and thus com
liquid more or less tangentially against the 15 municates with pipe line D.
periphery of rotor 8 and engageable with notches
When the ring ‘I of the gyroscope is precessed. 7
thereon (not shown) for rotating the rotor. At
as by deviation from a straight course or is ro
one end of the shai’t-like extension 62 of gimbal
tated either manually or electrically by energizing
ring 7 is attached a bracket is by means oi’ a
coil so or 3i. bracket t8 rotates with ring It and
' screw it} which iseconnected to a spring i t. This Mi pin 87 shifts yoke so in the direction of rotation
spring is attached at its other end to an interiorly
of ring 7. Assuming that ring ‘i is rotated (by
threaded block it which'has screw-threaded en
gagement with a rod ll rotatably mounted in the
whatever means) so that yoke ‘it is shifted to
the left in Figs. 3 and 5, member 68 is moved end
opposite side walls 2 of the housing and provided
wise toward the left. thereby shifting the left
with a hand knob it outside of one or those walls. 25 hand cylindrical portion t5 to open the adjacent
The rod i? may be turned by knob it and the
recess 137 to communicate with passage tie and to
' block it may thereby be shifted lengthwise of the
open the righthand recess ill to communicate
rod. A compression spring it disposed between '
with the'interior oi the gyroscope housing thru a
the bearing block it) on the inside oi’ one wall 2
the open end oi member 4363. With the parts in
and a washer 28 hearing against an adjacent
thatpcnition fluid under pressure may flow thru
shoulder on the rod it serves to prevent length
passage lit and into the lefthand recess tit and
wise movement of rod iii by pressing a collar
thence thru pipe line H. At the same time liquid
in pipe line I may escape thru the righthand re
against bearing block 28 on the other sidewall 2
of the housing.
cess ti and out thru the open end of member iiél.
The function or spring to is to return the ring 35 In doing so the liquid engages with the mutilated
member 45 near the righthand end of member 43
tov its neutral position from positions on either
side thereof and to exert forces on the ring which
and due to frictional drag tends to move the
member 43 back to the position shown in‘Fig. 5.
oppose movement of the ring from its neutral po
Liquid ?owing out of the end of housing lit into
sition and which increase progressively as the ex
tent of such movement increases. The spring 40 the interior of the gyroscope housing may escape
thru passage 49 which communicates with-pipe
should not exert any substantial retarding forces
G of Fig. 1.
on the ring in its neutral position for there the
In Fig. 6 the auto by-pass K of Fig. 1 is shown
ring should ?oat freely.
as consisting of a. cylinder 50 which constitutes
Bracket it is also provided with a. downwardly
extending arm terminating in a spherical end 25 45 a connection between the two parts of pipe line
H and also between the two parts of pipe line I.
which has a limited amount of free movement in
The interior of the cylinder St is provided with
one plane in aperture it of solenoid armature 2?.
a. plunger Iii which has an intermediate piston
The armature 21 includes oppositely extending
arms 28 and 29, projecting respectively into
52 and two end pistons 58 thereon. One end of
electrical coils 3t and ti. When coil it is en 50 the cylinder 6t communicates thru pipe line L
with pipe D so that when liquid under pressure
ergized the arm 28 of the armature is drawn into
enters cylinder 60 thru line L it moves plunger
the coil and a wall of opening is engages ball 25
moving it with the armature and thereby rotating
the gimbal ring 1 against the tension a?orded by
spring iii. When coil at is tie-energized spring
i5 contracts and returns ball as and the arma
ture ii to their respective original positions. A
similar operation takes-place when coil 35 is en
ergized and de-energized. By adjusting the po
5! toward the right to approximately the posi
tion shown in Fig. 6. and compresses spring as
— which is disposed between the opposite end of
cylinder to and the adjacent end of piston 53..
With the plunger bi in the position shown in
Fig. o, ?uid may ?ow from one part‘ of pipe H
thru the by-pass to the other part of that pipe
sition of block it on rod i? the position of ball 60 and into the servoemotor cylinder J and may also
?ow from that cylinder to one part of the pipe I
25 may be shifted to either side from its position
shown. in Fig. 4, thereby precessing the ring "i a _ thru the by-pass and into the other part of pipe
corresponding amount.
I. When the ?uid pressure in lineL is diminished
Coils 30 and 3| may be separately energized I ' or removed, as by opening valve M, spring 54
I by passing direct current from a source Q thru a 65 moves plunger 5| endwise until the space be
switch R and then thru either leads 32 or 33 and ' tween piston 52 and the rig'hthand piston 53 com
back to Q thru the return head 34, as is better
municates with and connects both ends of both
shown in Figs. 1 and 4;. I
pipes H and I. The piston 53 carries a packing
ring 65 to prevent passage of ?uid into the space
The other shaft-like extension 35 of rotor ‘I
carries at its outer end a disc-like bracket 36 pro 70 in which spring 54 is located. Drain opening 56
vided with a pin 31 in the lower portion thereof. _ is provided in cylinder 50 to permit the escape
of any liquid which enters the space occupied by
This pin has an enlarged head [8 and carries a.
spring 64.
washer 39. A yoke 40 has upstanding prongs 4!
which are disposed on opposite sides of pin 31 be
The servo-motor J is of standard. well known
tween head 88 and washer 39 which engage the 76 construction and consists of a cylinder 80 having
. a
a piston 6| therein and connected to a shaft 62.
Pipe line H is connected to one end of cylinder 80
while line I is connected ‘to the other end, so that
liquid under pressure in one of these lines may
be delivered into the cylinder on one side of pis
ton ii to move the pistontl toward the other
end of the cylinder with coincident flow of liq
uid out of the latter end of the cylinder into
either line vH or I, as the case may be. The rod
~ J may be connected in any well known manner 10
to a steering, member, such as pivotally mounted
rudder, aileron or elevator, as by any suitable
means such as the clevis 83.
spondingly shifted and the rudder will be corre
spondingly turned. Since various factors, such
as the torsional effect of the boat propelling
screw, ‘the effect of waves, or the shifting of
weight in the boat will cause processing of the
gyro ring in one direction or another, the ring is
almost constantly precessing in one direction or
the other and consequently the rudder is being
almost continually pivoted in accordaJnce with
such precessing. However. such precessing of
the ring is usually slight in amount and conse
quently the course along which the boat is pro
pelled is substantially straight.
If at any time it be desired to change the
stalled in a boat and is to operate automatically 15 course of ‘the ship this may be done by energiz
ing the appropriate coil 3" or SI and thereby ro
to move the rudder about its pivot to maintain
tating ring ‘I in the desired direction and thereby
the boat on a substantially straight course, the
pivoting the rudder to bring the ship onto the
operation of the apparatus of Fig. 1 is substan
new desired course. When the ship has been
tially as follows: The valve M is closed so that
liquid cannot pass therethru and the pump C is 20 brought onto that course the coil is deenergized,
after which the gyro takes .and maintains control
actuated to build up and maintain liquid pres
as above described until it is again rotated man
sure in line D; Liquid is continuously discharged
ually or electrically.
from pipe D thru passage l0 and outlet »H of
If it should be desired to ‘steer the boat me
nozzle 9 against the periphery of gyro rotor 8,
chanically for a time, the yalve M may be opened.
thereby rotating the latter. The speedaof rota
= thereby relieving the pressure in line L and per
tion of rotor 8 will depend on the pressure ex
erted on the liquid in line D and on the velocity V mitting the spring 54 to expand so that both ends
of lines H and I will be connected in cylinder 50.
of the liquid discharged from nozzle 9. When that condition exists the rudder may be
So long as gyro ring 1 remains in substantially
the position shown in Figs. 2, 3 and 5, that is in 30 freely pivoted mechanically because the liquid
pressure on opposite sidesof piston 6| in cylinder
approximately neutral position, valve member 43
80 is equal and thus the piston may be moved
will remain in substantially the position shown
Assuming that. the apparatus of Fig. 1 is in
freely in its cylinder and ?uid can ?ow readily
thru lines H and I from one side of the piston to
der pressure in passage 48 and between cylindri
cal portions 45 on that valve member, there willv 85 the other side when the steering member pivoted
to shaft 62 is actuated by manual means.
be substantially no flow of such liquid into either
. In Fig. '1 I have shown diagrammatically appai
pipe line H or I. The liquid pressure in line L
ratus which embodies the present invention and
will maintain the plunger 53 of the auto by-pass
which is suited for controlling a rudder, an aileron
in substantially the position shown in Fig. 6 and
there will be substantially the same liquid pres 40 and. an elevator of an airplane. As in Fig. l,
I this apparatus consists of a hydraulic system.
sure on opposite sides of plunger 6| in cylinder
including the general parts thereof as described
80 of the servo-motor, with'the result that the
above, but unlike Fig. 1, which shows only one‘
rudder will be maintained in one position. .
direction control unit. this apparatus includes a
When, however, the gyro ring ‘I precesses or is
rotated in either direction the valve member“ 45 plurality of direction controlling mechanism
units. Each of these units is constructed sub
will be shifted to a corresponding extent, there
stantially as described in connection with Fig. 1.
by permitting liquid under pressure to flow from
Accordingly, it will-be understood that the parts
passage 48 into either pipe line H or I, as the case
of Fig. '7 which bear reference letters or numerals
may be, and thence thru by-pass K into one end
or the other of cylinder 60 where it will move the 50 are substantially the same in construction and
operation as the correspondingly identi?ed parts
piston '6l in a corresponding direction and shift
of Fig. 1. It will be noted that between tank A
‘ the rudder from its initial position at a rate and
in Figs. 3 and 5 and altho there will be liquid un- ,
to an extent proportional to the extent of pre- '
and pump 0 in Fig. 7 an oil filter 0 is inter
posed. It will also be noted that the gyro units
cessing of the gyro ring ‘I. While liquid is ?ow
ing from passage 48 into one recess 41. liquid will 55 F of Fig. 7 are positioned differently so as to
locate the gyro ring in the plane which is proper
also be ?owing from the other recess 41 and past
for control of the particular steering member
the adiacentmultilated portion 48. This ?ow
with which it is associated. For example, the
tends to restore valve 43 to its initial position.
lefthand gyro assembly is positioned with its
At the‘same time spring I5 tends to return the
ring to neutral position and thereby to restore 60 ring in a horizontal plane and the axis of the
ring extending along the fore and aft line of the
the valve to its neutral or initial position. The
ship for control of the rudder; the middle gyro
action of the gyro itself also tends to return the
assembly is positioned with the gyro ring in a
ring to its neutral position and thereby to restore
the valve to its neutral position. As a result of ' vertical plane and with the axis of‘ the ring
extending transversely of the, fore and aft line
these three simultaneously acting forces the rud
of the ship for control of an aileron. and the
der is locked in its new position as soon as the
' righthand gyro assembly is positioned with the
ring is returned to its neutral position and re
gyro ring in a vertical plane and with the ring
axis extending fore and aft of the ship to control
rotation of the ring by precession or by being r0.
tated. If, however, the ring is returned to a 70 an elevator.
I have found that it is not necessary to balance
point beyond its initial or neutral position the,
dynamically the rotor of a gyroscope of the two
valve 43 will be shifted correspondingly and high
degree freedom type when the rotor is to he
pressure liquid will ?ow from passage 48 thru the
propelled by a liquid, preferably oil. Apparently >
thereby opened line H or I, as the case may be.
the liquid clings to the periphery of the rotor and
with the result that the piston 6| will be corre
mains there until shifted as a result of another
compensates for any lack 0! dynamic balance
of the rotor. I have successfully operated such
gyros provided with rotors which had been static
direction control member connected for actuation
to said motor, means including a\\source.ot liquid
under pressure, for rotating said rotor, said
ally. but not dynamically, balanced and have
liquid being oi’ such- a nature as to cling to and
found that when‘ these rotors were rotated by
improve the dynamic balance of said rotor. means '
means of liquid traveling at high velocity the
to direct‘ such’ liquid against- the periphery 0!
rotors seem to run as smoothly as it they had
said rotor to rotate the latter, andmeans for
been dynamically balanced within close limits. 4
actuating said member including an endwise
Rotdr actuating liquids of various kinds may
movable valve for selectively and progressively
be used provided they have the property of cling 10 connecting said source with either side of said
ing'to the periphery of the rotor and improving
motor and means movable endwise by rotation of
its dynamic balance. It will be understood that
the ring for shifting said valve endwise at a rate
the amount of unbalance largely determines the
and to an extent proportionate to the extent of
viscosity oi‘ the liquid which may be used. for
rotation of said ring.
when the amount ‘01' unbalance is small liquids
v2. Control apparatus comprising a gyroscope
with low viscosity, such as water, alcohol and the
oi’ the two degree freedom type including a rotat
like, may be used, while liquids of greater viscosity,
able ring and a rotor, a servo-motor. a direction
such as 'SAE-lO to SAE-40 lubricating oils may
control member actuated by said motor. and
means including a source, of liquid under pres
be required when the amount of unbalance is
large. Other factors to be considered in select 20 sure for rotating said rotor and actuating said’
ing a liquid are the speed of the rotor and the
motor, said liquid being of such a nature as to
preservation of the bearings and pivots against
cling to said rotor and improve the dynamic
wear and corrosion. Many rotors do not exceed
balance thereof. said means including a nozzle
disposed to direct said liquid at high velocity
about 2” in diameter and have speeds of about
10,000 R. P. M. Any of the foregoing liquids may 25 against the periphery of said rotor, and a slide
. be used with such a rotor, dependent of course
valve movable endwise by rotation of said ring for
on the amount of unbalance. When it is im
admitting said liquid under pressure into one side
or the other of said motor.
portant to prevent corrosion or wear of the bear
ings and pivots a lubricating oil should be used
instead‘oi water, alcohol or some other liquid 80
which would not prevent corrosion. I have been
able to reduce the unbalance of a 2" rotor oper
ating at 10,000 R. P. M. from 100 microounce
The following references are of record in the
inch to about 5 microounce inch, using water as
file of this patent:
the liquid, and have reduced the unbalance of 35
such a rotor from 500 microounce inch to 5
microounce inch, using SAE-20 lubricating oil.
These illustrations will show the wide range of
Weinkau? ..-.. ____ -- Feb. 10, 1942
liquids which may be used under varying condi
‘ Carlson __________ __ Apr. 2, 1940
tions to improve the dynamic balance of a rotor
Carlson _; ______ __‘_ July 27, 1943
according» to this invention.
MacFarlane et al. _- June 21, 1921
Having thus described my invention so that
others skilled in the art may be able to understand
' and practice the same, I state that what I desire
to secure by Letters Patent is de?ned in what is 45
What is claimed is:
1. Control apparatus comprising a gyroscope
oi the two degree freedom type and‘including a
rotatable ring and a rotor, a servo-motor, a 60 - 501,945
, Moller __________ .... Aug. 13, 1995
Colvin n--. _____ .._ July 13,
Brown ____________ __ Oct. 2,
Bardsley _.'. ______ __ Nov. 28,
'Carlson' _________ __ May 21,
’ Date
Great Britain ____ .._ Mar. 8,1939
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