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NOV- 9, 1948-
R. LOZlVlT
THROTTLE CONTROL FOR THE PRIMARY AND
SECONDARY CHARGE OF ENGINES
2,453,377
Filed March 13, 1946
I27
/4.3
JNVEN TOR.
RE NE LOZ/ VI T
BY £1 éf/ '
ATTORNEX
2,453,377
Patented Nov. 9,1948
UNITED STAT ES
PATENT OFFICE.’
‘ 2,453,311
THROTTLE CONTROL FOR THE PRIMARY
AND SECONDARY CHARGES OF ENGINES
René Lozivit, Paris, France, assignor to Societe
d’Etudes dc Carburation pour I’Automobile et
l’Aviation ."S. E. C. A. A.,” Levaliois-Perret,
France
Application March 13, 1946, Serial No. 854,042 '
In FranceAJanuary 25, 1944
Section 1, Public Law 690, August 8, 1948
Patent expires January 25, 1964
13 Claims. (CL 123-75)
..
The present invention relates to internal com
bustion engines and more especially to internal
combustion engines in which the air and fuel
mixture to introduce into the cylinders is obtained
by adding to the main air stream sucked in by
said cylinders through the intake orifices a given
2
-
drop on the downstream side of the main air
stream control valve.
In my U. S. application Serial No. 654,043, ?led
March 13, 1946, for “Devices for controlling ?ow
rate of fluids through two distinct circuits,” now
abandoned, there is described an automatic de
vice in which, interconnecting means being pro
weight of a'rich fuel and air mixture preliminarily
vided between the valves that serve to control
formed in auxiliary cylinders respectively con
the fluid flow rates in two distinct conduits, these
nected with the motor cylinders above mentioned,
interconnecting means are subjected to the action
this introduction of rich mixture into the main 10 of a part differentially operated by the respective
air stream being made at a predetermined time of
pressure differences existing on the one hand
the cycle.
across the valve means of the ?rst conduit, and,
Generally, this preliminary mixture is supplied
by carburetters mounted on the intake-ori?ces,
respectively, of the auxiliary cylinders.
These
carburetters include, for instance, in the known
way, a ?oat chamber and a jet system ensuring
a suitable proportioning of the air that flows
through the carburetter and of the fuel that
passes through the jet means.
A valve disposed between the auxiliary cylinder
and the carburetter permits of adjusting the
amount of fuel mixture supplied to said auxiliary
cylinder by said carburetter.
Such internal combustion ‘engines have been
made for operation on a cycle of the compression
ignition type with fuels such for instance as gas
oils.
These engines required, for the control
thereof, merely means for adjusting the amount
of rich mixture supplied to- the auxiliary cylin
ders. The main air stream fed to the motor cyl
inders remained always the same, whatever be
the load and the adjustment.
I
When it is desired to make use of such en
gines for operation on the spark ignition cycle,
on the other hand, across the valve means of the
second conduit, in such manner that these valve
means are automatically adjusted in positions for
which the ratio of the pressure drops across the
valve means in question is kept constant.
The object of the present invention is to pro
vide improvements in the feed of internal com
bustion engines of the type above referred to and
working with light fuels.
..
.
According to an essential feature of the pres
ent invention, the device above referred to, as
25 described in my copending U. S.'applicati0n above
mentioned, is combined with such an internal
combustion engine. In other words, in an engine
of this type made according to the present in
vention, interconnecting means are provided be
tween the carburetter control valve and the main
air stream control valve and these control means
are subjected to the action of a part differentially
operated by the pressure differences existing re
spectively, on the one hand, across the carbu
35 retter control valve and, on the other hand, across
the main stream control valve, whereby these
with a light fuel forming with air an explosive
control valves are automatically placed in posi
mixture, it becomes absolutely necessary to pro
tions such that the ratio of the pressure drops
vide valve means for adjusting the rate of .?ow
across these control valves is kept constant.
cf the main air stream fed to the motor cylinders. 40
Other features of the present invention will re
In this case, the working "or such engines neces
sult from the following detailed description of
sitates, for every modification of the speed and
some speci?c embodiments thereof.
the load, a new adjustment of the positions of
Preferred embodiments of the present inven
the main air stream control valve and of the mix.
tion will be hereinafter described, with reference
ture control valve adjoined to each auxiliary 45 to the accompanying drawings, given merely by
cylinder.
way of example, and in which the only figure
These operations greatly complicate the con
shows, in diagrammatic vertical section, an in
trol, of these engines and involve serious risks ,
ternal combustion engine of the type in which a
of incidents dangerous for their mechanical parts.
preliminary mixture of air and fuel is injected
Experiments conducted on an internal com 50
into the main air stream, this engine incorporat
bustion engine of the type above referred to have
ing the feed device according to the present
shown that the fuel mixture that ensures the
invention.
highest efficiency of the‘ engine for various speeds
The internal combustion engine illustrated by
and loads is obtained when the pressure drop on
the drawing includes a cylinder I, a piston 2
the downstream side of the carburetter valve is 5,5 movable in-said cylinder, and a connecting rod
kept always in the same ratio to the pressure
—
2,458,877
8 interposed between said piston and a crank
shaft 4.
v‘The inside of cylinder -I can be placed in com?
munication with the atmosphere through a pipe
I provided with a valve 6 operated through a
lever ‘I. The inlet valve and the exhaust valve
of the engine are shown at 8 and 9 respectively.
_ sired ratio of the pressure drops on the down
stream sides of valves 2| and 6, respectively.
The engine according to the present invention
will work in the following manner:
.
When, at the end of its suction stroke, piston
I4 is in the position I‘I shown in dotted lines,
the ori?ce I8 of conduit I9 places the inside of
The electricspark plug is shown at 8a.
cylinder I0, where a certain vacuum has been
Above cylinder I, there is provided a second
produced, in communication with the atmosphere,
cylinder I8, adapted to communicate with cylin 10 through carburetter 20. The stream of air thus
der I through an orifice II normally closed‘by a
. caused to flow toward cylinder I0 exerts, at the
valve I2 loaded by a spring I3.
'
throat of venturi 21, a suction which causes fuel
In this cylinder I8 is movably mounted a pis
to ?ow through jet 26. The air and fuel mix
ton I 4 actuated, through a comiecting rod I8, by
ture that is thus produced enters cylinder I8 and,
a crankshaft I8 rotating at the same speed as 15 as crankshaft I6 has kept turning during this
the driving shafts of valves 8 and 9. At the end
time, piston I4 leaves its position I'I so as to per
of its suction stroke, piston I4 occupies, the posi
form its compression stroke. At the end thereof,
tion shown at H in dotted lines. In this posi
the mixture present in cylinder III is transferred
tion, said piston opens a port I8 so as to bring
into cylinder I owing to the‘ opening of valve I2.
the inside of cylinder III in communication,
In the meantime, piston2 has been moving
through a conduit I8, with a carburetter 28. 20 upwardly toward the end of cylinder I. Valves
This carburetter includes a control valve, or
throttle valve 2i, a chamber 22 for the fuel, pro
vided with a ?oat-28 and a needle valve 22 con
trolled by said ?oat, said chamber receiving fuel
from a pipe 28. The Jet means of this carburet
ter are diagrammatically illustrated as consist
A short time before
plug 89. gives a spark for ignition of the mixture
present in the combustion chamber. The piston
is driven downwardly by the explosion that takes '
place, after which it. again moves upwardly for
ing of conduit as opening into the neck of ven
turi 2i.
8 and 9 are both closed.
piston 2 reaches the top of its upward stroke,
the discharge of the ‘burnt gases.‘ After this up
ward stroke, piston 2 again moves downwardly
'
The throttle valve 2| of the carburetter is ?tted
so as to draw in the main air stream through
with a lever 2s ‘connected to a manual control
valve 8, which has just opened, and conduit II.
member 29.
The ?ow of air through this conduit 5 pro
The free end of lever 28 and the lever I of air,
duces according to the position of air control valve '.
valve 6 are respectively connected through suit
. 6, a pressure drop across said valve, and this pres- >
able rods with levers H3 and I28 pivoted respec- .
sure drop is transmitted, though conduit 82, to tively at I23 and I25 and interconnected through
the outer side of membrane I38.
links H8 and II8._ A connecting rod H5 is inter
posed between the point of articulation N8 of
In a likewise manner, the pressure drop across
the throttle valve M of carburetor 28 is trans
links He and H8 and the end of the rod of a pis
through conduits 33 and I48 to the outer ton I I8 slidable in a cylinder I28 and subjected 40 mitted,
side of membrane I35.
,7
.
to the action of a spring “I.
>
Since the system is in equilibrium, the ratio
Cylinder I28 is in communication through a
of the pressure drops in question is equal to
conduit I28 with a cylindrical casing I21 contain
the
reciprocal of the ratio of the areas of the
ing a slide valve I28. According to the position
active surfaces of the corresponding membranes.
When the position of throttle valve 2I is modi
fled by displacement of control member 28, the
pressure drop on the downstream’ side of said
duit as or with a conduit 38. Conduit 38 is con
throttle valve is of course modi?ed, and, temnected with a pump 35 immersed in an oil tank
85 and is therefore fed with oil under pressure. 50 porarily, the control device is unbalanced.
Thus for example if this throttle valve 2| has
Conduit 38 opens into a funnel-shaped inlet con
been moved toward closed position, pressure falls
duit 87 opening into said tank 88, so that the
in I9, 83, I88, I68 ‘and “I; the system of mem
liquid discharged from piston I26 can be returned
branes I 8B—I38 and valve I28 are moved to the
to the oil tank.
‘
right and bring the conduit I28 of cylinder I24
The left hand end of slide valve I28 constitutes
in communication with relief conduit 38. Piston
a push-piece I82 bearing against the central part
IIB therefore moves down in said cylinder being
of a membrane I 85 positively connected with a
of the portion I29 of this slide valve with respect
to the opening of conduit I28, this slide valve con
nects the inside of cylinder IZII either with a con
membrane I 38. The peripheral edges of said
membranes I35 and I88 are tightly held between
pushed by spring II ‘I. This displacement of pis- .
the corresponding edges-of casing elements I88,
ver I28 link HI and lever ‘I, partly closes valve 6.
The resulting decrease of the pressure on the down
stream side of valve 8 acts through pipe 32 in
such manner as to displace diaphragm I38 and
I88 and ISI. Springs M2 and M3, both of the
same strength, are arranged to keep the mem
branes interconnected by parts ltd-I36. A screw
I42 makes it possible to modify the position of
the portion I29 of slide valve I28 with respect
to conduit I26, for initial adjustment.
ton IIB, operating through links H5, H8, H8 le-'
co
slide valve I28 in a direction opposed to that
of its initial displacement. Conduit I26 is again
closed by portion I28, and piston IIB stops and,’
Chambers I65, I26 and IE1 communicate re
remains in the new position it occupies. It is
spectively with pipe 5 through conduit 82, with
clear that, in this position, it has brought valve
8 into a position of opening such that the ratio
the atmosphere, and with ‘conduit I8 through ,
conduit 88, connected with the housing of spring
of the pressure drops across valves 8 and 2| is
I28, itself connected through a pipe I48 with 70 equal to the reciprocal of the ratio of the areas
chamber I47, so as to balance the pressures on
the respective sides of slide valve I28.
The areas of the active surfaces of membranes
I35 and I38 are chosen in such manner that
their ratio is equal to the reciprocal of the de
of the active surfaces of membranes I88 and I35
respectively. As this. last mentioned ratio is
constant, the desired condition above set forth
has been truly complied with. Control of the
engine is thus greatly simpli?ed since the driver
8,468,877
-
-
5
has but to operate control member 20 and the air
valve is automatically brought into the proper
position corresponding to‘ the position of said
control member.
with said pumping means, a ilow rate control
valve in said air conduit, a flow rate control valve
in said mixture conduit means, control means
for directly adjusting the position of said second
mentioned control valve, adjustable means for
interconnecting said control valves, and means
.
In a general manner, while I have, in the above
description, disclosed what I deem to be practical
and e?lcient embodiments of the present inven
differentially operative by' the respective pressure
tion, it should be well understood that I do not
drops on the downstream sides of said control
wish to be limited thereto as there might be
valves in said air conduit and mixture conduit
changes made in the arrangement, disposition, 10 meansrespectively for adjusting said intercon
and form of the parts without departing from
necting means, whereby the ratio of said respec
the principle of the present invention as com-'
tive pressure drops is automatically kept at a
prehended within the scope of the appended
constant value.
claims.
5. In connection with an internal combustion
15 engine, a feed device which comprises, in com
1. In connection with an internal combustion
bination, an air conduit for supplying a main
engine, a feed device which comprises, in com
air stream to said engine, pumping means for
bination, conduit means for supplying a main air
forcing a fuel and air mixture into said engine,
stream to said engine, means for forming a fuel
means for driving said pumping means in syn
and air mixture, means for injecting said mixture 20 chronism with said engine, a carburetter for
into said main air, valve means in said conduit
forming a fuel and air mixture, conduit means
means for controlling the flow rate of said main
for connecting the output of said carburetter
What I claim is:
'
air stream therethrough, valve means for con
with said pumping means, a flow rate control
trolling the flow rate of said mixture from said
valve in said air conduit, a flow rate control
mixture forming means to said mixture injecting 25 valve in said mixture conduit means, control
means for directly adjusting the position of said
means, and means differentially operative by the
respective pressure drops across said two valve
second mentioned control valve, adjustable means
means for controlling at least one of said valve
for interconnecting said control valves, servo
means to keep a constant ratio of said pressure
control means for adjusting said interconnecting
drops.
80 means, and means differentially operative by the
respective pressure drops on the downstream
2. In connection with an internal combustion
engine, a feed device which comprises, in com
sides of said control valves in said air conduit
and mixture conduit means respectively for oper
bination, conduit means for supplying a main air
stream to said engine means for forming a fuel
ating said servo-control means, whereby the ratio
of said respective pressure drops is automatically
and air mixture, means for injecting said mixture
kept at a constant value.
into said main air, valve means in said conduit
means for controlling the flow rate of said main
_ 6. In connection with an internal combustion
air stream therethrough, valve means for con
engine, a feed device which comprises, in combi
trolling the ?ow rate of said mixture from said
nation, an air conduit for supplying a main air
mixture forming means to said mixture injecting 40 stream to said engine, pumping means for forc
ing a fuel and air mixture into said engine, means
means, means for manually operating said last
for driving said pumping means in synchronism
mentioned valve means, and means di?erentially
operative by the respective pressure drops across‘
with said engine, a. carburetter for forming a
said two valve means for controlling at least said
fuel and air mixture, conduit means for connect
ing the output of said carburetter with said
?rst mentioned valve means to keep a constant
ratio of said pressure drops.
3. In connection with an internal combustion
engine, a feed device which comprises, in com
bination, an air conduit for supplying a main air
stream to said engine, pumping means for forc
ing a fuel and air mixture into said engine, means
for driving said pumping means in synchronism
with said engine, a carburetter for forming a fuel
and air mixture, conduit means for connecting
pumping means, a flow rate control valve in said
air conduit, a flow rate control valve in said
mixture conduit means, control means for directly
adjusting the position of said second mentioned
control valve, adjustable means for interconnect
ing said control valves, hydraulic Jack means for
adjusting said interconnecting means, and means
differentially operative by the respective pres
sure drops on the downstream sides of said con
the output of said carburetter with said pumping
trol valves in said air conduit and mixture con
means, a flow rate control valve in said air con
duit, a flow rate control valve in said mixture
conduit means, control means for directly ad
duit means respectively for operating said jack
means, whereby the ratio of said respective pres
sure drops is automatically kept at a constant
justing the position of said second mentioned
control valve, and means differentially operative
by the respective pressure drops on the down
stream sides of said control valves in said air
conduit and mixture conduit means respectively
value.
-
7. In connection with an internal combustion
engine, a feed device which comprises, in com
bination, an air conduit for supplying a main air
stream to said engine, pumping means for forc
ing a fuel and air mixture into said engine, means
for controlling said ?rst mentioned valve so as
automatically to keep the ratio of said respective
' for driving said pumping means in synchronism
pressure drops at a constant value.
4. In connection with an internal combustion
with said engine, a carburetter for forming a fuel
and air mixture, conduit means for connecting
engine, a feed device which comprises, in com
the output of said carburetter with said pumping
bination, an air conduit for supplying a main
means, a ?ow rate control valve in said air con
air stream to said engine, pumping means for 70 duit, a flow rate control valve in said mixture
forcing a fuel and air mixture into said engine,
means for driving said pumping means in syn
chron‘sm with said engine, a carburetter for
forming alfuel and air mixture, conduit means
for connecting the output of said carburetter 75
conduit means, control means for directly ad
justing the position of said second mentioned
control valve, adjustable means for interconnect
ing said control valves, hydraulic jack means for
adjusting said interconnecting means, a source '
2,458,877.‘
‘I
.
.
of liquid under pressure, a discharge pipe, distrib
uting valve means for either placing said hy
draulic jack means in communication with either
said source or said discharge pipe or cutting it
off from the outside, and means di?erentlally
operative by the'respective pressure drops on the
downstream sides of said control valves in said
air conduit and mixture conduit means respec
tively for operating said distributing valve means,
8
and air mixture, conduit means for connecting
the output of ‘said carburetter with said pumping
means, a ?ow rate control valve in said air con-4
duit, a throttle valve for controlling the‘?owof
fuel and air mixture through said carburetter,
control means for directly adjusting the position
of said throttle valve, a manometric member op
erative'in response to variations of the air pres
‘ sure in said conduit on the downstream side 0f
whereby the ratio of said respective pressure drops 10 said control valve, another manometric member
operative in response to variations of the pres,
is automatically kept at a constant value.
sure in said conduit means on the downstream
8.. In connection with an internal combustion
side of-said throttle valve, adjustable means for
engine, a feed device which comprises, in combi
interconnecting said two valves, ?uid actuated
nation, an air conduit for supplying a‘ main air
stream to said engine, pumping means for forc is servo-control means for adjusting said intercon
necting means, and distributing valve means op-_
ing a fuel and air mixture into said engine; means
erative by the differentially combined actions of
for driving said pumping means in synchronism
‘ said manometric, members for operating said
. with said engine, a carburetter for forming a
servo-control means, whereby the pressure drops
fuel and air mixture, conduit means for connect
ing the output of saidcarburetter with said 20 across said valves in'said air conduit and said
conduit means respectively are automatically
kept at a constant ratio to each other.
11. In connection with an internal combustion
the ?ow of fuel and air mixture through said car- '
engine, a feed device which comprises, in com:
buretter, control means for directly adjusting
the position of said throttle valve, a manometric 25 bination, an air conduit for supplying a main air
stream to said engine, pumping means for forc
member, operative in response to variations of.
ing a fuel and air mixture into said engine, means
the air pressure in said conduit on the down
for driving said pumping means in synchronism
stream side of said control valve, anothermano
with‘ said engine, a carburetter for forming a
metric member operative in response to varia
tions of the pressure in said conduit meanson 30 fuel and air mixture, conduit means‘ for con
pumping means, a flow rate controlv valve in
said air conduit, a throttle valve for controlling
the down-stream side of the throttle valve, ad
justable means for interconnecting said two
valves, and means operative by the differentially
combined actions of said manometric means for
adjusting said interconnecting means, whereby
> the pressure drops across said valyes in said air
conduit and said conduit means respectively are
automatically kept at a constant ratio ,of each
other.
i
9. In connection with an internal combustion
engine, a feed device which comprises, hi com
bination, an air conduit for supplying a main air‘
stream to said engine, pumping means for forc
necting the output of said carburetter with said
‘pumping means, a ?ow rate control valve in said
air conduit, a throttle valve for controlling the
_ flow of fuel and air mixture through said car
buretter, control means for directly adjusting the
1 position of said throttle valve, a manometric
membrane deformable in response to variations
of the air pressure in said conduit on the down
stream side of said control valve, a manometric
membrane deformable, in opposition with the
?rst membrane in response to variations of the
pressure in said conduit means on the down
stream side of said throttle valve, adjustable
means for interconnecting said two valves, servo
control means for adjusting said interconnecting
means, and means operative by the combined
actions of said manometric membranes for oper
the output of said carburetter with said pump- , ‘ ating said servo-control means, whereby the pres
sure drops across said valves in said air conduit
ring means, a flow rate control valve in said air
‘and said conduit means respectively are auto
- conduit, a throttle valve for controlling the ?ow
matically kept at a constmt ratio to each other.
of fuel and air mixture through said carburetter,
12. In connection with an internal combustion.
control means for directly adjustingthe position
engine, a feed device which comprises, in com?
of said throttle valve, a manometric member op
bination, an air conduit for supplying a'main
erative in response to variations of the air pres
sure in said conduit on the downstream side 'of " air stream to said engine, pumping means for
forcing a fuel and air mixture into said engine,
‘said control valve, another manometric member
means for driving said pumping means in syn
operative in response'to variations of the pressure
chronism with said engine, a carburetter for
in said conduit means on the downstream side.
forming a fuel and air mixture, conduit means‘
of said throttle valve, adjustable means for in
terconnecting said two valves, servo-control 60 for connecting the output of said carburetter wi'h
said pumping means, a ?ow rate control valve
means for adjusting said interconnecting means,
in said air conduit, a throttle valve for controlling
and means operative by the di?erentially com
the ?ow of fuel and air mixture through said
bined actions of said manometric members for
carburetter, control means for directly adjusting
operating said servo-control means, whereby the
the position of said throttle‘ valve, 9. manometric
pressure drops acrosssaid valves in said air con
member operative in response to variations of the
duit and said conduit means respectively are
air pressure in said conduit on the downstream
automatically kept at a constant ratio to each
side of‘said control valve, another manometric
other.
member operative in response to variations of the
10. In connection with‘ an internal combustion
‘engine, a feed device which comprises, in combi 70 pressure in said conduit means on the down
stream side of said throttle valve, adjustable
nation, an air conduit for supplying a main air
means for interconnecting said two valvesghye
‘stream to said engine, pumping means for forc
. draulic jack means for adjusting‘said intercon
ing a fuel and air mixture into said engine, means
necting means, and means operative by‘the dif
for driving said pumping means in synchronism
‘ with said engine, a carburetterfor forming a fuel 75 Ierentially‘ combined actions of said manometric I
ing a'fuel and air mixture into said engine, means
for driving said pumping means in synchronism
with said engine, a carburetter for forming a fuel
and air mixture, conduit means for connecting
‘2,453,377
means for operating said jack means, whereby
the pressure drops across said valves in said air
conduit and said conduit means respectively are
automatically kept at a constant ratio to each
other.
-
.
10
.
two valves, servo-control means for adjusting
‘said interconnecting means, and adjustable
means operative by the differentially combined
actions of said manometric means for operating
5 said servo-control means, whereby the pressure
13. In connection with an internal combustion
drops across said valves in said air conduit and
engine, a, feed device which comprises, in com
said conduit means respectively are automatically
bination, an air conduit for supplying a main
kept at a constant ratio to each other.
air stream to said engine, pumping means for 10
RENE LOZIVIT.
forcing a fuel and air mixture into said engine,
means for driving said pumping means in syn
_
REFERENCES CITED
chronism with said engine, a carburetter for
The
following
references are of record in the
forming a fuel and air mixture, conduit means
?le of this patent:
for connecting the output of said carburetter with
UNITED STATES PATENTS
said pumping means, a ?ow rate control valve 15 '
in said air conduit, a throttle valve for con
Number
Name
Date
trolling th‘e ?ow of fuel and air mixture through
736,224
Cushman ___'____l___ Aug. 11, 1903
said carburetter, control means for directly ad
1,477,363
Kessler ___________ __ Dec. 11, 1923
justing the position of said throttle valve, a
1,543,717
Madler ____________ June 30, I925
manometric member operative in response to 20 1,589,662
Ricardo __________ __ June 22, 1926
variations of the air pressure in said conduit on
the downstream side of said control valve, an
other manometric member operative in response
2,397,835
‘2,398,878
to variations of‘ the pressure in said conduit
means on the downstream side of said throttle 25 Number
valve, adjustable means for interconnecting said
536,805
Brame ____________ __ Apr. 2, 1945
Bolli ____ _; _______ __ Apr. 23, 1946
FOREIGN PATENTS
Country
Date
England ________________ __ 1941
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