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Dec. 7, 194.8.
c. 1.. FENDER ETAL~
2455575
PICKUP UNIT FOR INSTRUMENTS
Filed Sept. 26, ‘1944
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Patented Dec. 7, 1948
2,455,575
PICKUP'UN'IT FOR STRINGE'D‘"
INSTRUMENTS
Glarence :LemEendemand Clayton .Orr Kauffmarn.
Eullertom, C'alif.
Applicatiomseptember 26, 1944'; Serial Nor-55515818"
13x0laims:
1':
(Cl.,84,-1‘.15.)
2‘!
Our ‘invention relat'esto =electrical1pickI-up units
keys hwhichzserve :to- adjust: the ‘tension .Ofl'StGBl
guitar strings 5.
for: stringed ‘ instruments; andi ‘among-the objects
of our invention are:
AL‘ portion: of; the top‘ and: the extended .end. of
First, to- provide an- electrical plcluup:v unit for
the body: Ii's corverediby'a-plate formed oflsheet
stringed? instruments; which, produces a- more In material preferably; metal... At the right: angular
naturalltone: than- hasapreviouslyf been-attained
juncture‘ of the topsand end‘ portions oftrthez-plate
by-"I electrical‘ picki-up devices of this character.
6; thereais. formedLa' series of' V.-holes"|.'which
Second, to provide an- electrical pickeup'd unit
receive. and secure. the extremitiesio?thestringsi?.
for stringedi instruments-wherein- the» string: it;
self isthe only moving elementrin‘ the‘magn'etic
circuit; thusproducing- with great-?delity; cor.
Our pick-up: unit. designatedzgenerally-i by; Ll,
comprises. a..bottom~ polez member * I21 andz'ar. top
poleamember: I34; These area'chanrreL-shapedin
cross-section, forming confronting: fonward
responding. ?uctuations or‘ vibration: in; the: asso
ciatedzelectri'calicircuit;
?anges l4 and I5 respectively, and: rearward
?anges; l6‘ and:- IT: respectively; Thee extremities
anther. bottom anditop pole; members are. spaced
Third}. to : provide’. an electrical? pick-up‘ Where'
in:‘ all‘; soundin'gi-boards-1.onv sounding-boxes may
baeliminatedi
by. magnets. I81. Thesermagnets may; bet-perma
nent: magnetsror-electromagnetsh In; the latter
Fourth, . to: provideran: electrical: pick-up which
maybe associatedfW-ith any type of stringedi'im
case. they. are. connectedrto. 3;; suitable . source/t.‘ of
strument such amguitar; violin, pian'olandimany
othersz:
With the above and other objects inwiew; ref;
erence ‘ is directed‘. to: the: accompanying: vdrawings
in which:
Fig}. 11 is a‘v plan. view.‘ of ourqpick-up unitzas
adapted. to usev in‘. conjunction w-itlraguitan:
Fig; 2 is. an enlargedzelevaticnal.viewl of the
pick-.up-unit taken from the line. 2—Zl.of¢.Eig;.1.
Fig; 3 is axsimilarr elevationalzview: OIIthBf-DiCki
up-unit- taken’: from. the: line. 3e-31'of-‘Eig; 1;.
Fig: 4 is an:enlargedtsectionalview o?thei-‘pickr
up: unit‘ takenv throrughi 4—-4¢;- cfiFigz. l; the; asso;
ciated- parts- of. the guitar head'shownxfragment
tarily and :in-elevaticn;v
Fig, 5r-is a longitudinal sectionaltviewhof:a-mod;
i?ed. form» of our ' pick-up ' unit wherein. individ
.ual- pick-up-coils are providedifor. each; string.
Our pick-up unit may be“ adapted fcnzusein
any- of: the various "stringed instruments whether
held in. the hands, such as'a guitar'or'violin; or
whether larger in-size, such. as abass'viol... Also,
our device may be employed irrespectivev of the
number. of. strings ‘contained. in themusicaliin
strument, that is, itanaybeused for aminstriui
ment containing only a. few-strings, such as. a
‘guitar or violin, or for‘ an-w instrument; contain:
ing many strings, such. asa piano .on'harp.
For. convenienceof illustration; ourspickx-upmnit
is shown asadapted'to‘ a guitar. In‘ placeiofa the
usual sound-box, there is; provided: a: head‘~ mem
her I which isfor the‘ most part: solidv and“ con:
venientlyi shaped. It may beemuchvsmalleri-than
the conventional.- guitars sound-box“. A‘. fretted
neck~.2 similar. inv size and shape to: the conven
tional guitar, extends-:from_~the<body- l andten
minates. in .a. conventional “guitar. head- 3z~having
direct current. Screws; I91; secure: the assembly
20
comprisingzthepole plates andmagnetsitogether.
The: pairs or: forward. and reanward-?‘angesde?ne
gaps through; which‘: are: threaded“. the: strips: 5.
The: lower rearwarch ?ange ’ I'T mayriormv a: bridge
for: supporting; the-s strings 5;. and’
slightly
notched toretainthesstrings. implace:
The- forward; ?anges; It: and; I5; are. provided
Withqa series ofjoppcsed' notches:2llvlocatedgbee
tween the‘ strings-so' as' to. form: tooth-‘like. pole
elements. 2 I having-"parallel extremitiesonzvoppo
site sides of‘eachxstring.
Between” the?bottom; and top" pole: members; and
the magnets I8 is placed a pickeupcoilrZZ which
may, embrace" all of thestringa The'upper. and
lower. portions of the. Dick-up; coil may be. main
tainedinspaced relation: by, spacers. 23 located
bet-ween. the strings
The pick-up unit is suitably mounted on: the
platev 6 preferably withan insulation pad- “there.
between. Theplate?m'ay. be-?at as shown, or
raised or depressed. atits; portion supporting : the
pick-up-unit. inv order to. place? the‘ strings. 5 ; at
the- proper" height,. or ‘ the; thickness: of the‘; insu
1ation=padn24= may; be chosen to- provide: the: de
sired stringspacing.
Inzplace‘ of‘ the single pick-up coil 2-2rthe-stri'ngs
5: may be.v surroundedby- individual? pickeup" coils
25 as shown in Fig. 5;- In this case,‘,the indivi
vidual pick-up coils. are-held-xin place. by non
magnetic. holdenbars Z6" placed above and‘, below
therpick-up coils;
The body I- of thezmusical instrument: may be
providediwith-cavities‘to-accommodate a..volume
control anda: tone-control having»; diais‘Z‘I andt2i8
exposed‘ through: SlOISilnr-th? plate: 6. AcablerZS
leading to asuitable- ampli?er: (not'shownl~ ex
52,455,572;
3
tends from the head I through a cable ?tting 30.
The portions of the strings 5 between the
bridge-forming flange l1 and the pole elements
2|, form armatures in the magnetic circuits comprising the magnets l8 and pole members i2 and
I3. Vibration of the individual strings between
their respective pole elements, causes fluctua
tions in the magnetic ?eld, which fluctuations are
picked up with ?delity by the pick-up coil 22 or
the individual pick-up coils 25.
It is, of course,
essential that the strings 5 be formed at least
in part, of magnetic material such as steel.
It should be observed that by reason of the
fact that the strings rest on the rearward ?ange
4
4. A pick-up device for stringed instruments,
comprising: a series of tuned magnetic musical
strings; a pair of channel-shaped pole pieces
adapted to be disposed on opposite sides of said
strings with their flange portions in confront
ing relation and forming sets of pole tips, the
portions of said strings between said sets of pole
tips forming armatures; magnet means connect
ing said pole pieces to form magnetic circuits
through said pole tips and their respective musi
‘ cal string armatures the polarity of the tips of
each pole piece being similar to each other but
opposite from the corresponding tips of the other
pole piece; and pick-up coil means disposed in
13 said magnetic circuits and electrically in?uenced
by Vibrations of said musical string armatures.
or pole piece ll and utilize this vflange as a bridge,
the fundamental and all of the harmonious vibra
5. A construction as set forth in claim 4,
tions of each string share a common node point
wherein one set of said pole tips is serrated to
located at the bridge. It has been found that
form paired individual pole elements for each of
this arrangement substantially increases the sen
said musical string armatures, and wherein one
sitivity of the instrument to all of the harmonic 20 of the remaining pole tips is engaged by all of
as Well as the fundamental notes produced by
said musical string armatures to form a bridge
each string.
therefor.
Also, it should be observed that the pole pieces
6. A pick-up device for stringed musical in
formed by ?anges it and it have like polarity,
struments, comprising: a musical string formed
which polarity is opposite to the polarity of the ~'>‘ of magnetic material; a pair of confronting mag
flanges or pole pieces l5 and I1; that is, if
netic channel elements on opposite sides of and
the pole pieces associated with the upper chan
traversing said string to form pairs of pole pieces
nel I3 are north, the pole pieces associated with
axially displaced relative to said string whereby
the lower channel l2 will be south.
the portion of string embraced between said pole
Many other embodiments of the invention may
pieces forms an armature; a magnet means for
be resorted to without departing from the spirit
energizing said channel elements whereby the
of the invention.
pole pieces of each channel element have iden
We claim.
tical polarity but opposite from the polarity of
1. A pick-up device for stringed musical in
other channel element; one of said pole
struments, comprising a pair of U-shaped pole I.‘ the
pieces forming a bridge engaged by said string
pieces disposed with their leg portions confront~
ing but spaced from each other and forming pole
tips; a magnetic musical string extending longi
tudinally between said pole tips and forming an
armature, said string being in physical contact
‘whereby all oscillations of said string have a com
mon node point at said bridge; and an electric
pick-up means disposed in the magnetic ?eld
d. - formed by said magnetic channel elements and
armature.
7. A pick-up device for stringed musical in
node point for all oscillations of said musical
struments, comprising: a series of musical strings
string; magnet means connecting said pole pieces
formed of magnetic material arranged side by
to complete a magnetic circuit through said pole
side; a channel-shaped magnetic structure form
45
pieces and said musical string armature in which
ing opposed pairs of pole pieces traversing said
the polarity of the tips of each pole piece is the
strings and displaced from each other axially
same but opposed to the polarity of the tips of
along said strings whereby the embraced portions
the other pole piece; and a pick-up coil positioned
of said strings form armatures; one of said pole
in the magnetic ?eld established by said mag
pieces forming a bridge for said strings whereby
netic circuit and influenced by variations in said 50
all oscillations of said strings have node points
magnetic field caused by movement of said musi
at said bridge, the other pair of pole pieces being
cal string armature.
serrated with their projecting portions in sub
2. A pick-up device for stringed musical in
stantial registry with the several strings but
struments, comprising: a pair of U-shaped pole
with one of said pole tips to establish a common
pieces disposed with their leg portions confront
ing but spaced from each other and forming pole
tips; a magnetic musical string disposed between
said pole tips and forming an armature; a pair
of magnetic blocks connecting said pole pieces at
their extremities to complete a magnetic circuit
through said pole pieces and said musical string
armature in which both tips of each pole piece
have the same polarity, but opposite polarity
from the corresponding pole tips of the other
pole piece; and an electric pick-up coil surround
ing said musical string armature’, and shielded by
said magnet blocks and pole pieces.
a
3. A construction as set forth in claim 2,
spaced therefrom; and a pick-up means in the
magnetic ?eld established by said magnet struc
ture and armatures.
8. A pick-up device for stringed musical in
struments as set forth in claim '7 wherein said
pick-up means is a single pick-up coil embracing
the armature portions of all of said strings.
9. A pick-up device fOr stringed musical in
struments as set forth in claim 7 wherein said
pick-up means comprises individual pick-up coils
’ surrounding the armature portions of each string.
10. A pick-up device for stringed musical in
struments, comprising: a series of musical strings
formed of magnetic material arranged side by
side; a pair of opposed channel-shaped magnet
wherein one of said pole tips is engaged by said
musical string armature to form a bridge there 70 structures of opposite polarity each forming pole
pieces of like polarity traversing said strings and
for; and wherein the pair of pole tips spaced
displaced from each other axially along said
along said musical string armature from said
strings whereby the embraced portions of said
bridge forming pole tips are disposed clear of
strings form armatures; the pole pieces of said
the lateral travel of said armature when said
magnet structures confronting each other, one
musical string armature is vibrated.
2,455,575
6
pole piece forming a bridge for said strings to
said pole pieces, one of the ?anges of said pole
establish common node points for the vibrations
pieces being engaged by said strings and forming
produced therein, and the confronting pair of
pole pieces spaced therefrom being serrated with
their projecting portions in registry to each other
a bridge therefor, whereby each string has a node
point for all mechanical oscillations thereof orig
inating at said bridge; and an electric pick-up
means within the space de?ned by said magnets
and pole pieces.
CLARENCE LEO FENDER.
CLAYTON ORR KAUFFMAN.
and said strings but spaced therefrom; and a
pick-up means in the magnetic ?eld established
by said magnet structures and the armature por
tions of said strings.
11. A pick-up device for stringed musical in
struments as set forth in claim 10 wherein said
pick-up means is a single pick-up coil embracing
the armature portions of all of said strings.
12. A pick-up device for stringed musical in
struments as set forth in claim 10 wherein said
pick-up means comprises individual pick-up coils
surrounding the armature portions of each
string.
13. A pick-up device for stringed instruments,
involving: A pair of channel shaped pole pieces
disposed with their ?anges in confronting relation
to de?ne air gaps; a pair of magnets at the ex
10
REFERENCES CITED
The following references are of record in the
?le of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS
Number
Name
Date
1,978,583
2,089,171
Kentner _________ __ Oct. 30, 1934
Beauchamp ______ __ Aug. 10, 1937
2,239,985
Benio? ____________ Apr. 29, 1941
2,262,335
2,310,606
Russell __________ __ Nov. 11, 1941
Barth ____________ __ Feb. 9, 1943
tremities of said pole pieces so arranged that the
pole pieces have opposing polarity; a plurality
Number
of magnetic musical strings extending between 25 25,493/35
FOREIGN PATENTS
Country
Date
Australia ________ __ Sept. 2, 1936
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