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Jamzo, 194s.
`
R G, PETERSÓN
>2,434,673
DOCKING STRUT
Filed -May- 5, 1945
>
INVENTOR.
v
RALFI-.gyû _FETERSDN
MPM
2,434,673
Patented Jan. 20, 1948
UN ITEÍD STATES PATENT CFFICE
2,434,673
DOCKING'STRUT
'Ralph G. Peterson, Long Beach, Calif.
Application May «5, .1945, Serial No. `592,154
9 Claims.
(Cl. (i1-48,)
Y(Granted -under the act of March 3, 1883, as
amended April 30, 1928; 370 O. G. 757)
l
This invention relates `to ’docking struts and
more particularly -to those designed 'to prevent
damage to carrier type vessels.
Heretofore, -the 4docking of an Vaircraft ‘carrier
or carrier type vessel lhas created a ,problem inV
spacing or fending ‘the vesseladistance sufficient
to prevent the overhanging superstructure, such
2
Fig. 2 is an enlarged plan View of one of the
docking struts, showing its details of construction
`andits connection to the camel logs.
Referring more in detail to the drawing:
In Fig. 1, the numeral I designates the usual
upright fender piles of a pier (not shown) which
have generally cylindrical timbers or members 2,
of wood and commonly referred to as camel logs,
fastened thereto at approximately the water line
as the flight deck and gun platforms, from in
terfering with the movement of >cranes -and other
Yequipment on the pier >and to ‘prevent damage to 10 so as to float and be self-supporting. The mem
said superstructure by 'such equipment.
Although target rafts, solid timber floats and
similar means have been employed in attempts
to accomplish the desired spacing or tending >of
the vessel from the wpien'rrone have been success
ful clue to the rigidity of such fenders, their cost
and cumbersomeness aswell >as the inherent diñi«
culties encountered in positioning and securing
the same.
-bers 2 are disposed horizontally in axial align
ment and are preferably spaced a slight distance
from each other. A plurality of docking struts or
assemblies 3, preferably three in number, are
adapted to be fastened to the members 2 and pro
ject laterally therefrom for spacing or fending
the hull `of a vessel of carrier or other type from
the pier 'a distance sufficient to prevent damage
to the overhanging superstructure of the vessel
The principal »objects of the present inventi-on 20 such as the flight deck and gun platforms of an
aircraft carrier, aswell as to prevent such super~
are therefore, to provide an improved docking
structure from interfering with the movement of
strut for fen'ding or spacing a Vcarrier type -or
cranes and other equipment upon the pier.
other vessel having an overhanging superstruc~
Manifestly, the quantity of the struts or assem
ture a -sufñcient distance from a »pier to prevent
damage to the superstructure .and to eliminate 25 blies is not critica-l and, in some instances, it
`interference with the movement of cranes land
other equipment upon the pier-by said superstruc
- ture, while permitting `movement of the vessel
without damage to the same -or the :strut: ‘to
might be desirable to employ a greater or fewer
number of the same.
As is clearly shown in Fig. 2, each 4strut or as
sembly 3 preferably includes a pair of horizontal
provide an improved docking struthavi-ng .limited 30 elements or arms fl, of any suitable material, hav
ing their outer ends converging and pivotally
flexibility so as to be capable of movement ‘with
connected to a clamping bracket 5 by pivot pins
a `docked vessel relative tothe pier; »to provide an
improved docking .strut which is `so constructed
6 which are suitably mounted in the bracket ad
jacent each end thereof. A similar clamping
as to distribute the loads imposed by excessive '
shifting of the Ivessel over la considerable area 'of 35 bracket or plate 1 is pivotally connected by a pivot
the pier or upon a number of its fender piles; to
provide an improved docking vstrut 'having an
adjustable bearing surface so yaste conform to
the shape ‘of the hull Íof >the docked vessel, lthere
pin 8 to the inner end of each arm 4 for securing
the same to one of the members 2. Each plate l
is of relatively short length and is disposed con
tiguously to the outer lateral portion of its respec-by preventing Adamage to fsaid hull; to provide ¿an 40 *tive member 2, preferably being connected there
to by a pair of tie bolts 9 and encircling wire lines
improved `docking V'strut which 4may-be >readily
l0 which are disposed at the ends of the plate. if
Amoved into and out offending position tojpermlt
desired, the member 2 may be recessed or cut
the docking :of allltypes of vessels; and topro
away as shown by the >numeral Il for receiving
vide improved elements and ¿arrangements there
of in a docking :str-utof the rcharacter Aand for the :45 the lines I0 and `permitting the lsame to lie ñush
with the exterior of said‘member. Attention is di
purpose set forth.
rected to the fact that each plate 'l is preferably
In accomplishing `these and `other `olalectswof
disposed adjacent one end of its member 2 so as
'the invention, I :have ¿provided improved ,details
to dispose the bracket 5 in substantial align
of structure, the-'preferred form of which is il
lustrated in the @accompanying drawing, wherein: 50 ment with the space between adjacent members
and thereby distribute the load between said
Fig. l is :a diagrammatic ¿plan view of a plu
members and their respective piles i, as will be
rality of docking struts, lembodying the features
hereinafter more fully explained.
of the present invention, mounted~ upon the
A connecting truss or link i2 is disposedbe
camel _logs >of >a pier _and having their :camel logs
55 tween the inner ends of the arms 4 in approx
bearing .agaìnstthehull `of a vessel.v
3
2,434,673
imately contiguous, parallel relation to the mem
bers »2 and is fastened to said arm ends by suit
able eye bolts I3 which are carried by the arms
and connected to the ends of the link by pivot
pins it.
Thus, the arms 4 may move or pivot
horizontally relative to the link I2 and said link
functions primarily to space and hold the plates
’I in a fixed position relative to each other.
-For fending or bearing against the hull H of
the ship to be docked, a cylindrical wooden mem 10
ber or camel log I5 is adapted to'be fastened to
the outer lateral surface of the bracket 5 by
means of a pair of tie bolts I6 and wire lines Il
4
or other type having an overhanging superstruc
ture, such as the flight deck and gun platforms
of an aircraft carrier, the docking struts 3 are
swung into horizontal position as shown in FigA
l. Although the struts might be removed and
stored when not in use, it is preferable to employ
the floats 23 for submerging and raising said
struts by swinging or pivoting the same verti
cally about the members 2. It is ordinarily nec
essary to loosen the eye bolts 9 and the ropes
[email protected] in order to permit this vertical movement of
the struts as well as circumferential movement
of the plates 'I about the members 2. When the
so as to Ybe disposed horizontally of and parallel
struts are submerged, the floats contain water or
to the members 2. The log I5 preferably has its 15 other liquid and the weight of said struts or
medial portion secured to the bracket 5 so as to
their floats is sufficient to overcome the buoy
project equally beyond each end thereof and
ancy of the camel logs I5. Thus, the struts are
may be recessed or cut away as shown by the
disposed close to the lower or underwater por
numeral I8 for receiving the wire lines Il and
tions of the fender piles I. In order to exhaust
permitting the same to lie flush with the exterior 20 the water or liquid from each iioat, air is pumped
of said log. As shown in Fig. 1, the log I5 is
or forced through each hose 26 and inlet 25.
preferably of considerably less length than the
When the pressure within the float builds up
members 2. A diametric opening I9 is formed
sufficiently to overcome the pressure of the
in each end of the log I5 for receiving a wire
spring resisting opening of the check valve of
line it? which has a, stabilizing line 2i connect 25 the outlet 2i, said valve opens to permit the
ed thereto, whereby the ends of the log may be
ejection of said water or liquid through said out
swung manually slight distances in a horizontal
let. ri‘he escape of the water or liquid from the
plane due to the provision of the pivot pins 6, 8
floats is facilitated by the outlets 2ï being dis
and iíl and the limited pivotal movement of the
posed beneath their respective floats upon sub
arms d. A suitable cleat 22 is provided at the 30 mergence or vertical disposition of the struts.
inner end portion of each arm for permitting
Upon the filling of the floats with air and the
the securing of the lines 2l and the holding of
exhaustion of the water or liquid therefrom, the
the arms and log l5 in relatively fixed positions.
struts swing or pivot upwardly to the horizontal
When the docking struts are not necessary for
floating position illustrated. A ship of the car
certain types of vessels, it is desirable to alter 35 rier or other type, having an overhanging super
their position or remove them entirelyy from their
structure, may be readily docked and properly
functional position shown. To this end, I have
spaced from the pier when the struts are in such
provided a convenient arrangement which pref
position.
erably includes a hollow tank or iioat 23 that
Due to the horizontal pivotal mounting of the
may be pivotally secured by suitable straps 2li
arms 4, the camel logs I5 are permitted to turn
between the outer end portions of the arms ¿l
‘adjacent the bracket 5 to allow movement
thereof with the strut. The float 23 preferably
has a vaived inlet 25 communicating with its
iî-.iterior through one side wall thereof. A flex~
to the shape of the ship hull H. After this con
formity of the logs and the docking of the ship,
the lines 2| may be secured to the cleats 22 to
prevent said logs from altering their positions.
ible conduit or hose 25 is suitably connected in
the inlet
for conducting air, water or other
iiuid under pressure to the interior of the float
from a suitable pump (not shown) which may
be mounted on the pier. Although not illustrat
ed, the valve of the inlet 25 is preferably of the
back-pressure type so as to admit iiuid under
l`e while preventing the escape of such
A valved outlet 2ï is formed in the op~
posite side wall of the float and has a spring
pressed che .i valve (not shown) mounted
therein for preventing the escape of fluid below
a predetermined pressure from the interior of
or pivot in a horizontal plane so as to conform
The logs fend or bear against the hull H as
shown in Fig. 1 so as to prevent damage to or
marring of said hull by the struts and move
limited distances with the hull. Since each strut
is connected to at least two 'camel logs or mem
bers 2 and since the latter are carried by a plu
rality of the fender piles l, it is readily apparent
that the loads imposed upon the struts are dis
tributed throughout a relatively large area of the
pier so as to prevent undue strains upon the
latter.
As has been hereinbefore pointed out, the struts
space the hull H a suñìcient distance from the
the iioat. By filling the ñoat with air, it will
pier to prevent damage to the superstructure of
have sufdcient buoyancy to support the strut in
a horizontal position. Although the log I5 has 60 the ship by the movement of cranes or other
equipment upon the pier. Also, the ship’s super
sunlcient buoyancy to be self-supporting, it does
structure does not interfere with the movement
not support the weight of the entire strut and
^ of such equipment. When not in use or when
particularly the iioat 23 when the latter is filled
it is desired to dock a ship not having an over
with water. In order to submerge the strut, it
hanging superstructure, the struts are moved or
is necessary to pump or force water or other
swung out of their horizontal or lateral position
liquid into the interior of the float through the
and this movement is preferably accomplished by
hose 25 and inlet 25, thereby opening the check
filling each float Z'S'with water. The air is ex
valve (not shown) and forcing the air out
hausted through the opening 2'! by forcing water
through the outlet 21.
70 or liquidunder pressure through the hose 26 and
inlet 25. Upon filling of the ñoats with water,
the weight of the struts overcomes the buoyancy
The operation of a docking strut constructed
of the logs I5 so as to sink or submerge said
struts and cause the same to depend vertically
as described is as follows:
Upon the docking of a vessel of the carrier 75 from the members 2 adjacent the piles. Atten
Operation
2,434,07s
5
6
tion is again directed to the fact that the number
of struts employed is subject to variation, a1
though three have been found to be adequate.
From the foregoing, it is readily apparent that
shape, the frame having a pair of outwardly di
rected converging arms, a pair of plates pivotally
connecting the inner ends of the arms to the
pier, a bracket pivotally connecting the outer
a docking strut has been provided which has suf
ends of said arms to each other, a fioating mem
ficient flexibility to be particularly adaptable for
ber secured to the bracket and disposed horizon
tally for bearing against the hull of a vessel to
use in fending or spacing vessels having over
hanging superstructures so as to prevent damage
to said superstructures or interference with the
movement of equipment upon the pier and which
is so constructed and supported that the loads
imposed upon the strut are distributed through
be docked, and stabilizing lines extending be
tween the outer ends of the bearing member and
the inner ends of the frame arms.
5. A docking strut secured to a pier including,
horizontally-aligned outwardly-directed elements
pivotally connected to the pier, a member for
bearing against the hull of a vessel to be docked,
tion. However, it will be apparent that the de 15 means for vertically pivotally connecting the
bearing member to the outer ends of the elements
vice is susceptible to numerous modiiications
whereby said bearing member is adapted to un
without departing from the spirit of the inven~
dergo pivotal movement about a substantially
tion. Therefore, I do not wish to be limited by
out a considerable area of said pier.
I have described one embodiment of my inven
vertical axis, and stabilizing lines extending be
the disclosure set forth hereinbefore, but only by
the scope of the appended Claims.
20 tween said bearing member and the inner por
The invention described herein may be manu»
factured and used by or for the Government of
the United States of America for governmental
purposes without the payment of any royalties
tions of said elements.
6. A docking strut secured to a pier including,
a substantially horizontal frame of generally
trapezoidal shape, the frame having a pair of
25 lateral outwardly convergingV elements pivotally
connected to the pier, means pivotally connecting
I claim:
the outer portions of the elements so as to permit
l. A docking strut fastened to a pier including`
horizontal movement of said elements relative to
a horizontal frame of substantially triangular
each other, and a member fastened to said ele
shape, the frame having a pair of outwardly di
rected converging arms, a pair of plates pivotally 30 ments by the pivotal connecting means for bear
ing against the hull of a vessel to be docked, the
connecting the inner ends of the arms to the pier,
member being pivotable horizontally so as to be
a bracket pivotally connecting the outer ends of
movable with said vessel relative to said elements.
said arms to each other, a link pivotally `con
'7. A docking strut secured to a pier including,
nected between the inner ends of the arms for
spacing the same relative to each other, and a> 35 a pair of elements pivotally connected to the pier
thereon or therefor.
and arranged laterally thereof, and a horizontal
iioating member secured to the bracket and dis»
bearing member having pivotal connection with
posed horizontally for bearing against the hull
the outer ends of the elements so as to be mov~
of the vessel to be docked.
able in a horizontal arc relative to said elements.
2. A docking strut fastened to a pier including,
8. A docking strut secured to a pier including,
a horizontal frame of substantially triangular 40
a pair of elements pivotally connected to the pier
shape, the frame having a pair of outwardly
and extending laterally thereof so as to undergo
directed converging arms, a pair of plates piv
pivotal movement in a horizontal plane, and a
otally connecting the inner ends of the arms to
horizontal member having pivotal connection
the p'er, a bracket pivotally connecting the outer
ends of said arms to each other, a link pivotally 45 with the outer ends of the elements for bearing
against the hull of a vessel to be docked and
connected between the inner ends of the arms
being pivotable relative to said elements in a
for spacing the same relative to each other, a
iloating member secured to the bracket and dis
horizontal plane.
9. A docking strut secured to a pier including,
of the vessel to be docked, and stabilizing lines 50 horizontally-aligned outwardly-directed elements
pivotally connected to the pier so as to be mov
extending between the outer ends of the bearing
posed horizontally for bearing against the hull
member and the inner ends of the frame arms.
able in a horizontal plane, a horizontal member
for bearing against the hull of a vessel to be
3. A docking strut fastened to a pier including,
docked, and means for pivotally connecting the
a horizontal frame of substantially triangular
shape, the frame having a pair of outwardly di 55 bearing member to the outer ends of the elements
whereby said member is pivotable in a horizontal
rected converging arms, a pair of plates pivotally
plane relative to said elements and pier so as
connecting the inner ends of the arms to the
to substantially conform to the shape and move
pier, a bracket pivotally connecting the outer
ment of the vessel.
ends of said arms to each other, a link pivotally
RALPH G. PETERSON.
connected between the inner ends of the arms 60
for spacing the same relative to each other, a
REFERENCES CITED
floating member secured to the bracket and dis
posed horizontally for bearing against the hull
The following references are of record in the
of the vessel to be docked, and a hollow float
file of this patent:
carried by portions of the frame arms and adapt
_
UNITED STATES PATENTS
ed to be filled for submerging and swinging the
Number
Name
Date
frame downwardly relative to the pier, the pair
1,303,959
Powlin _____________ May 20, 1919
of plates being adjustably secured to the pier so
2,039,151
Dubois ___________ __ Apr. 28, 1936
as to permit loosening of said plates and down
70 2,120,545
Buckton _________ -- June 14, 1938
ward swinging of said frame.
2,336,140
Vogler ____________ __ Dec. 7, 1943
4. A docking strut fastened to a pier including,
a horizontal frame of substantially triangular
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