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Patented Dec. 7, 1948
2,455,540 '
‘UNITED ‘STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,455,540
FLEXIBLE WRINKLE FINISH AND PROCESS
OF MAKING
William A. Waldie, Oakwood, Ohio, assignor .to
New Wrinkle, Inc., Wilmington, Del., a corpora
tion of Delaware
' reNo Drawing.
Application December 11, 1944,
Serial No. 567,791
1_3_Claims.- (Cl. 117-41)
1
This invention relates to wrinkle ?nishes with
particular reference to wrinkle ?nishes for coat
ing fabrics to form 011 cloth type materials, and
also relates to the methods of producing such ?n
ishes and such coated fabrics and to the coated
fabrics produced thereby.
Coating materials forproducing wrinkle ?nish
oil cloth and similar fabrics heretofore have been
made from a mixture of China-wood oil and soya
2
not by way of limitation since various changes in
this disclosure may be made by those skilled in
the art without departing from the scope and
spirit of this invention.
In the production of wrinkle coatings in ac
cordance with the present invention, a mixture of
raw and dehydrated castor oil is used together
with the usual drier catalyst and a pigment paste. _
Suitable drier catalysts are red lead, litharge.
bean or ?sh oil, together with a drier catalyst, 10 cobalt acetate or a mixture thereof, the ?nishes
made with only cobalt acetate having the lightest
drier pigment and thinner. The oil mixture was
and those made with red lead having the dark
usually heated in two batches, one being heated
est color.
‘
for several hours, the other batch being cooled
The pigment paste may comprise inorganic as
immediately and the two batches of different vis
coslty thus obtained were then mixed together. 15 well as organic pigments, such as chrome green.
chrome yellow, iron oxides and azo pigments such
It was furthermore considered necessary here
as toluldine toner. It was found that all colored '
tofore to carry out the baking of the fabric with
pigments are suitable for the products and proc
the coating material in two steps in order to ob
tain a distinct and uniform wrinkle ?nish. This
esses of my invention.
a new method was therefore developed in which
castor oil only, and its use for the manufacture
the two-step procedures are replaced by one single
step without impairing the quality of the wrinkle
?nish.
Besides, in the method of this invention, the
,very expensive and scarce China-wood and soya
bean oils have been replaced by castor oil, which is
considerably cheaper and available from domes
of oil cloth.
heating in two batches and the baking in two 20 The following example serves to illustrate a
wrinkle ?nish composition, which is made from
steps made the processes relatively expensive, and
tic sources.
The use of fish oil which also has
been recommended, has the disadvantage that
the ?nishes obtained from it show a very non-uni
form texture and it therefore is not being used
either in the new compositions of my invention.
It therefore is one object of my invention to pro
duce wrinkle ?nishes and oil cloth materials with
them which are relatively inexpensive and the raw
materialsfor which are available from domestic
sources.
.
Another object of this invention is the produc
tion of wrinkle ?nish compositions and of oil cloth
materials therefrom with the least possible ex
penditure of labor.
.
Example
In the ?rst step-of the process a ?exible oil was
produced by mixing 24 gallons of Castung oil
#103 and 12 gallons of raw castor oil and heating
this mixture to 450° F. Then a mixture of 2.5
pounds of red lead and 2.5 pounds litharge was
added to the hot oil mixture under stirring. Then
the temperature was raised to 540° F. and held at
between 540 and 550° F. for two hours when a
‘viscosity of 130 to 140 poises was reached. The
oil was of a very dark, practically black color.
In a separate stepv the pigment paste was pre
pared from 16 pounds of toluldine toner and 32
pounds of a reduced oil made from three volumes
of raw castor oil and one volume of xylol. Eight
pounds of this toluldine paste were added to four
gallons of the ?exible oil produced in the first
step. This mixture was then applied to-fabric
material and the coating allowed to dry at room
temperature for ?fteen minutes; it then was
Another object of this invention is the produc
tion of wrinkle ?nishes and of oil cloth mate 45 baked in a gas oven at 200° F. for two hours. A
very ?exible coating of uniform wrinkle texture
rials therefrom which have a high degree of ?exié
was obtained.
'
billty and the texture of which is uniform.
Castung oil #103 is a dehydrated castor oil
Still another object of this invention is the pro
sold by Baker Castor Company, New York.
duction of wrinkle ?nishes the viscosity of which
The heating temperatures in the above ex
may be controlled easily and which therefore .50
ample may be varied according to the degree of
show a negligibly slight tendency for gelation.
?neness desired in the wrinkle texture, higher
Other and further objects will appear from the
cooking temperatures yielding a finer texture
more detailed description set forth below, it being
thanlower ones. Likewise, the periods of time
understood, however, that this more detailed de
scription is given by way of illustration only and 55 for which the compositions are heated have a
2,455,540
3
bearing on the wrinkle texture, shorter heating
times producing ?ner wrinkles than longer heat
ing times. Temperatures of from 410 to 480° F.
have been found suitable for the beginning, and
temperatures of from 520-570° F. for the ?nal
heating of the oil upon addition of the drier
catalyst. The ?nal heating may be carried out
for a period of time of from 1 to 3 hours accord
4
The coating compositions of this invention
may be used for all kinds of materials such as
metal, wood, fabric, rubber. However, on ac
count of the high degree of ?exibility, the com
position of my invention is particularly well suited
for application on fabric and manufacture of oil
cloth and similar materials.
It is desired to comprehend within my inven
tion such modi?cations as may adapt it to varying
ing to the viscosity of the mixture and the texture
10 conditions of use.
of the coating desired.
For the preparation of the pigment any oil
Having thus set forth my invention, I claim:
1. A resin-free wrinkle ?nish composition con
other than castor oil may be used. Linseed oil,
sisting substantially of the heat reaction product
f or example, or cottonseed oil have given, satis
factory results. Likewise, the xylol may be re
of a mixture of raw castor oil and dehydrated
placed partly or wholly by other powerful sol l." castor oil, said dehydrated castor oil being used
vents, such as toluol, light gravity petroleum
in at least the same amount as said raw castor
naphtha and other solvents known to every one
oil and said mixture being heated to a tempera
skilled in the art.
ture of from 410 to 480° F.; a drier catalyst; and
The proportion by volume of dehydrated castor
a pigment paste; said heat reaction product be
ing obtained by heating said ingredients to a
oil to raw castor oil may range from 3:1 to 1:1.
In the example the ratio used is 2:1.
temperature of from 520 to 570° F. for 1 to 3
The coated fabric may be air dried prior to
hours.
baking for a period of from 10 to 30 minutes.
2. A resin-free wrinkle ?nish composition con
sisting only of the heat reaction product of a
Baking may be carried out by any method known
to every one skilled in the art. Infrared drying,
mixture of raw castor oil and dehydrated castor
for example, has also given satisfactory results.
oil in the proportion by volume of from 1:3 to 1:1,
Application of baking temperatures of from 150°
said mixture being heated to a temperature of
to 205° F. for a period of time of from 1-3 hours
from 410 to 480° F.; a drier catalyst; and a pig
has been found suitable.
ment paste; said heat reaction product being ob
tained by heating said ingredients to a tempera
It will be readily seen from the above that the
entire quantity of oil is heated in one single batch,.
ture of from 520 to 570° F. for 1 to 3 hours.
and yet, in contradistinction to the opinion here
3. A resin-free wrinkle?nish composition con
sisting substantially only of the heat reaction
toiore common among those skilled in the art
a very satisfactory wrinkle ?nish is obtained.
product of a mixture of raw castor oil and de-'
Heretofore it was considered necessary to produce - ' hydrated castor oil, said dehydrated castor oil
two batches of oil of different viscosities in order
being used in at least the same amount as said
to obtain the desired wrinkle ?nish. This dis
raw castor oil and said mixture being heated to
tinction of this process from prior methods rep
a temperature of from 410 to 480° F.; red lead;
resents a considerable economic advantage, the
litharge; and pigment paste; said heat reaction
heat, labor and time required, being reduced. ill product being, obtained by heating said in
gredients to a temperature of from 520 to 570° F.
However, if desired, my wrinkle ?nish may also
for 1 to 3 hours.
be produced by the process hitherto used, and
the oil may be heated in two different batches
4. A resin-free wrinkle ?nish composition ac
without impairing the quality of the product ob
cording to claim 1, in which the pigment paste
45
tained. Likewisa'the baking procedure is simpler
consists of a pigment, oil and thinner.
and consequently ‘less expensive in my new
5. A resin-free wrinkle ?nish composition con
process as compared with that used heretofore in 1
the art. Heretofore baking had to be carried
out in two stages in order to obtain satisfactory
wrinkle texture. In the process of my invention,
the ?rst stage of baking has been replaced by a
short period of air drying which also means an
advantage from the economic point of view.
Heretofore it was also considered necessary to
add a stabilizer compound to pigment containing
wrinkle ?nishes in order to counteract the de
leterious in?uence of the pigment on the uni
formity of the wrinkle texture. It has been dis
covered that according to the present invention
the wrinkle texture may be controlled entirely. iii)
satisfactorily by the selection of the proper cook
ing temperatures, and that the properties of the
castor oil are not disadvantageously affected by
the presence of pigment. However, if desired,
sisting substantially of the heat reaction product of a mixture of raw castor oil and dehydrated
castor oil, said dehydrated castor oil being used
in at least the same amount as said raw castor
oil and said mixture being heated to a tempera
ture of from 410 to 480° F.; drier catalyst; pig
ment paste; and a texture modifying compound
which is based on an inert pigment; said heat
reaction product being obtained by heating said
ingredients to a temperature of from 520 to 570°
F. for 1 to 3 hours.
6. A method of producing a resin-free wrinkle
?nish composition consisting substantially of
mixing and heating dehydrated castor oil and
raw castor oil together to approximately 450° F.,
said dehydrated castor oil being used in at least
the same amount as said raw castor oil; adding
a drier catalyst material thereto; raising the tem
perature; and heating the mixture to 540 to 550°
stabilizer compounds may be added instead or in
F. until the desired viscosity is obtained, and
addition to varying the cooking temperatures
then adding a pigment paste.
without departing from the spirit and scope of
my invention.
7. A method of producing a resin-free wrinkle
The texture of the wrinkle ?nish of my inven 70 ?nish- composition consisting of mixing dehy
tion may be furthermore modi?ed by the addi
drated castor oil and raw castor oil; said dehy
tion of an inert paste containing asbestine or
drated castor oil being used in at least the same
diatomaeeou-s earth or other inert pigments.
amount as said raw castor oil; heating the mix
ture to a temperature of approximately from 410
Such texture modi?ers have been disclosed in
my Patent No. 2,275,239, patented March 3, 1942.
to 480° F.; ‘adding a drier catalyst material;
3,45%,“ m,
raising the temperature to 520 to 570° F. and
holding it for a period of time of from substan
tially l to 3 hours; and then adding pigment
paste.
12. A resin-free oil cloth consisting of a fabric
base and a wrinkle textured coating, said cloth
consisting of the product resulting from heating
a mixture of raw castor oil and at least the
‘
equal amount of dehydrated castor oil to a tem
perature of from 410° to 480° F., adding a drier
?nish oil cloth material consisting in heating a
catalyst material thereto, raising the tempera
mixture of raw castor oil and at least the equal
ture of said mixture and drier catalyst to from
amount of dehydrated castor oil to a tempera
520° to 570° F. and maintaining it at said tem
ture of from 410to 480° F.; adding drier catalyst;
raising the temperature to 520 to 570° F. and 10 perature until the desired viscosity is obtained;
adding a pigment paste and applying said mate
maintaining it there until the desired viscosity
rial obtained on a fabric base; and thereafter
is obtained; mixing a pigment paste and apply
air drying said fabric for 10 to 30 minutes and
ing said material obtained on a fabric base; and
subjecting
said dried fabric to baking tempera
thereafter allowing said fabric to air-dry; and
tures of from 150° to 205° F. for 1 to 3 hours.
then subjecting it to baking temperatures.
13. A resin-free oil cloth consisting of a fabric
9. A method of producing a resin-free wrinkle '
base
and a wrinkle textured coating, said cloth
?nish oil cloth material consisting in heating a
consisting of the product resulting from heating
mixture of raw castor oil and at least the equal
a mixture of raw castor oil and at least the
amount of dehydrated castor oil to a tempera
equal
amount of dehydrated castor oil to a tem
ture of from 410 to 480° F.; adding drier cata
perature of from 410° to 480° F., adding a drier
lyst; raising the temperature to 520 to 570° F.
8. A method of producing a resin-free wrinkle
catalyst material thereto, raising the tempera
and maintaining itthere until the desired vis
cosity is obtained; mixing a pigment paste and
ture of said mixture and drier catalyst to from
520° to 570° F. and maintaining it at said tem
applying said material obtained on a fabric base;
until the desired viscosity. is obtained;
and thereafter allowing said fabric to air-dry 25 perature
adding a pigment paste and applying said mate
for 10 to 30 minutes; and then baking it for 1
rial obtained on a fabric base; and thereafter
to 3 hours at a temperature of from 150 to 205° F.
air drying said fabric for 10 to 30 minutesand
10. A method of producing a resin-free wrinkle
subjecting said dried fabric to'infrared heat.
?nish oil cloth material consisting in heating a
30
mixture of raw castor oil and at least the equal
WILLIAM A. WALDIE.
amount of dehydrated castor oil to a temperature
of from 410 to 480° F.; adding drier catalyst;
REFERENCES CITED
raising the temperature to 520 to 570° F. and
The following references are of record ‘in the
maintaining it there until the desired viscosity
is obtained; mixing a pigment paste and applying 35 ?le of this patent:
said material obtained on a fabric base; and
UNITED STATES PATENTS
thereafter allowing'said fabric to air-dry for 10
Number
Name
Date
to 30 minutes; and then subjecting it to infrared
1,950,417
heat.
‘
11. A resin-free oil cloth consisting of a fabric 40 2,194,988
‘ 2,373,177
base and a wrinkle textured coating, said cloth
consisting of the product resulting from heating
' a mixture of raw castor oil and at least the equal
‘
Root _____________ __ Mar. 13, 1934
Bchulein ____-....____ Mar. 26, 1940
Drummond ....__..____ Apr; 10, 1945
FOREIGN PATENTS
Country
Date
amount of dehydrated castor oil to a temperature 45 Number
523,527
Great Britain __‘_____ July 16, 1940
of from 410° to 480° F., adding a drier catalyst
material thereto, raising the temperature of said
OTHER REFERENCES ’ ~
mixture and drier catalyst to from 520° to 570° F.
New
Wrinkles
in Finishing, publ. by New
and maintaining it at said temperature until
Wrinkles,
Inc.,
1940,1101.
4, No. 4, 7 pages.
the desired viscosity is obtained; adding a pig 50
Protective 8: Decorative Coatings, Mattiello,
ment paste and applying said material obtained
on a fabric base; and thereafter air drying said
fabric and subjecting said dried fabric to baking
temperatures.
vol. 1, 1941, John Wiley 8: Sons page 134.
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