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Dec. 7, 1948.
Filed July 26, `1947
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Patented Dec. 7, 1948 `
John L. Yonkers, Northbrook, Ill._ .
Application July ze, 1947, serial no. 763,851.
6 Claims."
'I'his invention relates to a pipe coupling for use
in low-pressure air systems and particularly for
use in suction cleaning systems. While a coupling
embodying the invention maybe used generally
with all kinds of suction-cleaning systems, it is
particularly useful with suction cleaners of the
type used in homes, oii‘lces, etc., where an opera
tor manipulates a suction cleaner and attach
A coupling embodying the invention is
with a portion of the structure to provide sealing
action. As is well understood, the cooperating
coupling` parts proper may be attached to any
pipes, hose, attachments or the like .to >permit
ready connection and disconnection. -
In order that the invention may be understood,
uit will be explained> in'connection with drawings
wherein Figure` 1 is a sectional'elevation through
the center of a coupling embodying the present
especially well suited for use in tank-type suction
cleaners, examples of which are disclosed and
invention, showing ' the coupling in- connected
claimed 'in Yonkers Patents 2,198,568; 2,242,277
and 2,242,278.
As is well known, suction cleaner attachments
showing the coupling disconnected. -Figure 3 is
position. -Figure 2 is a view similar’ toFigure 1
a sectional view 'on line 3-----3 of Figure 1. » Figure
41s a detail, partly in section, of-the garter spring,
and hose or pipe are frequently changed during 15 showing the locking spring.' Figure 5 is a sec'
'tional detail' showing the relative position of the
garter spring, sleeve and surface' of inserted pipe
in a position of the coupling where «engaging
occurs but prior to full coupling. Figure 6 is‘a
It is, therefore, important that the coupling be 20 sectional detail similar to' Figure 5 but showing
-mechanically simple and easy to manipulate.
the vrelationship of'the'parts in a disconnected
Couplings requiring substantial lforce to operate
Referring to the drawings,V pipe -or hose ill may
or inconvenient to manipulate are responsible for
improper cleaning procedure and `constitute a
be of metal, plastic or rubber and may be rigid' or
serious deterrent to the full and effective use of
flexible as desired. 1=_’ref_erably,- the material is
cleaning. It is,.therefore,v of great importance
that a coupling permit easy and quick connection
and disconnection. In many instances, the oper
ator is unskilled and lacks mechanical ability.
Couplings for suction cleaners must be simple
rigid; Pipe I0 has end >Il flared outwardly and
the end portion of the p_ipe is covered by sleeve
and rugged in order to withstand, abuse. In par
`I2 of rubber or similar flexible material. Sleeve
ticular, it is important that couplings be inca 30 l2 has elongated body I3 and end portion I4.
pable of improper assembly, which might result
_Body i3 may be as thin as desired vto ñt snugly’
in jamming or breakage of parts.Y It is also essen
aroundl pipe l0. 'End portion I l has substantial
tial that suction cleaner couplings have a long,
thickness and has moulded _therein interior ~annu
useful life and operate at maximum efficiency at
lar slot I5 into which flared pipe edge ll ñtsf.
all times.
A coupling embodying the present invention
fuliills the above requirements to a remarkable
degree. In addition, this coupling is easy and eco-V
nomical to manufacture, requires a minimum of
investment-in special tools and permits of.v quick
and economical replacementsv of any parts. In
fact, the assembly of thecoupling parts is so sim
ple and requiresno special tools so that it is prac
. tical for a user tomake any replacements himself
Thus, sleeve I2 may be locked _against longltudinal movement with respect to pipe I0. If desired,
flared portion Il and slot4 llämay be „omitted and
reliance had uponfriction orïother locking means
between body portion 'i3' and >pipe I0...v i I H
End portion il _of the _sleeve is relatively massive
_and has >formed therein annular- channel libe
_ yond the free end of pipe- I0. The „distdncefbef
tween slot l5 and channel IB is unimportant and
willdepend among other thingsupon thedimen.
after receiving any required parts. Thus, renew is sions of end portion Il, flexibility of ,rubber or
als of couplings are cheap, free of service calls
other material used- in moulding sleeve l2, and
the general engineering detallsvvof the coupling.
and makes it possible to extend the -life of the
couplings indefinitely.
Normally, the sleeve is moulded so that the inner
-surface off-body Il and end I4 are-one continuous
In general, this invention provides a coupling
having telescoping pipe parts retained in position 50 cylindrical surface.~ " However, when body I3 is
by a circumferentially elastic ring member coop
erating'with an annular groove on the small pipe.
stretched" over pipe'lß, itsïdiameter will be in
creased. 'Channel-i6l is so shaped as to provide
The coupling embodying the present invention
additionally provides a construction whereby, in
‘ a narrow annular throat’ connecting the channel
the coupled position, the elastic ring cooperates
whole', thè throat being 'defined by- annular 'lips
with the YÍspace'ven'e'zlosed by' end'pôrtion 14 as'a
‘ n mi n. `¿summa is itself is dennen by side
walls Il and bottom. 20.
Lying in channel I3 of the sleeve is toroidal or
garter spring 2| formed from coil spring 22 hav
ing ends 23 and 24 connected together to provide
and polished. When groove 3| is reached by the
garter spring, the spring contracts and forces lips
I1 and Il outwardly of the channel toward the
a garter spring. Spring 2| is of spring steel or
of the groove may be made any desired value over
other material and l is circumferentially expan
a substantial range so that the garter spring re
tains a tight hold on the pipe in the coupled po
sition as shown in Figure 1. At the same time,
the engagement of lips I1 and Il with the sur
face of the pipe on both sides of the annular
axis of the sleeve (Figure l) .
'I'he outside diameter of the pipe at the trough
`sible. The means for locking the ends of the coil
spring to maintain the garter spring shape is here
shown as coil spring 25 disposed-within opposed
ends 23 and 24 of coil spring 22. Locking `spring
2l normally has an outside diameter somewhat
larger than the inside diameter of coil spring 22.
Spring 25 is forced into the ends of spring _22 to
provide a threaded interlocking effect and main 15
tain garter spring 2|.
The outside diameter of coil spring 22 and in- s
‘groove provide tight seals against air leakage.
Since the garter spring tends- to maintain the
coupling in assembled position due to the cam
action of the spring and groove, it is clear that
the groove depth may be such as to permit the
garter spring to freely contract similar to when ‘
the coupling is disconnected, as in Figure 2. This
may be desirable in case maximum lip pressure
tion, the garter spring presses against lips I1 and 20 for seals is desired and also in case a strong lock
ing action is desired. However, it is possible that
I8 and assumes a position generally Vas shown in
side diameter -of garter spring 2| are so .selected
that in a coupled (and also disconnected). posi
Figures l, 2 and 6. The outside diameter of coil
spring 22 is small enough to space bottom 20 and
side walls I0 of moulded channel AI3 away from
the coil spring and leave a crescent-shaped an
nular region. The garter spring has annular por
tion 21 (Figure 6) which normally bulges or ex- '
tends inwardly beyond lips I1 and I8 of sleeve
only partial contraction of the garter spring may
be desired in the coupled position.
In many instances, it may be desirable to pre
, vent relative rotation between pipes I0 and 3l
when the two are in coupled position. To this
end, pipe I0 may be provided with rivet 3l while
pipe portion 32 may have one or more slots or de
pressions 35. By providing a plurality of slots 3l
I4. It is preferred to have sleeve I4 around
moulded channel I6 suiiiciently stiff so that 30 circumferentially spaced around pipe 32, locking
action in any one of a number of different posi
wedge-shaped lips I1 and I8 hug the garter
tions may be effected.
,Garter spring 2| may _be inserted into channel
The inside diameter of the garter spring, when
I 6 or removed therefrom by deforming the spring
freely contracted, vas shown in Figure 2 for ex
or sleeve or both, as the case may be. In prac
ample, is less than the .inside diameter of pipe
tice, end I4 may be deformed out of round and
|0._ The cooperating 'portion of the coupling
the -spring ring manipulated to remove the same
comprises pipe 30 which may also be of metal,
Vfrom the sleeve. The spring may be inserted in
plastic or other material andpwhile preferably
the sleeve by deformation of the two and work
rigid, may have some flexibility; This cooperat
ing portion has anoutside diameter somewhat 40 ing one in proper position with respect to the
smaller than the inside diameter of pipe I0 to
Instead of a garter type of spring, it is possible
provide a smooth telescopic fit. Cooperating pipe
to use other forms of expansible spring rings.
3i has formed therein annular circumferential
groove 3| having a generally arcuate cross-sec
tional shape. The curvature of groove 3| is pref
erably about the same as that of the coils mak
Thus, a spring wire or ribbon bent to form one
45 or two complete turns around the sleeve axis may
be used. 'I‘he ends would be left free.
I claim:
of vpipe 30 at the trough of groove 3| may be
1. A pipe coupling for suction cleaners and the
somewhat greater than the inside diameter of the
like comprising one pipe portion having a free
garter spring when freely contracted, as shown in
end, a flexible sleeve disposed over said pipe por
Figure 2. Groove 3| is sufficiently far from the
tion and having a part extending beyond the free
free end of pipe ‘30 to' permit portion 32 of the
end of the pipe, said sleeve part having an
pipe to extend beyond the -coupling >and into a ,
annular channel therein, said channel having
portion of pipe I0.
opposed lips at the inside sleeve face for defining
The outside diameter of portion 32 of the pipe 55 an annular throat connecting said channel and
is greaterA than the inside diameter of garter
th'e space enclosed by said sleeve portion, a metal
-spring 2| when freely contracted," as shown in
garter spring in said channel adapted for circum
Figure 2. For facilitating the introduction of
ferential expansion, said ring when freely con
` pipe portion 32 into the annular spring and ex
tracted having an annular part beyond the
ing up the garter spring.- The outside diameter
panding the latter, pipe portion 32 may have 60 throat, said freely contracted garter ring having
free edge 33 curled inwardly.
When pipe portion 32 is’ñrst inserted into th
an inside diameter smaller than the inside diam
eter of said one pipe portion and crowding said
lips toward the sleeve axis, saidsleeve having suf
ñcient body so that the lips hug said spring at all
garter spring. In this position (Figure 5) the es times, a second cooperating pipe portion having
garter spring is expanded circumferentially and
an outside‘diameter less than the inside diameter
is forced deeper into moulded channel I6.l In this
of the first pipe portion for telescoping therewith,
expanded position of the spring,.the coils ofthe
said second pipe portion having an annular groove
spring relax their pressure against lips I1 and I3
formed on the outside thereof at a distance from
Vand permit these lips to bend toward each other. 70 the end thereof, the ouside diameter of said sec
Thus. lips Il_and I8 move substantially clear of
ond pipe portion being greater than the inside
the outer surface of pipe portion 32. In practice,
diameter of the freely contracted garter spring so
the friction between the garter spring ~and the . that said ring is expanded when around the un
grooved part of the pipe with said lips substan
outer surface of pipe portion 32À may be quite
small, particularly >if _the pipe surface _is smooth -75 tially -clearing said second- pipe surface, said
--sleeveand garter spring, the outer surface of the
pipe is-gripped by a thin annular region of-the
5 .
garter spring contracting at the grooved portion
of said pipe to maintain the coupling in locked`
6; The _structure according to claim 1 wherein
said garter spring comprises a ñrst coil spring to
A position with said'lips .being pressed `against the f
form` a tòroid, a second coil spring locked into
the ends of said ilrst coil spring to maintain the
2. The structure of claimv l wherein interlock 5 toroidal shape thereof. said one pipe portion hav
ing means are provided on the two pipe sections
ing a protuberance extending inwardly oi' the
for preventing rotation of one pipe with respect
pipe and wherein the second pipe portion has a
to the other when vin coupled relation.
slot iorjcooperation with said protuberance for
3. The structure according to claim 1 wherein
locking the two pipe portions against rotation
said iirst pipe is rigid andthe free edge thereof is 10 whencoupled. ,
flared outwardly and is lockedinto an annular
channel formed in said sleeve to lock said sleeve
pipe material to form seals.
. against longitudinal displacement with respect to
said rlrst pipe.
The following reierencesare of record in the
4. The structure according to claim 1 wh'erein if» me of this patenti
said second pipe portion has an elongated slot ex
tending from the free end thereof lengthwise
along the pipe for a predetermined distance and
wherein the one pipe has a protuberance adapted
to interfit in said slot for locking the two pipe
portions against rotation when coupled.
5. The structure according to claim 1 wherein
said garter spring comprises a iìrst coil spring
bent to form> a toi-oid, and a second coil spring
locked into the two ends of said mst coil spring 25
to maintain the toroidal shape thereof.
467,954 '
Baldwin ----1 ____ __ Mar. 22, 1938
vGermany _, ....... _.- Dec. 29, 1926
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