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June 29, 1948.
E. L. scHELLENs
2,444,146
TIMING SWITCH
Filed Feb. 8, 1944
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ATTORNEYS.
Patented June 29, 1948
2,444,146
_UNITED STATES PATENT oFrlcE
2,444,146
TIMING SWITCH
Eugene L. Schellens, Essex, Conn., assignor to
The R. W. Cramer Company, Incorporated,
Centerbrook,-Conn., a corporation of Connecti
cut
'
1
Application February 8, 1944, Serial No. 521,529
4 Claims. (Cl. 200-38)
' This invention is a novel timing switch of the
kind in which there is to be regulation or timing
of the operation of some industrial or other
process or apparatus, typically where an alter
nating or other current is to be supplied inter
mittently to the operation. In the use of such
timing switches it is often desired to proportion
adjustably the on and off intervals of operation
2
.
turbance eliminated of the main operations and
the efficiency thereof. Other objects and ad
vantages of the invention will be pointed out in
the hereinafter following description of an illus
trative embodiment of the invention or will be
understood by those conversant with the subject.
It is to be understood that while the illustrated
example shows the total period or repeating cycle
to be subdivided into two intervals, the same
stances wherein such regulation is desirable, for 10 principles ‘may be used for proportioning the
example where there are to be alternate func
cycle into three or a greater number of intervals,
or closed circuit.
There are many practical in
tions or operations desired to bear a definite time
relation to each other, for example, each of the
`two functions to prevail during an interval which
is a definite proportion of the tota-l time period
or cycle of the operation. One instance is the
case of an electric furnace, oven or heater which
is desired to be under electric heat for a certain
` fraction or percentage of each cycle and free of
each of a definite percentage.
In the accompanying drawings,
Fig. l is an exterior elevational view in per
spective of a timing switch, embodied in a casing
or housing, and embodying the principles of the
present invention, the switch being shown with
its axis in horizontal position as though mounted
on an instrument board.
such .heat during another fraction or interval, 20
Fig. 2 is a view of the timing switch of Fig. 1,
or for the balance of the cycle. Other instances
set up however into a vertical position, and shown
include the intermittent feed of chemicals to some
with its casing parts in central vertical section
operation, for example by the introduction of
but its interior parts in front view elevation.
agents into a vessel or boiler for the treatment
Fig, 3 is a top plan View of the switch shown
of the water therein, which may be desirable for
in Fig. 2 but with the casing top portion or cover
only a few minutes of each hour.
removed, and certain parts omitted which extend
The main object of the present invention there
above the crooked section line 3_3 of Fig. 2. In fore is to afford a timing switch which can give
Figs.
l, 2 and 3 the parts are shown in what may
automatic control of the percentage or interval
be designated their zero or initial position, this
of time at which a given regulating or operating 30 setting
giving no open-circuit interval.
circuit is to be closed or open during each pre
determined definite period of time, which may
be considered as the cycle of operation. Taking
the case of a one minute cycle or total period the
Fig. 4 is a top plan view similar to Fig. 3 but
with the operating parts shown in different posi
tions, this setting giving about 40 percent open
and 60 percent closed intervals.
timing switch of this invention may be used for 35
Fig. 5 is a righthand elevation view of certain
example to maintain the output’ circuit of the
interior parts, looking from the righthand side
apparatus open or broken for 40 percent of the
of Fig. 3.
cycle and closed for the remaining 60 percent
Fig. 6 is a rear elevation view of the timing
thereof; in other words open for 24 seconds and
closed for 36 seconds during each (iO-second 40 switch shown in Fig. 1, or a bottom view of the
same in its Fig. 2 position, and showing diagram
period. By ready readjustment the closed inter
matically
certain elements of the operating and
val may be set to 75 or 50 or other percentage.
output circuits of the switch.
Further objects are to provide a timing switch
The invention may be considered as an auto
of the kind referred to which is accurate and re
liable in operation, simple in design and durable 45 matic timing switch having a predetermined total
period of cyclical operation, repeated cycle after
in construction. A particular object is to provide
such a. switch wherein the proportioning of the
time intervals may be readily adjusted at will or
in accordance with changes of condition, namely,
cycle, and operable to reverse a controlling or
output circuit as between the closed and open
condition thereof, namely, at an adjustably vari
by an exterior adjusting means or handle, which 50 able fraction or percentage or interval of each
cycle or period. Before describing the details the
may be operated manually or otherwise during
the running of the apparatus or process and with
out the need of suspending operations or loosen
ing or removing parts of the switch; so that shut
downs of process may be avoided and any dis
p invention may be outlined as comprising the fol
lowing combination. There are a plural number
of substantially similar spiral-contoured rotary
cams 35 and 45 mounted for independent but
55 coaxial rotation, the first or passive cam 35 being
2,444,146
3
normally stationary and having a zero position
of adjustment, with an adjusting means or handle
Jl for turning or setting it to a selected position
relatively to its aero position, as for example from
Ithe Fig. 3 to the Fig. 4 position, according to any
desired division of the cycle into intervals, in this
4
The casing top wall I5 gives support to a dial
I8 which may be calibrated in various convenient
ways, such as in percents of the cycle, although
the calibrating may be designed for special uses,
indicating special magnitudes or quantities, as of
gallons, pounds and the like. As seen in Fig. l
the dial may have a zero -point I1 from which
the calibrations start, and when the switch is so
an interval of 60 percent of each total cycle; the
set the first or settable cam stands in a zero po
second or active spiral cam 45 having a driving
means or motor 25 for rotating it steadily during 10 sition corresponding to the initial position which
the second or driven cam assumes between cycles,
each cycle; a lirst switch arm 35 movable out
as seen in Figs. 2 and 3.
wardiy from its zero position to a selected or
In general the interior parts may be positioned
set position by the adjustable turning of the first
and held in place within the casing by means of
cam, as seen by comparing Figs. 3 and 4; a sec
ond switch arm 45 shiftable outwardly in a steady 15 a cross wall or diaphragm I_ß in the nature of
a circular partition or plate which is located and
manner during each cycle from an initial or in
clamped between the base and top sections of
ward position by the driving rotation of the sec
the casing. A principal element‘carried by the
ond cam 45 until released to return to initial
partition I8 is a fixed vertical stud or axle Il,
position after reaching the outer terminus of the
spiral and dropping off therefrom; a pair of elec 20 which may be welded to the partition or other
wise secured and stands upwardly to serve as an
trical contacts 4I and 5I adapted to meet and
interior bearing or axle for the rotating parts to
separate mutually to control the circuit, said
be described.
'
contacts being so arranged and related to the
Upon the fixed upright axle I9 as a bearing
first and second switch arms that when the arms
are in corresponding positions, due to the first 25 there turns a hollow shaft 20, which is motor
driven, and is in the nature of a hub carrying,
and second cams being in corresponding posi
slightly
above the partition, a spur gear 2| and
' tions, the contacts are in Amutual contact, but
thereabove the driven cam 45 to be further de
when the first arm is by its cam set outwardly g
scribed. For the purpose of steady rotation of
beyond the second arm the contacts mutually
case ‘with an interval of 40 percent followed by y
'separate and break the circuit. By this simple
- arrangement, when the first cam is once adjust
the hollow shaft or hub 25 and the cam carried
thereby there is shown provided a pinion 22 which
ably set beyond its zero position the second cam
engages and drives the gear 2I and whichl in turn
the cycle end the second arm drops or runs off
the second cam, allowing both arms to return, the
ñrst arm to its selected position and the second
the rotation speed of the driven shaft or hub
is driven through its mounting at the top end
in each‘cycle, by its steady motor drive, effects
of the output shaft 23 of the gear box 24 of a
the following actions, (a) it throws the second
arm outwardly through a predetermined interval 35 continuously rotating motor 25. The pinion shaft
23 passes through an offset aperture 25 in the
of the cycle until this‘arm overtakes the selec
partition plate I5. The motor should have
tively set first arm and thus brings the contacts
steady speed of rotation, and may be a syn
into contact, and (b) therebeyond through the
chronous electric motor, the speed of which, as
remaining interval causes the second arm to
thrust the first arm, both arms moving outwardly 40 reduced by the gearing in the gear box 24 and
by the pinion 22 driving the gear 2l determines
and thus maintaining closed the circuit, until at
arm to its initial position, ready for immediato
repetition of operations.
In the preferred and simplest arrangement the
first and second contacts are mounted directly
upon the first and second switch arms, being so
2D and thereby predetermines the period of each
cycle of the operation of the switch.
Referring now to the mountings and opera
tions of the first spiral cam 35, this preferably
takes its bearing upon the upright axle or stud
I9, above the second cam 45. A convenient
„ mounting is by means of a collar 25 surrounding
arranged that the set position of the first contact 50 the axle I9, this collar being in the nature of a
split hub or socket, positioned coaxially _above
stands in the path of the second contact as the
the driven hub 20 and preferably providing fric
second cam shifts outwardly the second arm,
tional resistance between the fixed axle and the
whereby in each cycle the second contact catches
upstanding spindle 29 which carries thel collar
up and overtakes the first at a selected point of
time depending upon the adjustment of the first 55 28 and the first cam l5. This slip mounting of
the cam spindle permits the spindle and first
cam, and from and beyond this point the second
cam to be set to a selected position, where they
arm and contact thrusting outwardly the first
tend to remain stationary by reason of the fric
contact and arm, as permitted by the spring
tion provided between the axle and the spindle
yielding thereof, thus maintaining closed the cir
as described. The spindle is shown extending
60
cuit until at the cycle end the two arms and their
through the top half of the casing and out
contacts return respectively to their selected and
through the casing top wall I5 to an exteriorly
initial positions.
accessible point, with further friction means in
Referring to the detalls of the illustrated struc
terposed between the spindle and the wall I5 if
ture the casing or housing preferably comprises
a back half or base section Il) and a front or top 65 desired. At its upper or outer extremity the cam
adjusting spindle 29 is provided with a setting
half II .constituting a cover; the entirety being
handle shown in the form of a manual knob 35;
preferably cylindrical and composed of a non
and this knob or the spindle carrying an index or
conducting plastic such as Bakelite. The inter
pointer 3l which plays around the dial I5. When
connection of the base and top sections is by
means of upright bolts I2 passing through in 70 the index finger 3l stands at the zero position I1
as seen in Fig. i the spindle and connected parts
terior bosses or lugs. The top section is prefer
take the zero position as shown in Figs. 2 and 3, `
ably formed with an outstanding flange I3 by
with the adjustable spiral cam I5 in a position
corresponding with the initial position of the
cured by means of clamping rings or straps I4. 75 driven cam 45, that is, at the end of each cycle
which the switch may be mounted‘flushly on a
switchboard or elsewhere, where it may be se- ,
2,444,146
of operation. When the handle 3l! is set to the
zero position the electrical contacts are always
in contact, so that there is no open condition of
the switch, which remains with its contacts closed
throughout 100 percent of the cycle. When how
ever the pointer is rotated around counterclcck
wise in Fig. 1 to an advanced selected position,
such as at the 40 percent mark, the switch will
remain open for 40 percent of each cycle fol
lowed by closing for the remaining 60 percent ln
terval, as will further appear.
The first or settable spiral cam 35 is the up
permost one and is mounted on the spindle 25
is connected with a binding post 5! from which
extends a second circuit wire or connector l I.
The operations of setting the selectively ad
justable or passive cam 35, and of' driving the
active or operating cam 45, and the resulting pro
portional or percentage control of the output cir
cuit through contacts 4| and 5| have been indi-`
cated. The circuits have been partially referred
to and may take many different forms, a typi
cal arrangement being indicated in Fig. 6 as fol
lows:
'
Q Line wires or conductors 55 extend to screw ter
minals 56 located in recesses in the casing bot
and is thereby adjustable by the turning of the
tom wall, with interior conductors 51 from the
spindle by the 'handle 30. The cam is described 15 lterminals to the motor 25. By an exterior switch
as a spiral cam, and it is preferably a regular ‘ 58 the energizing current can be applied or cut
spiral, being an open cam with a uniform rate
off at will. The motor 25 may be of the syn
of rise causing the outswing of the first switch
chronous kind and for example of the shift-unit '
arm as the parts are moved to their selected set
type, with speed-reduction gear-box 24 and ter
position. Cooperating with the first spiral cam
20 minal shaft 23, for further details of which ref
is the first switch arm 36, adapted to shift out
erence may be made to the Schellens Patent No.
wardly by the thrust of the cam. The arm 36,
2,334,040, patented November 9, 1943.
and as well the arm 46 lto be described, are shown
For the output circuit the casing carries screw
as swingable upon a fixed stud or axle 3l mount
terminals 60 which respectively are connected by
ed upon the upper side of the diaphragm or par
interior conductors or wires 6| with the timing
tition plate I8; and preferably both of the switch
switch contacts 4| and 5| on th-e movable switch
arms are of non-conducting` material such as
arms 36 and 46. Exteriorly are shown conduc
Bakelite. For cooperation with the cam 35 the
tors 63 extending to the load or place of opera
arm 36 is provided with a follower 38, which may
tion of any sort, for which any source of current
be a separately constructed wear-part attached 30 may be provided, conventionally indicated as a
to the extremity of the arm, and `the tapered
battery t4.
extremity of this follower is arranged to bear
While the invention may be embodied in vari
upon the periphery of -the spiral cam, so that the
ous arrangements of elements, that shown has
turning of the cam swings outwardly the switch
proven satisfactory. rThe two arms swing about
arm, there being provided a spring means,shown 35 a common axis parallel to but spaced from the
as a tension spring 39, with one end attached to
axis of the cams. The fol-lowers both face in
an upright post 40 and pulling inwardly upon
wardly toward the cam axis, and that on the
the arm, thereby to maintain the follower 38 in
settable arm is longer than the other so that the
contact with the open cam. By this arrange
first arm stands ahgularly further out, in all
ment the first switch arm can be selectively ad 40 `positions, including the case when the settable
justed from its innermost or zero position out
cam is at zero and the driven cam at initial po
wardly to the selected position, for example as
sition. By this is afforded a convenient angu
seen in Fig. 4 while at the same time the spring
lar space between the arms for locating on the
pull of the arm toward the cam permits a fur
arms the electrical contact-s, the first outwardly
ther yield of the arm for the purposes of the 45 of and in the path of the second. The two cams
cooperative action already described.
as well as the followers are preferably of hard
The second spiral cam 45 is driven steadily
ened metal, for wear, so that the followers may
by its motor and it cooperates with the second
have simple tapered extremities’without the need
of rollers.
switch arm 46 whose follower 48 bears on the
cam periphery, a spring 49 attached to pos-t [email protected] 50 vThe combined arrangement >of the switch con
tacts and the plurality of cam-actuated switch
holding the arm to the cam and, when the fcl
arms is for the purpose of affording relative mov
lower passes oil' of the outer terminus of the
ability so that the relative cam operation of the
spiral, restoring the arm to initial inward posi
arms causes the contacts to come together in one
tion, with a quick or snap action. The two cams
35 and 45 are substantially equivalent or simi 65 action or to separate in the reverse action, thus
closing or opening the switch circuit.
lar in contour, or preferably identical for sim
What is claimed is:
plicity in manufacture and operation, and the
l. In a percentage timing switch“ with cyclical
spiral shape affords a desirable gradual outthrow
operation, of the kind disclosed, a first and a sec
and sudden return or snapback of the second
60 ond spiral disk cam of similar outline mounted
switch arm.
coaxially for independent turning, their spiral
Coming next to the pair of contacts 4| and
5|, these are operated relatively to each other
by the joint action of the two switch arms. Thus,
contours trending outward from their axis; the
first cam being adjustably settable to a selected
the first contact 4| is shown mounted on the set 66 position representing subdivision of each cycle
into predetermined intervals of desired percent
table arm 36, with a binding post 42 for connec
age and when set acting passively as a stationary
tion of a circuit wire 6|. 'I‘he second contact 5l
stop, the second cam having driving means for
is shown mounted on the regularly oscillated or
rotating it steadily through cycle after cycle; a
driven arm 46. By an offset piece 50 the two
first arm with follower spring-pressed inwardly
contacts are arranged in the same path of swing, 70 toward the cam axis to maintain engagement
so that the second contact, on each outthrow,
with‘ the ñrst cam and adapted to take a selected
meets the first contact and thus `closes or re
position by the setting of its cam and yleldingly
verses the circuit condition; in this case the con
to swing outwardly therefrom in a plane at right
tact 5| being offset from its arm so as to. over
angles to the cam axis, a second arm with fol
take and strike the contact 4|. The contact 5| 75 lower spring-pressed to maintain engagement
2,444,146
with the second cam and thereby to be driven
swingingly outwardly from its initial inward posi
tion in a plane at right angles to the cam axis
until dropping of! the outer terminus of the cam
whereby during the ñrst interval of each cycle
the contacts are separated until the second over
takes the adjusted ñrst contact whereafter the
contacts remain in contact substantially to the
at the end of each cycle for return to initial posi
end of the cycle.
tion, a ilr'st electrical contact associated with the
ñrst arm and a second contact associated with
the second arm, the nrst contact being in the
is a casing having a partition wall with a ilxed
axle thereon, the settable cam having a friction
path of the outwardly moving second contact:
whereby during each cycle, with a given setting
of theilrst cam, the second arm and contact
approach the ñrst during a ilrst interval while
the circuit of the contacts is open, until the sec
ond arm and contact overtakek the ilrst causing
3. A timing switch as in claim 2 and wherein
collar engaging said axle and extended lfrom said
collar a spindle carrying an exterior setting han
die, and the driven cam having a hub or sleeve
turning on said axle with a gear by which it is
continuously drivenj the driving means compris
ing a synchronous motor and reduction gearing
the closing of _the circuit, which'remains closed
from the motor to the driven hub gear.
for a second interval as the first arm and contact
yield outwardly with the thrust- of the second arm
f
the arms are swingable about a common axis par
4. A timing switch as in claim 2 and wherein
alle] to but spaced away from the common axis of
‘and contact until at the cycle-end the second arm
the spiral cams. with the arm followers facing in
is restored inwardly to its initial position while
the first arm returns to its selected position, forl 20 wardly toward the cam axis; the follower of the
settable arm being longer than thatl of th‘e driven
repetition of action in the succeeding cycle.
arm. whereby at zero position the settable arm
2. A cyclic timing switch comprising ilrst and
stands spaced angularly outward of the driven
second circuit making and breaking contacts, the
arm at initial position, and the respective con
former being positioned outwardly ot but in the
tacts being accommodated in the angular space
path of the latter at the beginning of each cycle,
between the two arms.
first and second switch arms operatively connect
EUGENE L. SCHELLENS.`
ed with the ñrst and second contacts respectively,
ñrst and second similar cams coaxially mounted
REFERENCES CITED
and each having a gradual spiral rise and sud
The
following
references are of record in the
den drop, the ñrst cam being a rotary stop and
ille of this patent: ’
adjustable to selected ilxed positions to set the
' position of the first relatively to the second arm
and contact, and the second cam having means to
drive it steadily to cause gradual outward and
quick return movements of themsecond arm and
contact in each cycle; said arms being mounted
to move outwardly and inwardly in planes at
right angles to the common axis of said cams;
UNITED STATES PATENTS
Number
594,306
2,275,912
2.294,961
2,366,454
Name
Date
Williams _________ __ Nov. 23,
Newell ___________ __ Mar. 10,
Carlson ___________ __ Sept. 8,
Patee _____________ ___ Jan. 2,
1897
1942
1942
1945
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