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Jan. 20, 1948.
Filed May 11, 1945
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ALEXIS 6. P/Ncus
Patented Jan. 20, 1948"
Alexis G. Pincus, Southbridge, Mass., assignor to
American Optical Company, \ Southbridge,
Mass., a voluntary association of Massachusetts
/ Application May 11, 1943, Serial No. 486,539
12 Claims. (01. 252—140)
This invention relates to improved chemical
Another object is to provide a composition of
compositions particularly adaptable for cleansing
the above character with which other desirable
ingredients, such as soaps, wetting agents, alkali
and other purposes and which, at the same time,
possess characteristics for ‘water treatment and
controlling its hydrogen ion concentration, and
process of making the same.
salts or the like may be mixed for particular de
sirable uses.
Other objects and advantages of the invention
This application is a continuation in part of
will become apparent from the following descrip
my copending application, Serial No. 303,849, ?led
tion taken in connection with the accompanying
November 10, 1939, now abandoned. ‘
drawings and it will be apparent that many
Oneof the principal objects ofthe invention 10 changes may be made in the compositions and
is to provide an improved chemical composition
methods set forth herein without departing from
and process of making the same which has a wide
the spirit of the invention as expressed in the
range of uses and which is particularly adaptable
accompanying claims. I, therefore, do not wish
for cleansing and other purposes and which, at
to be limited to the exact compositions and meth
the same time, possesses characteristics for re 15 ods disclosed as the preferred forms only have
moving hardness from water and controlling its
been given by way of illustration.
hydrogen ion concentration and which is relative-'
In the ?gure of the drawings there is illustrate
ly inexpensive and economical to manufacture.
a chart setting forth. the proportions of the ul
Another» object is to provide an economical
timate constituents in percentages by weight
.. homogeneous composition formed from silica, al 20 which come within the scope of this invention.
kali metal oxide and phosphorous pentoxide
The basic composition of the invention com
wherein the pentoxide may be included in the
prises the product of the fusion of SiOz, P205 and
original batch of alkali and sand before melting
NazO. It has been found that by proper varia
and process of making the same.
tion of these major ingredients several desirable
Another object is to provide a‘composition of 25 compositions for given particular uses may be
the above character controlled as to its rate of
solubility vand which is particularly adaptable for
In addition to the proper combination of con
use as a detergent and process of making the same.
stituents, it has been found that by careful con
Another object is to provide a silica, alkali
trolling of the initial rate of cooling as well as
metal oxide and phosphorous pentoxide composi 30 subsequent heat treatments end products for dif
tion and process of making the same having char- -
ferent given uses may be obtained.
acteristics particularly adaptable for use as abra
It has- also been found that in addition to the
sive scouring powders and whose abrasive char- ,
above, the said end product may be combined with
acteristics may be varied according to the» par
other desirable ingredients such as soaps, wetting
35 agents, alkali'salts, etc. which will render the
ticular intended use of the composition.
Another object is to provide a composition of
resultant compound desirable for particular in
the above character having its various ingre~
dients‘so controlled as to render said composi- 1
tion particularly adaptable for use as water treat
ment means particularly when it is desirableto
control corrosion of metals, such as used in water
lines, tanks, boilers, heating units, condensing
coils and‘the like, and which will prevent the
formation of scale by precipitation of calcium and
magnesium compounds.
Another object provide a composition of
the above character controlled as to its ability to
flocculate and de?occulate solid materials and
tended uses.
Some ofthe desirable uses to which the basic
composition may be applied are as follows:
1. A detergent
2. A unitary abrasive and detergent composi
3, A water treating agent including removal
' of hardness, control of hydrogen ion concentra
45 tion, protection of metals against corrosion by
the Water and prevention of scale deposition.
4. De?occulating agent.
Sodium silicate “water glass compositions”
have found/wide applications as cleaning agents
which is particularly adaptable to several uses
such as oilwell drilling muds, puri?cation of clay 50 and for many other uses.
and ?otation of minerals and the like.
, .
Sodium phosphate
whereby the resultant composition may be in the
glasses have more recently come into use because
of their extraordinary e?ect of removing hard- ‘
ness from water without precipitation of insoluble
calcium and magnesium salts. Although such ,
form or a block or in a ?nely powdered state.
ingredients have proven satisfactory for the
Another object is to so control the method of
. forming compositions of the character described
4 .
above purposes individually. up to the present in
vention it has been necessary to prepare them -
separately‘ and then form arti?cial synthetic mix
tures of the two in order to obtain the desirable
properties of each in a unitary product. It,
therefore, has been necessary in the past to ob-‘
tain separate ingredients and to form a synthetic
mixture of said ingredients. This involved an .
additional process and care also had to be taken
in order to obtain and maintain the desired pro 10
suiting glasses are characterized by being less
hygroscopic than the known alkali silicate glasses
at these high Na20 levels and this factor will be
valuable in the storage, packaging and transpor
tation of the product.
P205 and containing appreciable amounts of
silica, which have detergent properties, especially
in preventing the redeposition of soil on fabrics,
an example would be a composition of
portion of said ingredients during said mixing.
Parts by weight
This procedure was also quite costly and incon
S102 __________________________ .... from-10 to 15
It, therefore, is one of the primary objects of
this invention to overcome the above difficulties 15
through the fusion of silica; sodium oxide and
phosphorous pentoxide into a unitary homoge
' '
I As' an example of glasses relatively high in
Na20 _________________________ __ ‘from 35 to 40
P205 _________________________ .._ from 50 to 55
As a further example of the advantages of this
process. it has been found that whereas it has
been commercially impractical to produce sodium
subsequent heat treatment retain it either in a
phosphate glasses higher in P205 than 70%, it is
vitreous unitary homogeneous composition or in 20 possible, by adding silica in amounts of from 10
- neous liquid and by the method of cooling and
the form of crystals homogeneously dispersed
to 15%, to produce glasses which will contain 75
throughout a glassy matrix. Such homogeneous
products of fusion produce much more effective
and efficient products which can be manufac
tured at less cost than the previous mechanical
to 85% P205. Such glasses can be produced with
reasonable amount of attack on the refractory
normally used in furnace construction. The
highest P205 content glass that has been pro
Referring more particularly to the drawing the
The ?nding here is that we can have a higher
duced commercially is 70% P205 and 30% NazO.
invention comprises broadly mixing sand as a
percentage of P205 than has heretofore been
commercially practical. From the standpoint of
source of sodium oxide (Na20) and phosphoric 30 practical manufacture this is of interest. The
acid or some other source of phosphorous pent
above examples all give homogeneous glasses
oxide (P205) in different given proportions in
which are completely soluble.
source of silica ‘(Si02) , soda ash or the like as a
dicated in given ?eld designations.
The factors controlling the detergent e?icien
It has been found that desirable compositions
for use as detergents may be formed as follows:
Parts by weight
cies are:
35 .
1. The de?occulation of the soil or the suspend
. ing of the particles which are removed from cloth,
metal or whatever is being washed.
2. Wetting, which is related to surface tension.
3. Emulsi?cation; alkali is a principal emulsi
40 ?er of oils and greases. Soap is soluble in water
a The above gives the substantially maximum
where grease is not.‘
limits of variations of the various major in
4. The phosphates are particularly valuable in
gredients of the composition.
preventing the formation o1’v lime and magnesium
Very desirable detergents have been obtained
soaps and also in preventing the precipitation of
as follows:
calcium and magnesium silicates when working
Parts by weight
with a detergent containing silicate.
810:; __________________________ __ from 15 to 70
The compositions of the present invention are
P205 __________________________ __ from 5 to 35
notable in contributing to all four of the above
Na20 _________________________ _.. from 25 to 55
factors, being in themselves; detergents of all
In the above composition. through the reduc 50 around value.
A composition particularly suitable for use as
tion of the P205 content, detergents \of less ex
Si02 _________________________ __ from 10 to 80
P205 _________________________ __ from 1 to 85
Na20 _________________________ __ from 20 to '70
pensive nature may be obtained and less diffi
culty is encountered in melting the composition
into a homogeneous glassy structure. With such
proportions lower temperatures may be used in
Detergents particularly desirable for speci?c
uses may be formed as follows:
Parts by weight
Si02 __________________________ __ from 40 to 45
Na20 _... ______________________ __ from 45 to 50
P205 _________________________ .._ from 5 to 15
A very practical detergent has been formed as
Per cent
Na20 _._.
_ 45
___________________________________ __ 10
‘an abrasive scouring powder or as the main con
stituent of an abrasive scouring powder com
pound may be formed'within the range of:
Parts by weight
25 to 80
. P205
1 to 50
20 to 40
Narrower limits of the above parts by weight
may be desirable as it has been- found that by
proper selection and combination of ingredients
and heat treatment the scouring properties of the
material will be varied.
For relatively soft material. such as aluminum,
it might bedesirable to have a glass of lower
hardness or to have the crystals precipitated with
in the glassy matrix of a lower hardness than the
aluminum so that it can not scratch the alu
This addition of 10% P205 to such a high alkali 70
For a hard material like porcelain the hardness
silicate has been found to produce a protective
and abrasiveness of the material can be rela
action on the refractories during melting and
makes practical the ‘direct melting of silicates
with higher alkali contents than has been pos
sible commercially as far as is known. The re
tively high. This can be varied by controlling
the hardness of the slowly soluble portion of the
75 glass or of the ?nely divided crystals. The con
angers ‘
readily pulverize into substantially uniform pow
‘ trolling factors are-the proportions of Nero,
P205 and S10: and the heat treatment to which
the product of 'fusion is subjected. The higher
der this can be obtained by the use of a composi
tion substantially as follows:
the S103 the'higher the abrasiveness; the higher
Per cent
the NazO the lower the abrasiveness. The heat
treatment is controlled as follows:' By rapid cool
ing all of the constituents can be retained in a
P205 ____ _.‘. ____________ ..‘_I_ _______________ -
fused unitary vitreous condition; by slowly cool
ing crystai‘ine material of a hardness desirable
The molten product is cooled slowly enough so
10 that ?nely divided crystals form throughout the
mass. The resultant product at room tempera
For example, for a
, ture is in a condition which permits pulverizing
with a minimum of effort. In addition, if a com
Parts by weight
, ‘for the particular intended use can be precipi
tated in the glassy matrix.
calculated ‘composition of
position, such as described, is tempered at a tem
24 15 perature of 400 to 550° C. for a period of 10 to 20
hours, a spontaneous transformation-may result
i P205
‘ 5
which will produce a powdery product thereby
the resultant glass was found to have a Knoop
not requiring subsequent pulverization. ’ The re
Peters‘ penetration modulus of 338 kg.-mm.’.
sultant product will be a powdery composition
This is a recognized and standard hardness test
with the particles substantially uniform.
evolved at the United States Bureau of.Standards 20. I One of the di?iculties with most known prior
involving indentation of the article to be meas-_
art abrasive compounds is that during shipping
ured with a diamond of exactly speci?ed dimen
there is a tendency for the heavier particles to‘
sions; As another example, a glass of the come '
NazO __..__
Glass of the composition
SiOz ‘.
NazO _
most practical results during the actual use of
has a modulus of 226 k‘g.-mm.3
tending to rise to the surface of the composition.
Parts by weight -25 This is decidedly detrimental in obtaining the
settle with the lighter portions of the composition
the composition. With most prior art abrasive
compositions, therefore,-it is of necessity, prior
30 to actual use, to thoroughly mix the composition.
This, of course, is not generally known and has
Parts by weight ‘been one of the major dimculties encountered
with known prior art abrasive compositions. This
_ 50
difficulty is completely overcome by the present
35 invention as there is no tendency .of any settling
since the present invention is directed to a homo
has the abnormally low value of 157 kg.-mm.2
geneous product of fusion. If desirable, however,
From the above, it is apparent that as the so
the composition ofv the present invention may be
dium oxide (M120) is increased, particularly at
compounded with soaps, wetting ‘agents, alkali
the expense of S102, the resultant glass has much
etc. The advantage of such mixtures would
softer characteristics. In this manner, there 40 be that the known commercial soaps, wetting
fore, the hardness of the glass may be controlled.
agents, alkalil‘salts, etc. would perform more e?i
Values are available for commercial glasses and
ciently. Even when such additions are made the
porcelains of various compositions and most of
composition ‘of the present invention still, would
‘ the metals of commerce so that by consulting
be 90% ,or' more of the total weight of the
these known values and comparing with the pene
compound. Although homogeneous transparent
tration moduli of these glassy scouring agents, it
glasses may be obtained within. the limits set forth
will be possible to select a composition for the
herein, it has been found that compositions em
glass which will be softer than the material to be
bodying crystals in a glassy matrix may be ob
cleaned so that a composition particularly adapt
tained. An example of such composition is as
able for cleansing such articles can be formed.
The particular characteristics of the basic com
Parts by weight
positions set forth herein which render it possible
to obtain a desirable abrasive powder are as
1. A homogeneous glass is obtainable which is 55
so slowly soluble that‘ in the process of. using it
some undissolved glass ‘is present before the whole
composition goes into solution.
2. The possibility of slowly cooling the melts so
that insoluble compounds will be left as a residual
A particular composition which I have found
to possess desirable characteristics in this respect
has the calculated composition of
' ‘
Per cent
abrasive after all the soluble glass has gone into
40 to 80
P205 ______________________________ __ 1 to 50
NazO _____________________________ __ 20 to 40
NazO ____‘T____
By rapid cooling, certain advantages can be
In the-parent application of which this appli
obtained; for example, a more soluble glass, one
more efficient in its detergent action and water 65 cation is a continuation in‘parta' limited ?eld
designed as X, Y and Z has been given. The com
softening and ?nally one that will be less vabrasive
positions taken within' this designated ?eld are
if this should. be' desirable. If it is desired to
obtainmore crystalline structure the glass can
be maintained at a temperature in the annealing
melted by a suitable ‘application of heat within
a controlled temperature range between 1800°
range ‘or slightly above it where crystals , will 70 and 2800° F. for a sufficient time to obtain a
homogeneous liquid.
slowly deposit and by controlling the ‘time and
temperature for this further heat treatment the
It is to be understood, however, that there are
number and size of these crystals canbe con
speci?c proportions of mixtures and temperatures
trolled to any'desirable level. For example, if
within these limits and the broader limits now
it is desirable to obtain a composition which will 75 disclosed which produce more desirablevresults.
This could be arrived at by preparing a composi
than when soda ash or phosphoric acids are used
tion and testing it for its value as a cleansing
agent, water softener,» etc. It will be noted that
in the X, Y, Z ?eld the ingredients which are
comparatively expensive are maintained at a
minimum as compared with the inexpensive in
gredients of the mix. This result has been made
as raw materials.
It has been found that practical and usable
mixtures may be formed by combining in
gredients in the proportions set forth in the X,
Y, Z area in the chart. It will be noted that in
this chart the silica maybe varied from 50 to
possible by working within the limits of the X, Y,
80%, the sodium oxide from 20 to 50% and the
Z ?eld illustrated in the drawing. Up to the
amount'of P205 which can be dissolved depends
teachings of the-present invention, it has pre 10 upon the proportions of soda and silica, and will
viously been considered that phosphate additions
vary from a fraction of one percent to 12% at
would immediately destroy vitri?cation in sodium
the maximum. ' In all instances where it is de
silicate glasses by separation of crystals or of a
sirable to produce transparent inexpensive
second immiscible liquid. It has been 'found,
glasses, it is desirable to keep the P205 as low as
however, that by careful control of the propor 15 possible and still obtain a product which will pro
tions of the ultimate constituent oxides and of
duce the desired characteristics, which character;
the time-temperature cycle of melting and cool
istics are that the resultant mixture will produce
ing as disclosed herein it is possible to dissolve
the desirable cleansing and water softening and
as much as 12% or higher P205 by weight in
hydrogen ion ‘control. The process, therefore, is
sodium silicate glasses and still obtain homo 20 to combine the desired proportions of ingredients
geneous melts with excellent melting and solution
and to thoroughly mix the said ingredients and
characteristics and highly desirable cleansing
to thereafter place the said ingredients in a
action and water softening effects.
suitable tank or pot furnace and to heat the mix
The above disclosure is directed particularly to
ture to a controlled temperature depending upon
the obtaining of an inexpensive and desirable 25 proportions of ingredients used, the temperature
mixture. It is to be understood, however, that if
being controlled so as to avoid the precipitation
the element of expense is disregarded that other
of crystals in the melt and in all instances such
practical mixtures might be formed through the
that the heated ingredients will be rendered ?uid
use of different proportions of said ingredients,
and then be completely soluble in water on
more particularly at the high P205 corner of the 30 quenching.
. triangle in the chart illustrated in the drawing.
It is to be understood that the heating is for a
It has been discovered that as much as 23% by
weight of silica can be dissolved in certain sodium
minimum duration feasible to produce the melt
It has been found that although usable com
phosphate glass forming melts, if the P205 is
maintained above ‘70% by weight, without 35 positions may be obtained within the designated.
destroying the homogeneity of the melt and prod
?eld X, Y, and Z that where expense of com
uct. Such products have been found to possess
position is to be disregarded, a much higher P205
more desirable advantages than those obtained
content may be used. , For example, a composition
suitable for use as a water softening agent may
Such products have been found to possess ad 40 be obtained within the range of 10 to 80 parts by
vantages over the prior art for uses where pure
, weight SiOz, 1 to 85 parts by weight P205 and 20
with the prior art pure sodium phosphate glasses.
sodium phosphate glasses have been applied be
to 70 parts by weight of Na20.
cause of their water softening properties.
The most desirable results for speci?c uses may
Increasing Na20 will increase the solubility and
be obtained within the above limits by trial and
the substitution of K20 for Na20 will also increase 45 error. For example, a'composition containing
it. Addition of P205 to high silica ratio, sodium
silicate glasses with a compensating increase in
S102 ___________________________________ __ 62
Na20 makes possible a high silica ratio glass with
_______________________ ___ _________ __ 33
a much higher solubility than would have been
expected. It is wellknown that these high silica 50 P205 _____________ _._:._.._.._' ______________ __ 5
glasses are slow to dissolve and P205 added with
is rapidly soluble in boiling water with approxi
enough alkali to satisfy its acidity leaves a
mately 95% dissolving at the end of 15 minutes.
homogeneous detergent or water softening agent
As a further useful part of the present inven
similar to the high silica glasses but of much
it is possible to form ternary compositions
greater solubility.
suitable for use in water treatment, particularly
It is to be understood that the ingredients set
when it is desirable to control corrosion of metal
forth herein are given only by way of illustration
in pipes, tanks, boilers, heating units, condenser
as to how a practical mixture could be formed but
coils, etc. through which the water is flowed.
it is to be understood that other known in
These compositions may be used to prevent cor
gredients possessing characteristics similar to the 60 rosion and deposition of scale by forming glass
respective ingredients disclosed herein might be
into blocks of desirable sizes and rates of solution
used, for example, other alkali metal oxides such
and then placing the blocks in .the path of the
as lithium or potassium or mixtures thereof may
main source of supply of water or by placing the
be used instead of sodium. For example, a desir
blocks in a suitable by-pass in the supply line.
able mixture could be formed by mixing 62% of
Sodium silicates and sodium phosphates will be
sand (Si02) 33% of potassium oxide (K20), ob
slowly dissolved from the blocks at a rate which
tained from that amount of potash (K2003) ,
will give the desired protection for the metals
which will leave that much K20 in the ultimate
and the prevention of scale and will also give the
glass, and 5% of P205 which can be derived from
optimum ratio of P205 and Si02.
some form of phosphoric acid or ammonium 70
If it is desirable to increase the amount of
phosphate which will leave that amount of P205
P205 going into solution, glass compositions hav
in the glass. The desired amount of P205 may
ing a higher phosphate content are used and if
also be obtained from a potassium phosphate and
it is desired to have an increased amount of Si02
the balance of K20 required may be derived from
‘in solution, the Si02 content of the glass is in
potash but such procedures are more expensive 76 creased relative to that of the P205. By proper
balance the most desirable proportions may be
obtained. _The sodium phosphates prevent the
As a source of S10: any good grade of glass sand
. can be used.
scale formation and the silicates are more eco
nomical ‘and more effective in preventing .cor
In some cases, it may be advan
tageous to have this sand more ?nely pulverized
than is common ‘practice in the glass industry to
' facilitate rapid solution in the melt.
It is also
vIt is known that pure sodium phosphate glasses
possible to use commercially available sodium
have. been used as water treatment means but the
silicate glasses.‘ As a source of NaaO there may
glasses of the present invention are ternary, re
be used soda ash, commercially available silicate
leasing three oxides and compounds thereof into
glasses or sodium silicate salts, or commercially
the'water in controlled proportions at a controlled
available sodium phosphate glasses or salts. As
rate of solution, which rate is much slower than
a source of P205 there can be used P205 itself,
that of the sodium phosphates previously known.
phosphoric acids, ammonium phosphates, sodium
This greatly increases the life of the blocks and
- phosphate compositions either in the glassy or
obviates constant replacement. By selecting the
crystalline forms, or any other easily available
proper ratios of P205, NaaO and S10: these prod ll form of P205.
ucts can be used to control the hydrogen ion con
Batches made up of ingredients calculated to
centration of water.
give an endv product of a desired composition are
mixed either in the wet or dry way, then fed into
It has also been found that compositions with;
in the range which have been described are de
a refractory container or reverbatory furnace at
flocculants for solid materials and may be used in 20 the 'most suitable temperature for conducting
such applications as the drilling of oil wells, purl-‘
melting operations. The resultant melt is held
flcation of clay and flotation of minerals‘.
at a temperature above the fusion point, but not
When combining the three major ingredients
too highfso that excessive refractory attack and,
of the invention with a view to obtaining the de
volatilization does not take place, until the re
sired results ‘in an e?icient manner, it has been
found that care has-to be exercised in controlling
the limits of the proportions of the various in
gredients used. If- the proportions of the in
gredients are carried within the areas which have
actions have been substantially completed.
The melt can then be taken from the furnace
either by pouring into water or'other non-in?am
mable liquid quenching medium or dropping onto
a chilled metal plate or ?owing between chilled
rolls for relatively quick quenching or it may be
formed into blocks as above described, and then
been cross-hatched in the drawing di?iculty from
the viewpoint of fabrication is introduced. ‘Al?
though it might be possible to obtain usable prod-'
ucts by carrying the proportions of the ingredients
' later may be transported through an annealing
chamber for the controlled cooling and condition
ing described above; In some instances, when it
vention, however, is directed to utilizing, what 85 is desired to reduce the composition to a powdery
has been found, up to the present time, to be the
state the chilled or otherwise formed product may
most commercially practical limits.
be subjected to a pulverizing and sizing treatment.
Although I have set up relatively broad limits
From the foregoing description it will be seen
in which desirable compositions have been ob
that simple, emcient and economical means and
within the cross-hatched-areas the present in
40 method are provided for accomplishing all of the
tained as far as the functions of said composi
objects and advantages of the invention.
Having described my invention, I claim:
1, A fused unitary vitreous composition which
45 is soluble to a marked extent in water and is
adapted to act as a cleaning agent and as a water
softening agent,’ said fused unitary vitreous com
position consisting of silica within the range of
50 to 80% by weight, sodium oxide within the
range of 20 to 50% by weight and phosphorous
50 pentoxide from a fraction of 1 to 12% by weight.
2. The process of forming a unitary vitreous
composition, which ‘is soluble toa marked extent
tions are concerned, it has been found that from v
a commercial aspect that limits of the following
scope might be more desirable:
Parts by weight
2 to 70
15 to 65
- $102
10 to '70
Sodium phosphates are effective at such low
concentrations that the objectives of the present
invention are attained even when P205 is present
in very low percentages in ternary product.
' In a three-component composition such as dis
, in water and is adapted to act as a cleaning agent
closed herein, enough of each of the constituents 55 and as a water softener agent, comprising form
ing a mixture consisting of silica within the range
must be present to give the properties desired and
of 50 to 80% by weight, sodium carbonate of an
it is particularly desirable that the silica content
amount'su?icient to yield 20 to 50% by weight of
be controlled so that in no instance it is much
sodium oxide, and an ingredient resulting in phos
less than 10% by weight of the product. It is to
be understood, however, that the carrying of the 60 phorous pentoxide of from a fraction of 1 to 12%
by weight, fusing said mixture and so controlling
proportions slightly within the restricted areas
the temperature of fusion within some narrow
are intended to be within the scope of the in
It has been found that the compositions do not
melt to a liquid within reasonable practical tem
peratures when the NaaO content is below 20%
. range between 1800° F. and 2800"’ F, according to
the particular batch being melted so as to pro
duce a unitary vitreous composition.
3. A composition for‘use as a detergent, a water
treating agent, an abrasive scouring agent and a .
and the P205 is less than 55%. Where Nazo is
more than 70% the melts show a tendency to be
de?occulant comprising the product of fusion of
corrosive on ordinary ceramic refractories and do
ingredients yielding $102 from 10 to 80 parts by
not form true glasses. Where P205 is above 85% 70 weight, P105 from a fraction of 1 to 20 parts by
the melts fume continuously, are corrosive and ' weight, and an alkali metal oxide of from 20 to
are di?icultv to fabricate. Where SlOz content is
less than approximately 10% the glasses ‘are not
particularly desirable for the uses sought by the
present invention.
70 parts by weight.‘
4. A fused unitary. vitreous composition com
prising the product of fusion of ingredientsyield
75 ing _Si02 from 40 to 45 parts by weight, NazO
from 45 to '50 parts by weight and P205 from 5 to
15 parts by weight.
5. A fused unitary vitreous composition for use
as a detergent, a water treating agent, an abra
sive scouring agent and a de?occulant compris
ing the product of fusion of ingredients yielding
45% S102, 45% NazO and 10% P205.
6. A fused unitary vitreous composition for use
as a detergent, a water treating agent, an ab-ra
adapted to act as a cleansing agent and as a water
softening agent, said fused unitary vitreous com
position consisting of silica within the range of
50 to 80 parts by weight, alkali metal oxides
within the range of 20 to 50 parts by weight
and phosphorous pentoxide from a fraction of
1 to 12 parts by weight.
10. The process of producing a fused unitary
vitreous composition comprising fusing together
sive scouring agent and a deflocculant compris 10 a mixture of ingredients yielding silica from 25
to 80 parts by weight, alkali metal oxide from 20
ing the product of fusion of ingredients yielding
to 40 parts by weight and phosphorous pentoxide
S102 ‘from 25"to 80 parts by weight, NazO from
from 1 to 50 parts by weight with the tempera
20 to 40 parts by weight and P205 from 1 to 50
ture of fusion being within the range of 1800’ F.
parts by weight.
7. A fused unitary vitreous composition for use 15 and 2800° F. and thereafter cooling said resultant
product to room temperature to obtain a struc
as a detergent, a water treating agent, an abra
ture embodying crystals supported by a glassy
sive scouring agent and a de?occulant comprising
the product of fusion of ingredients yielding S102
11. A fused unitary vitreous composition such
from 40 to 80 parts by weight, P205 from 1 to 50 20
as claimed in claim 1 wherein lithium oxide is
parts by weight and NazO from 20 to 40 parts
substituted for sodium oxide.
by weight.
12. A fused unitary vitreous composition such
8. The process of producing a composition for
use as a' detergent, a water treating agent and a
deflocculant comprising subjecting mixtures of 25
ingredients which will yield silica, alkali metal
oxide and phosphorous pentoxide to a controlled
7 '
as claimed in claim 1 wherein potassium oxide is
substituted for sodium oxide.
temperature within the range of 1800" F. and
references ‘are of record in the
2800“ F., with. said temperature being sumcient
file of this patent:
to fuse said ingredients into a liquid and rela 30
tively rapidly chilling said liquid so as to retain
it in a unitary homogeneous glassy structure, with
the silica content being no less than 10 and no
greater than 80 parts by weight, the phosphorous
Evans ___________ __ July 31, 1934
Evans ____________ __ July 31, 1934
pentoxide content being no less than 1 and no
Cowles _______ _'_____ Sept. 2, 1930
greater than 20 parts by weight and the alkali
- Riggs et a1 ________ __ Oct. 10, 1939
metal oxide content being no less than 20 and no
Speer ________ _;____ Apr. 26, 1932
greater than 70 parts by weight.
Williams __________ __ Apr. 6, 1943
Davies __' ________ __ Nov. 30, 1937
Rice _____________ __ Dec. 15, 1942
9. A fused unitary vitreous composition which 40
is soluble to a marked extent in water and is
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