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Dec. 7, 1948.
H, JA¢¢B$
2,455,493
EXHAUST MANIFOLD
Filed Aug. 7, 1946
4 Sheets-Sheet 1
7, 1948.
H. JACOBS
2,455,493
EXHAUST MANIFOLD
Filed Aug. 7, 1,946
4 Sheets-Sheet 2
If
Dec. 7, 1948.
H, JACOBS
2,455,493
EXHAUS'i‘ MANIFOLD
Filed Aug. '7, 194a
_
4 Sheets-Sheet? '
ec. 7, 1948.
2,455,493
H. JACOBS
EXHAUST MANIFOLD
Filed Aug. 7, 1946
4 Sheets-Sheet 4
FIG. l4.
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FIG. l6.
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Patented Dec. 7, 1948
2,455,493
UNITED STATES’ PATENT OFFICE
2,455,493
EI?iAUST MANIFOLD
Harold Jacobs, Clayton, Mo.
Application August 7, 1916, Serial No. 688,861
26 Claims. (0]. 285-210)
This invention relates to exhaust manifolds for
multi-cylinder internal combustion engines of the
kind having a ?uid operated turbocharger op
erated by the exhaust gases conducted thereto
through said manifold.
Fig. 4 is an end elevational view of the discharge
end of said manifold;
-
Figs. 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 are vertical cross-sectional
views on the lines 5—5, 5-6, '|——1, 8-8 and 9-’,
respectively, in Fig. 2;
The invention has for its principal object to de
Fig. 10 is a plan view of a modi?ed form of ex
vise a simple, strong and durable, lightweight ex
haust manifold;
haust manifold of the above type that will con
Fig. 11 is a side elevational view of one side of
duct the exhaust gases of the engine to the turbo
the modified manifold;
charger therefor with a minimum amount of tur 10
Fig. 12 is a side elevational view of the other
bulence and frictional resistance and without the
side thereof;
exhaust gases from one cylinder interfering with
Fig. 13 is an end elevational view of the dis
the exhaust gases from any other cylinder, there
charge end of said modi?ed manifold;
by obtaining the maximum e?iciency of the ex
Figs. 14 and 15 are vertical cross-sectional views
haust gases as a motive ?uid for the turbocharger 16 on the lines I 4—l4 and l5-I5, respectively, in
for the engine and thus increasing the horse
Fig. 10;
power thereof.
,
Fig. 16 is a fragmentary plan view of another
Other objects are to provide for cooling the
modified form of manifold;
manifold by the liquid cooling medium for the
Fig. 17 is a vertical cross-sectional view on the
engine, or by an independent source of cooling 20 line
|1--l‘| inF-ig. 16; and
’
medium, or to provide for axial expansion of the
Fig. 18 is a perspective view of one of the axially
manifold.
expansible and contractible manifold sections
The invention consists in an exhaust manifold
shown in Figs. 16 and 17.
of the above type comprising a plurality of sepa
In the accompanying drawings, Figs. 1 to 9, in
rate noncommunicating conduits permanently
clusive, illustrate a liquid cooled exhaust mani
assembled in spaced parallel relation, all open at
fold for conducting the exhaust gases of an eight
the same end for communication with the turbo
cylinder internal combustion engine (not shown)
charger and each communicating with a selected
to an exhaust turbine supercharger (not shown)
group of engine cylinders.
for supplying to said engine a greater weight of
The invention also consists in forming each of
air than would normally be inducted at the pre
said exhaust conduits of lengths of half tube sec
vailing atmospheric pressure. The exhaust mani
tions that are closed along their open side by ?at
fold comprises a tubular outside casing A having
plates‘ welded thereto. and assembled in proper
four conduits B, C, D and E disposed therein lon
relation.
gitudinally thereof, one above another and spaced
The invention also consists in mounting said
from one another and from said casing to provide
tubular conduits in a tubular casing which is dis
a chamber F for any suitable cooling liquid,
posed in spaced relation thereto to form a water
The outside casing or jacket A preferably com
jacket therefor and is adapted for connection with
prises a ?at inner side wall plate I, a ?at outer
the liquid cooling system of the engine or to an
side wall plate 2, a half tube top section 3 welded
independent cooling system. The invention also
to the upper edges of said plates, and a half tube
consists in dispensing with the cooling jacket and
bottom section 4 welded to the lower edges of Said
in providing the exhaust conduits with axially
plates. The tubular casing A has a closure plate
5 welded to one end thereof. The other end por
expansible and contractible sections; and it also
tion 6 of the casing A gradually increases in width
consists in the multi-conduit exhaust manifold
and in the parts and combinations and arrange 45 and decreases in depth and terminates at said end
in a substantially rectangular section which is
ments of parts hereinafter described and claimed.
closed by a similarly shaped end closure plate ‘I
In the accompanying drawings, wherein like
welded therein. The end closure plate ‘I has
symbols refer to like parts wherever they occur.
openings 1“ therethrough in the four corners
Fig. 1 is a top plan view of a multi-conduit ex
60 thereof, and the four exhaust conduits B, C, D
haust manifold embodying my invention;
and E have the portions thereof that are located
Fig. 2 is a side elevational view of said mani
fold;
Fig. 3 is a side elevational view of the other side
thereof;
in the end portion 6 of the casing A formed to ex
tend through said end portion and the respective
openings in said closure plate and are welded in
said openings and terminate at their open dis
9,465,498
3
charge ‘ends in a common substantially rectan
gularly shaped attachment plate 8 adapted to be
secured to the turbocharger with said open dis
charge ends in communication with the inlet
opening thereof.
4
.
order of 1, 6, 2, 5, 8, 3, 7, 4, the exhaust conduit
'13 is connected with the fourth and ?fth cylin
ders, the conduit C is connected to the third and
sixth cylinders, the conduit D is connected with
the second and seventh cylinders, and the con
duit E is connected with the ?rst and eighth
As shown in the drawings, each of the exhaust
cylinders.
conduits B, C, D and E comprises a, half-round
The hereinbefore described exhaust manifold
tube section 9, which is closed at the end remote
has numerous important advantages. The man
from the discharge end of said conduit by a semi
ifold is made of simple and inexpensive parts
circular end closure plate It welded therein and 10 that are quickly and easily welded together to
is closed along its open side by a flat cover plate
form a strong and durable, lightweight construc
ll welded to the longitudinal side edges of said
tion having exhaust inlet ?ttings spaced apart to
half-round section. The discharge end portion
coincide with the cylinder spacing of the engine
of each exhaust conduit gradually changes from
throughout the length of the manifold and water
a half-round section to a round section of sub 16 inlet ?tting- either associated with each of said
stantially the same cross-sectional area as the
exhaust inlet ?ttings or placed in independent
half-round section.
The two uppermost exhaust conduits B and C
are arranged in opposed spaced relation and in
cline downwardly from the outer side wall 2 of
the casing A towards the inner side wall I there
of; and the two lowermost exhaust ‘conduits D
and E are similarly arranged, but have their ?at
sides disposed in substantially horizontal planes.
The uppermost exhaust conduit B terminates a
considerable distance short of the closed end 5 of
the casing or jacket A, and the remaining- ex
haust conduits C, D and E successively increase in
length towards said end of said casing.
Each of the exhaust conduits B, C, D and E is
provided with two tubular inlet branch ?ttings l2
spaced apart longitudinally thereof. Each of the
two inlet ?ttings l2 of each exhaust conduit
inclines downwardly, outwardly and rearwardly
from an opening in the engine side of said con
duit through an opening in the inner wall I of
the casing and is welded in said openings and
terminates at its lower end in a vertical attach
ment ?ange l3 adapted to be secured to the side
of the engine. The inlet end of each elbow ?t
ting I2 is of a shape to correspond to the ex
haust port attaching face of the engine and the
discharge end thereof is horizontally elongated
lengthwise of the conduit, the cross-sectional
area of said ends being substantially the same
as the cross-sectional area of said conduit.
Each of the exhaust inlet ?ttings H of an
positions. Selected engine cylinders are grouped
together to exhaust into certain exhaust'conduits
according to the number of cylinders and the ?r
ing order thereof so that the exhaust gases from
one cylinder will not interfere with the exhaust
from any other cylinder connected to the same
exhaust conduit. Thus, by preventing the simul
taneous or overlapping exhaust of a plurality of
cylinders into a common exhaust conduit, the
exhaust gases are conducted to the turbocharger
with a maximum amount of pressure ?uctuation,
but with a minimum amount of turbulence, fric
tional resistance and interference, thereby ob
taining the maximum efficiency of the exhaust
gases for operating the turbocharger. This tur
bulence and frictional resistance is further re
duced by reason of the substantially straight ex
haust conduits and by maintaining a substan
tially constant cross-sectional area throughout
the entire length of the exhaust conduits and
their inlet ?ttings. The cooling chamber of the
manifold is so constructed that the cooling liquid
?ows through said chamber and around all of
the exhaust conduits, thus preventing pressure
knocks, heat distortion of the manifold, and
maintaining the exhaust gases at a temperature
best suited for operating the turbocharger at
maximum efficiency.
Figs. 10 to 15, inclusive, illustrate an exhaust
manifold for a six cylinder engine. This mani
fold comprises a tubular outside casing A1 of
exhaust conduit is adapted to communicate at
circular section having two exhaust conduits B1
its ?anged inlet end with the exhaust port of a
and C1 of semicircular section disposed therein,
selected engine cylinder. The ?ange I: of each 60 substantially concentric therewith and spaced
exhaust inlet ?tting [2 may also support the outer
therefrom to form a chamber F1 for the cooling
or inlet end of the horizontal water inlet tube ll
?uid.
whose inner or outer end is welded in an opening
The two semicircular or half-round exhaust
provided therefor in the inner or engine opposing
conduits B1 and C1 are arranged with their ?at
side wall of the casing or jacket A.
sides vertical and in opposed spaced horizontal
In the manifold shown, the inlet end of each
relation to form a passage therebetween for the
inlet tube I4 is adapted to communicate with the
cooling ?uid in the chamber F1. The cylindrical
cooling jacket of the engine, and the jacket A of
outside
casing or jacket A1 comprises two semi
the casing has an outlet opening I5 therein that
circular or half tube sections 3' that are welded
communicates with the engine cooling system
whereby the cooling liquid of said system ?ows 60 together along their adjacent longitudinal edges.
The casing A1 has a closure plate 5 which is
through the cooling chamber F of the manifold
welded to one end thereof and has a water inlet
and around the exhaust conduits therein.
opening Ha therein; and said casing terminates
As stated above, the hereinbefore described ex
at its opposite end in a conical or ?ared portion
haust manifold is adapted for use with an eight
cylinder Diesel engine, and each of the exhaust 65 6“ which is closed by a circular end closure plate
‘Ib welded therein. This end closure plate has two
conduits is adapted to communicate through its
inlet ?ttings l2 thereof with a different group of
circular openings 1° therethrough; and the por
engine cylinders, the arrangement being such
tions of the two conduits that extend through said
that each of the cylinders that are in communi
?ared end portions gradually change from a semi
cation with a particular exhaust conduit com 70 circular cross section to a circular cross section
pletes its cycle from air intake to exhaust with
and are formed .to enter said holes and are welded
out any interference from the other cylinder
therein. The cross-sectional area of the circular
communicating with said conduit.
end portions of each of the exhaust conduits is
For instance, with an eight cylinder engine,
substantially the same as the cross-sectional area
whose cylinders ?re at 90 degree intervals in the 75
5
2,455,498
.
ofthe semicircular portion thereof. The conduit
‘6
Obviously, the hereinbeiore described exhaust
3‘ extends from the ?ared end I‘ of the casing
. A! to a point substantially midway of the length
manifold constructions admit of considerable
modification without departing from the inven
thereof. while the conduit C1 extends practically
the full length of said casing, said arrangement
depending on the grouping of cylinder exhausts.
tion.- Therefore, I do not wish to be limited to the .
precise arrangements shown and described.
WhatIclaim is:
The ?ared portion 8' of the casing A1 has a water '
~
1. An exhaust manifold-for a multi-cylinder
internal combustion ‘\engine comprising a plu
rality of separate conduits disposed side by side
outlet opening It therein. Each of said conduits
comprises a half-round tube section 9‘ which is
closed at the end remote from its discharge end
by a welded closure plate Ill- and along its open
side by a ?at cover plate ll' welded to its longi
and closed at one end of said manifold and
open at the other or discharge end thereof,
each of said conduits having a plurality of inlet
tudinal side edges.
branches, each inlet branch being adapted for
‘Each of the exhaust conduits Bl and‘ C1 is pro
vided with three inlet ?ttings I!‘ that are spaced
connection with the exhaust port of one of a
selected group of cylinders of said engine.
2. The combination set forth in claim 1
,wherein each of said conduits includes an axially
expansible section, the conduits having ends
provided with rigid connecting means to estab
lish immovable connections, and the expansible
sections being disposed between said ends.
3. The combination set forth in claim 1
apart longitudinally thereof. Each of the ?ttings
i2“ is in the form of an elbow which curves out
wardly and rearwardly from the engine opposing
side of the manifold to maintain as smooth a ?ow
of the exhaust gases as possible and terminates at
its outer or inlet end in an attachment ?ange I3“
adapted to be secured to an engine cylinder in
communication with the exhaust chamber there
of. The exhaust inlet ?ttings l2a extend from
wherein all of said conduits are mounted in a
common casing in spaced relation thereto and to
openings in the engine sides of the two exhaust 25 one another with their discharge ends extending
conduits B1 and C1 through openings in the en
through the corresponding end of said casing,
gine side of the casing A and are welded in said
all of said branches being interconnected into
openings. The inlet end of each exhaust inlet ?t
the conduits on the same side of the manifold.
ting i2.3 is of an appropriate shape and the dis
4. An exhaust manifold of the kind used with
charge end thereof is horizontally elongated
lengthwise of the conduit, the cross-sectional
i
area of said ?tting at each of said ends and
charger therefor for operating the latter, said.
manifold comprising a plurality of substantially
parallel conduits each having one end closed and
through its entire passage being substantially the
same as the cross-sectional area of the exhaust
port of ‘the engine.
Each of the [two exhaust conduits is adapted
to communicate through the three inlet ?ttings
multi-cylinder internal combustion engines for
conveying the exhaust gases thereof to a turbo
35 having the other or discharge end— open and
adapted for connection with said turbocharger,
each of said conduits having a plurality of inlet
thereof with a selected group of three of the six
branches, each adapted for connection withthe
engine cylinders so that there is no objectionable
exhaust port of one of a selected group of cylin
interference in the exhaust periods of the three 40 ders of said engine.
cylinders that communicate with said conduit.
5. The combination set forth in claim 4 where
In the construction illustrated, the short conduit
in each of said conduits is of substantially semi
B1 communicates with the ?rst, second and third
circular cross section, the diametrica] sides of the
cylinders of the engine and the long conduit Cl
conduits being disposed in adjacent relation,
communicates with the fourth, ?fth and sixth 45 whereby a pair of said conduits has an over-all
cylinders. The six exhaust inlet ?ttings H“ are
cross section that is generally round.
equally spaced apart longitudinally of the casing
6. The combination set forth in claim 4 where
A1 of the manifold, the three inlet ?ttings of the
in each of said conduits is of substantially semi
long exhaust conduit C1 communicating with the
circular cross section except at its discharge end
portion thereof that extends beyond the end of
where it changes into substantially circular cross
the short exhaust conduit '3‘. As shown in Figs.
section, for connection with tubular piping.
10, 14 and 15 of the drawings, the exhaust inlet
7. The combination set forth in claim 4 where
?ttings ii"1 are provided with outside casings or
in each of said conduits is of substantially semi
jackets l2b which form annular chambers that
circular cross section except at its discharge end
surround said ?ttings and communicate with the 55 where it changes into substantially circular cross
cooling chamber F1 of the manifold, the outer
section for connection with tubular piping, the
end of these chambers being closed by the at
semicircular and circular portions of said con
tachment ?anges I 3*’.
In the modi?ed construction shown in Figs. 16,
duits being all of approximately equal cross-sec- ‘
tional area.
. 17 and 18, the manifold is shown provided with 60
two exhaust conduits B2 and C1i that are similar
in shape and arrangement to the conduits shown
in Figs. 10 to 15, inclusive, and are secured to
gether in spaced relation at intervals throughout
the length by spacing blocks l6 interposed be
‘tween and welded to the ?at cover plates ll‘; of
said conduits. In the construction shown in Figs.
15, 16 and 17, however, the outside casing or
Jacket is dispensed with and the axial expansion of
each exhaust conduit, due to the heat of the ex
haust gases passing therethrough, is accommo
dated by means of one or more circumferentially
8. The combination set forth in claim 4 where~
in each of said conduits is of substantially semi_
circular cross section ‘except at ‘its discharge end
where it changes into substantially circular cross
section for connection with tubular piping and
said conduits and said inlet branches are al1 of
approximately equal cross-sectional area.
9. The combination set forth in claim 4 Where
in each of said conduits is of substantially semi
circular cross section except at its discharge and
70 where it changes into substantially circular cross
section, the semicircular and circular portions of
said conduits are of approximately equal cross
corrugated expansion sections ll of semicircular
sectional area, the inlet end of each of said inlet
cross section which are incorporated in and form
branches is of substantially the same cross section
portions of said conduit.
75 as the exhaust port of the engine, the cross-sec
2,4554%
tional area of said end of said branches being in
predetermined proportion to the cross-sectional
area of the conduit supplied thereby and all of
said conduits terminate at their exhaust ends in a
common ?ange adapted for attachment to said
the open side thereof, two adjacent conduits
having their plate sides adjacent.
18. An exhaust manifold of the kind used with
multicylinder internal combustion engines for
conveying the exhaust gases thereof to a turbo
charger therefor for operating the ‘latter, said
turbocharger.
,
s
manifold comprising a tubular outside casing hav
10. The combination set forth in claim 4
ing inlet and outlet openings adapted for con
wherein all of said conduits are enclosed in a
nection with the liquid cooling system of said
liquid-tight casing with their discharge ends pro
jecting from one end thereof and with their 10 engine, and two conduits of substantially semi
branches projecting from one side thereof, and
said conduits are spaced apart relative to each
other and to said casing.
'
11. The combination set forth in claim 4
circular cross section disposed in said casing
longitudinally thereof with their diametrical faces
adjacent each other, each having one end closed
and the other or discharge end open and extend
ing through the corresponding end of said casing
wherein an of said conduits are enclosed in a 15
for connection with said turbocharger, each of
casing and are spaced apart relative thereto and
said conduits having a plurality of inlet branches
to each other with their discharge- ends project
that‘ extend through one side of said casing and
ing from one end of said casing and with their
are each adapted for connection with one of a
branches projecting from one side thereof and
~
said casing has inlet and outlet openings adapted 20 selected group of engine cylinders.
19. The combination set forth in claim 18
for connection with an external liquid cooling
wherein said two semicircular conduits are spaced
system.
from the sides and closed end of said casing and
12. The combination set forth in claim 4
have their curved sides disposed substantially
wherein all of said conduits are enclosed in a cas
concentric therewith and their ?at sides disposed
ing and are spaced apart relative thereto and to
in opposed spaced relation.
each other, said casing has inlet and outlet open
20. An exhaust manifold for a multicylinder
ings adapted for connection with the liquid cool
engine, comprising a plurality of conduits, each
ing system of said engine, and all of said con
having more than one port for connection with
duits have their discharge ends disposed exte
than one cylinder, the conduits being elon
riorly of said casing and connected by a common 30 more
gated and overlapping in a side by side relation
attachment ?ange adapted for connection to said
ship to provide a group arrangement, all of the
turbocharger.
ports being at the same side of the group, adjacent
- 13. The combination set forth in claim 4
sides of two conduits having complementary
’ wherein each of said conduits comprises a semi
shape, and being spaced from one another for
circular tube section and a plate secured to said
affording space for a cooling medium therebe
semicircular tube section for closing the open
tween.
side thereof, the plate sections of two adjacent
21. An exhaust manifold for a multicylinder
conduits being disposed in adjacent relationship,
engine, comprising a plurality of conduits, each
whereby the over-all cross section of said two
having more than one port for connection with
40
conduits is generally circular.
_
more than one cylinder, the conduits being elon
14. The combination set forth in claim 4
gated and overlapping in a side by side relation
wherein each of said conduits includes an axially
ship to provide a group arrangement, all of the
expansible section, each conduit having ends pro
ports being at the same side of the group, two
vided with means to establish immovable con
adjacent conduits having their facing sides of
45
. nections, and the expansible sections being be
complementary shape and spaced from each
tween said ends.
other, and their remote sides curved, whereby
15. An exhaust manifold of the kind used with
the two together have an over-all cross section
multicylinder internal combustion engines for
that is generally in the form of a divided tube.
conveying the exhaust gases thereof to a turbo
22. An exhaust manifold for a multicylinder
charger therefor for operating the latter, said 50 engine,
comprising a plurality of conduits, each
manifold comprising a tubular outside casing
having more than one port for connection with
having inlet and outlet openings adapted for con
more than one cylinder, the conduits being elon
nection with the liquid cooling system of said
gated and overlapping in a side by side relation
engine, and a plurality of conduits disposed’ in
to provide a group arrangement, all of the
said casing longitudinally thereof, each having 55 ship
ports being at the same side of the group, each of
one end closed and the other or discharge end
two adjacent conduits having a half tubular
open and extending through the closed end of said
cross
section with one side ?at, the two flat sides
casing for connection with said turbocharger,
facing each other.
each of said conduits having a plurality of inlet
23. A manifold for a multicylinder engine, com
branches spaced apart longitudinally thereof that 60 prising
at least two conduits overlapping in side
extend through one side of said casing and are
by-side relationship, each conduit comprising a
each adapted for connection with one of a selected
half tubular section, with one side semicircular
group of cylinders of said engine.
'
and the joining side ?at, the two sections being
16. The combination set forth in claim 15
grouped with their ?at sides adjacent and their
wherein all of said conduits are of substantially 65
semicircular sides remote from each other, means
semicircular cross section and of approximately
holding the two conduits ?xed together in said
equal cross-sectional area, two adjacent conduits
positions,
each conduit having at least two ports.
having their diametrical faces adjacent each
all of the ports extending from the same side of
other.
‘
17. The combination set forth in claim 15 70 the manifold.
24. In a manifold for a multicylinder engine.
wherein all of said conduits are of substantially
of at least eight cylinders, at least four conduits,
semicircular cross section and of approximately
arranged in side by side pairs, and the pairs being
equal cross-sectional area, and each of said con
arranged in a side by side group, each conduit of
duits comprises a substantially semicircular tubu
lar section and a plate secured thereto for closing 75 a pair having its side adiacent its mate comple
' 2,455,498
mentary to the corresponding side of its mate,
and its remote side curved, the pairs being ar
ranged in superposed relationship, and each con~
duit having at least two ports, all of the ports of
the four conduits extending from the same side
of the manifold.
25. In a manifold for a multicylinder engine,
of at least eight cylinders, at least four conduits,
arranged in side by side pairs, and the pairs being
a pair having its side adjacent its mate comple
mentary to the corresponding side of its mate,
and its remote side curved, the pairs being ar
ranged in superposed relationship, and each con
duit having at least two ports. all of the ports of
the four conduits extending from the same side
of the manifold, one pair of said conduits having
its adjacent faces substantially at right angles to
a medial line transverse to the group, and the
arranged in a side by side group, each conduit 10 other pair of conduits having its adjacent faces
of a pair having its side adjacent its mate com
tilted with respect to said line, whereby the ports
plementary to the corresponding side of its mate, , may be directed toward aligned cylinder openings
and its remote side curved,‘ the pairs being ar
of the engine.
.
ranged in superposed relationship, and each con
HAROLD JACOBS.
duit having at least two ports, all of the ports of
the four conduits extending from the same‘ side
of the manifold, said pairs of conduits being ar
ranged with their adjacent faces previously de
scribed, extending substantially in a direction
toward said ports.
26. In a manifold for a multicylinder engine, 20
of at least eight cylinders, at least four conduits,
arranged in side by side pairs, and the pairs being
arranged in a side by side group, each conduit of
REFERENCES CITED
The following references are of record in the
?le of this patent:
Number
UNITED STATES PATENTS
Name
Date
1,141,067
Lloyd _____________ __ May 25, 1915
1,165,449
Rietz _-_ ___________ __ Dec. 28, 1915
2,423,574
Barrett ............ __ July 8, 1947
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