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Patented June 1, 1948'
I 2,442,658
'UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,442,658
STARCH STABILIZER
Robert L. Lloyd, Laurelton, N. Y., assignor to
American Maize-Products Company, a corpora
tion of Maine
No Drawing. Application May 7, 1946,.
Serial No. 667,995
I
6 Claims.
(01. 99-139)
1
2
This invention relates to a starch stabilizer.
The stabilizer is particularly useful in connec
tion with pie ?llings and the invention will be
and cooling of the ?lling before being placed
?rst illustrated, therefore, by description in con
nection with such use.
'
.
upon the crust.
A special result is obtained from the use of
the mixture of normal and pregelatinized starch,
this result being the unexpectedly favorable be
havior‘ of the mixture under conditions that
would be expected to result in objectionable sedi
In the standard commercial method of making
pies with canned fruit, for instance, it is custom
mentation of the normal starchfrom an aqueous
ary to use starch to decrease settling or ?oating
suspension of the mixture of starches.
.
of the fruit after ?lling into the pie and during
Factors which are ordinarily controlling in the
baking and also to give proper consistency to the 10
rate ‘of settling are the particle size of the ‘sus
?lling after cooking. In order to avoid settling
pended material, viscosity of the suspending me
of the starch itself between the time when the
dium, and di?erence in‘ density of the suspended
starch. is admixed and the temperature ‘later
particles and the medium. I have now found
raised to the pasting point, it is necessary to pre15' that settling of suspended starch, departs .from
cook the ‘starch.
what was to have ‘been expected on the basis of
This precooking of the starch in the usual
particle size, viscosity, and densities when the
commercial technique involves draining the juice '
suspending medium is an aqueous-pregelatinized
from the fruit, mixing the starch with the juice
starch solution, this term including colloidaldis
so separated, cooking the suspension of the starch
in the juice until the starch is p: sted, then 20
This departure will be evident from the data
quickly adding the fruit, so as to cool the result
‘which is given below,
ing mixture and minimize the period of time dur
In obtaining this data there were ?rst made
ing which the starch is in contact with the acids
three suspending media of the same viscosity.
of the fruit juice at the elevated temperature of
pasting, then pouring the mixture of pasted 25 There was made one medium containing 30
grams (g.) of pregelatim'zed waxy maize starch
starch, juice, and fruit into the shaped crust,
in su?icient water to make 300 ml. of total mix
and ?nishing and baking the pie in usual manner.
ture. The viscosity of this material, as deter
Obvious disadvantages in this procedure in
mined on the Brook?eld viscosimeter with No. 1
clude the necessity of the several operations men
tioned-the initial separation of the juice from 30 spindle at 30 R. P. M., was 21.8. The second
medium was a water solution of glycerine of per
the solid portions of the fruit, pasting the starch
centage of glycerine adjusted to give a medium
in this juice, and quickly cooling the product,
of viscosity identical with that of the ?rst me
once the pasting is completed, to below the tem
dium. A third solution was made by dissolving
perature of substantial hydrolysis of the starch
corn syrup in water in proportions to give the
by the acidity of the fruit. At the same time 35 same
viscosity. The speci?c gravities of the
these steps have been necessary to avoid not only
three solutions were 1.036, 1.207, and 1.272, re
settling of the starch but also settling or ?oat
spectively.
’
_
ing of the fruit itself in the pie ?lling before the
,Into each of the media there was introduced,
usual gelatinization of the starch converts the
and thoroughly distributed by shaking, regular
pie ?lling to a medium in which the fruit does 40 or non-gelatinized waxy maize starch, the size
not settle or ?oat objectionably.
,
of grains and their density being the same in
The present invention provides a starch stabil
all of the mixtures inasmuch as'the same starch
was used in each mixture.
izer which may be mixed directly with the canned
fruit without previous‘ separation of the juice 45 Thus ten, grams of powdered waxy maize
persion.
‘
'
'
and that may be used in the form of a cold mix
starch of pure food quality was then added to a
without any previous heating of the starch,
su?icient quantity of each of the three media to
give a total of 100 ml. Each of the mixtures
were then shaken in 100 ml. graduated glass cyl
starch stabilizer consisting of a mixture of pre
gelatinized and normal or non-gelatinized starch. 50 inders. After the mixtures were throughly
shaken, the cylinders were allowed to stand on
The invention comprises also pie-making mate
the laboratory desk and the volume of clear liq
rial including my improved stabilizer and con
uid which appeared above the starch, .as the
‘ Brie?y stated, the invention.
comprises
a
ventional pie ?ller ingredients and also the
starch layer settles, was noted at intervals. ‘The
method of making pies with a single cooking in
amount of this clear liquor is a measure of set
stead of the usual method involving precooking 55 tling. Below the settled clear layer, there was '
' 2,442,658
3
4
intense milkiness due to the suspensionbf non
which can safely be used for preventing objec
tionable settling of the remainder of the starch
gelatinized starch associated with the suspend- >
ing medium. The results follow:
\'\\
Volume oi‘ Clear Liquid at Top Cylinder
When suspending Medium Contains:
Period of Settling,
Hours
pmiéegggaized Glyccrina
_____________________ __
Corn Syrup
i)
0
0
17% .................. __
l9. 5
31. 0
30.0
110 ___________________ __
20.0
82. 6
81.5
It will be noted that the rate of settling of the
pure food starch is much less when the suspend
ing medium is a solution of the pregelatinized
starch than when the suspending medium is of
the same viscosity but includes, in place of the
pregelatinized starch, glycerine or corn syrup,
in the mixture made in accordance with the in
vention, the use in the minimum proportion de
creasing somewhat the overall cost for a pound
of the mixture. Thus, I use to advantage a minor
proportion of the pregelatinized starch. An ex
ample is 40 parts to 100 parts of the mixture of
pregelatinized and non-gelatinized starch. This
10 proportion of the pregelatinized starch may.
however, be varied with results that are satis
factory between 13 and '75 parts of the pre
gelatinized to sufficient of the other starch to
make 100 parts of total starch. When the pre
15 gelatinized starch is waxy, the proportion should
preferably be 25 to 75 parts for 100 parts of total
starch.
The selected pregelatinized and non-gelatinized
starch are suitably milled together in dry condi
even though the latter two media are of higher 20 tion, say at a moisture content not above 8%.
density.
. The starch stabilizer is used in making pie
Also, the thickening which occurs in the bot
?llings, for example, in the proportion of about
tom of the cylinders shows much slower rate of
5 to 15 parts for loowater, the proportion of the
settling from ?rst to last of the starch in the
stabilizer within the range stated being higher
pregelatinized starch solution than in the other 25 with relatively large proportions of sweetening
solutions.
agent used. As the sweetening agent is de~
As an explanation of the effect of the pre
creased, on the other hand, the proportion of
gelatinized starch in causing the settling of the
stabilizer is also decreased to advantage.
suspended starch and the density of medium rela
Using the mixed starches constituting my
tionship to be contrary to that expected, I con 30 starch stabilizer, I have found excellent results
sider the chemical similarity of the pregelatinized
starch dissolved in the suspending medium and
in making pies with fruit, lemon, custard, or
suspended starch does notlsettle away from the
weight of the pie ?lling in accordance with usual
other ?avoring material without having to pre
of the suspended powdered starch to be an im
cook the starch stabilizer before its addition to
portant factor, the two kinds of starch tending
the pie. The addition of sucrose, say in amounts
to remain associated in the suspension so that the 35 of 25 to 45% of the sucrose on the whole dry
gelatinized starch as rapidly as the starch settles.
practice, does not interfere with the close asso
in the other cylinders containing, as the dissolved
ciation of the suspended and the gelatinized
substances, materials that are less similar to the
starch in the cold mix.
suspended starch but are more dense.
Likewise a portion of the sucrose may be re
40
As the starch used in making the pregelatinlzed
placed to advantage by corn syrup or the syrup
material of- the present invention and also as the
solids obtained by drying the corn syrup.
suspended non-gelatinized starch, best results
The invention will be further illustrated by
are obtained when the starch is waxy starch,
detailed description in connection with the fol
particularly waxy maize or waxy sorghum starch.
lowing speci?c example of the practice of it.
Good results are obtained, however, when the
waxy starch is substituted by regular corn,
tapioca, potato, sweet potato, or like commercial
Example
The stabilizer mixture, consisting of 45 parts
by weight of pregelatinized waxy to 100 parts
variety of starch, both as the starch to be pre
gelatinized and as the starch to be suspended, 50 total of such starch and non-gelatinized waxy
the substitution being in whole or in part.
starch, and the sugars are weighed and dry
The starch should be a powder. At least 95%
blended to minimize possible lumping of the pre
of it by weight should pass through a 100-mesh
gelatinized fraction of the special starch. This
screen.
I
blended mixture is then added to the undrained
That part of the starch selected for the pre 55 canned sour cherries. Water is then added if
gelatinized component of my stabilizer mixture _
any is required, to make up to the desired volume
is subjected to pregelatinization in contact with
shown below.
moisture in any convenient, conventional man
After the blend of sugar, starch stabilizer and
ner, as, for instance, by hot rolling, belt gela
fruit, has been ‘given the necessary physical mix
tinization and drying, and dielectric heating to 60 ing for uniform distribution throughout the wet
cause gelatinization followed by drying. As a
mass, the ?lling then is deposited in the unbaked
speci?c example, roller gelatinization and drying
crust. A crust composition may be laid over the
?lling. The pie is then placed in the oven and
the starch in water is spread on the surface of a
baked.
steam heated revolving roll, gelatinization and 65 As to proportions used, there are added to each
subsequent drying being effected as the roll
10 pounds of fruit juice and added water if any.
rotates and the dry starch being scraped o? after
5 pounds of sucrose, 2 pounds corn syrup solids.
the product has been dried to between 0.5% and
and approximately 1 pound as, for example, 0.5
8% moisture. The steam pressure on the rolls
to 1.5 pounds of the starch stabilizer mixture.
may vary from50 pounds to 400 pounds and the 70
Proceeding as described, I ?nd that there is
no objectionable settling of the-starch in the pie
time of contact of the starch on the roll in the
' thin ?lm may vary from a few seconds to as long
?lling even though the‘ major part of the starch
as 90 seconds or so.
is not pregelatinized. Also there is no objection
The proportion of the pregelatinized starch is
able rising (or sinking) of the fruit in the com
preferably maintained at about the minimum 75 position, in contrast to the ?oating orsettling
are conductedv as follows: a thick suspension of
i
I
. 2,442.0»
.
5
a
.
.
oi.’ the fruit which is experienced when non
gelatinizedstarchisusedas the onlystarch in
the making oi.’ the pie ?lling.
.
'
The cherry ?lling was selected for, the exam
ple because it involves a large number oi’ prob
lems, particularly of the tendency of the enzymes
r
6
,
y
_
3. A starch stabilizer as described in claim'l.
thestarchbeingwaxystarchandthepropor
and acid present to liquefy starch.
tion of the preaelatinized starch being 25 to 75
The proportion of sugar and corn syrup solids
may be varied__to suit ‘the taste.
‘
gelatinised and non-geiatinised starch, the pm
portionoithemtinisedstarch being 13 to
gtimhparts for 100 parts of total dry weight or
parts for lilopartsot totalstarch. .-
With other
_
l4.Astarchstabilizerasdescribedin-claim 1,
fruits than cherries, the‘ proportion of total 10 the starch being pulverized and 0! particle size
sweetening agent generally is reduced. This re
duction of sweetening agent makes possible also
tov pass to the extent oi.’ at leasts95' per cent
through a loo-mesh screen.
the reduction oi’ total starch as less starch is re
quired to thicken the medium containing the low
er sugar conteni_;._
-
1
5. Pie ‘?lling comprising starch stabilizer of
the kind described in claim 1, an aqueous solu-»
-
My invention is useful in making pies of the
general class which involve the use of a pre
cooked ?lling followed by baking subsequent to
15
tion of sweetening agent, and ?avoring material,
the proportion of total starch being about 5 to 15
parts for 100 parts oi’ water in the aqueous- solu- tion.
the introduction of the ?lling. These are nor
.
6. A starch stabilizer of abnormally low set
mally fruit pies with two crusts, although chicken 20 tling rate whensuspended in an aqueous me
pie and meat pies are examples of pies of the,
dium, the stabilizer comprising a mixture 0! sub
class to which my invention is applicable.
.
It will he understood also that it is intended
to cover all changes and modi?cations oi the ex
stantial Proportions of pregelatinized and non
gelatinized starch, and asugar serving as sweet
ening agent.
ample of ,the invention herein chosen for the 25.
purpose of illustration which do not constitute
departures from the spirit and scope of the in
vention.
‘
,
-
'
-
'
ROBERT L. LLOYD.
' = w cits crran
'
The following references are of record in the
What is claimed is:
.
- '
v
1. A starch stabilizer of abnormally low set 30 ?le of this patent:
tling rate when suspended in an aqueous me
UNITED STATES PATENTS
dium, the stabilizer comprising a mixture of sub
Number
Name
' Date
stantial proportions of pregelatinized and non
2,045,019 Lorensen ..... -l--- June 23, 1936
gelatinized starch.
'
2,257,599 ll'rischmuth et a1. _- Sept. 30, 1941
2. A starch stabilizer of abnormallylow set I 35 2,314,459
.?._..--.,...-.. Mar. 23, 1948
tling rate when suspended in an aqueous me
2,406,585 Buchanan et al. -_ Aug. 27, 1946 4
dium, the stabilizer comprising a mixture of pre
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