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Jan. 4, 1949.
E, A. STALKER -
2,457,936
JET-POWERED LIFTIHG ROTOR FOR ROTARY WING AIRCRAFT
Filed larch 21, 1945
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INVENTOR
Jan. 4, 1949.
E. A. STALKER
2,457,936
JET-POWERED LIFTING ROTOR FOR ROTARY WING AIRCRAFT
Filed March 21. 1945
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
"’///////////////////”' '
/////A
1,11,11,11
11,111,‘;
INVENTOR
2,457,936
‘Patented Jan. 4, 1949
UNITED ‘STATES PATENT‘ OFFICE
2,457,936
JET-POWERED LIFTING ROTOR FOR
ROTARY WING AIRCRAFT
Edward A. Stalker, Bay City, Mich.
Application March 21, 1945, Serial No. 583,919
8 Claims. (Cl. 170—-135.4)
2
1
My invention relates to aircraft and particu-.
larly to rotary wing aircraft.
An object of the invention is to provide a means
of increasing the power for rotating the lifting
rotor by jet action.
'
1
'
Another object is to provide an e?icient means
of burning fuel in the interior of the outer ex
tremity of the blade so that an increase in pro
pulsive thrust may be obtained.
It is also an object of the invention to provide
a means of burning the fuel intermittently or
In the present case I provide means to burn
fuel in the air within the blade and means to
adjust the slot area to emit the less dense ?uid
of the heated jet while still retaining the control
of the slot area orbitally. If the area were‘not
increased the mass of ?uid discharged per sec
ond could not increase satisfactorily because of
the lower density. 0n the other hand if the
slot area were corrected for the heated air it
would be incorrect for the cold air and would
cause losses.
'
.
The mechanism for controlling the slot area
only during a specific portion of the blade orbit.
by the ?ap at the slot exit will ?rst be described
Still another object is to provide means of
although this is not the subject of ‘the claims in
synchronizing the burning of fuel with a means
of increasing the jet opening area. Other objects 15 this application. It is necessary however for the
understanding of ‘the features of the invention
will appear from the description, drawings and
of the present case.
claims.
The helicopter of Figure 1 has the rotor blade
I accomplish the above objects by the means
I supported from the hub 2 and free to ?ap ver-'
illustrated in the accompanying drawings in
20 tically about the axis 20. The blade is equipped
which'
with the main flap 3 and the auxiliary _?ap 4.
Figure 1 is a side elevation of a helicopter;
Each blade is attached by the‘ fork in to the hub
Figure 2 is a fragmentary top plan of a blade;
to be revolved about a vertical axis. As shown
Figure 3 is a section along the line 3-3 in
in Figure 3 the main ?ap has an upper contour
Figure 2;
\
of radius R so that rotation of the main flap
Figure 4 is a fragmentary plan of the mechan
about the hinge at the origin of the radius does
ism to operate the auxiliary ?ap;
not vary the slot between the auxiliary flap 4 and
Figure 5 is a fragmentary elevation of the hub
part of the mechanism of Figure 4;
Figure 6 is a fragmentary vertical section H
flap 3.
The rotor is revolved by a jet of air‘ emitted
of Figure 2 showing the manner in which the 30 from the passage or duct 5 through the slot 6
rearward along the surface of the,fiap. This‘
blade root forks are fastened to the hub;
Figure "l is a fragmentary section along ‘the ' type of propulsion has been‘ described in more
detail in my U. S. Patent No. 2,084,464. Air is
line 1-1 of Figure 6 and shows the fuel meter
forced into the hub by power means and flows to
ing valve mechanism along with the circuit break
the slot via the duct 5 formed by the blade walls.
er of the jet slot opening mechanism;
The helicopter can be propelled more emciently
Figure 8 is a fragmentary diagram of the fuel
by discharging most of the jet from the advanc
quantity compensator and the fuel injection noz
ing blade than by discharging it equally about
'
the orbit. The emciency of propulsion is a func- '
Figure 9 is a fragmentary section along the
line 9-4 ‘of Figure 2 showing the auxiliary mech. 40 tion of the ratio of jet speed V; to blade speed Va
as indicated by the following equation‘
anism for increasing the slot opening for the hot
zle;
air jet; and
Figure 10 is a
‘
atic scheme of the
electric circuit for the control of combustion and
45
Since the advancing blade has a velocity Va
‘
‘
equal to the sum of the rotational and transla
In my application Serial No. 553,082, filed ‘
tional speed, this sum can more nearly approach
September '7, 1944, of which the present appli
the jet slot area.
the jet velocity V;.
cation is in part ‘a continuation. I disclosed ‘means
From another point of view itmay be observed
of equipping a rotor blade with a slot and asuit
able flap to control the slot area ‘as a function of 50 that the jet from the’ advancing blade both ro
the orbital position of the blade. A propulsive-, tates the rotor and‘ propels the helicopter for
ward.
jet of ?uid is emitted through the slot. The
. The emission of the jet mainly from the ad
blade also had a lift ?ap for altering the lift au
vancing blade greatly increases the efficiency of
tomatic'ally as a function of the orbital position
of the blade.
‘
propulsion of the whole machine. “
aseasse
3
,
The auxiliary ?ap it which is hinged at 8 is
raised on the advancing blade to increase the
opening of the slot and it is lowered on the
retreating side to decrease the slot opening.
The slot width should be varied rapidly when
the blade is near the front and back positions.
This is accomplished by the variable displace
ment means incorporating the cam plate It!
whose cam groove 5! ‘accommodates the end of
-
4.
ill is held at an intermediate position putting
?ap =3 into fixed position E.
The lift flap 3 is controlled orbitally by a suit
able mechanism as connected to the universally
mounted ring 55d whose tilting by the pilot by
means of rod 56 determines the attitude of the
?ap for various blade positions in its orbit. Since
this mechanism is not a feature of this inven
tion it will not be further described. A detailed
arm i attached to the flap 4. The cam‘plate 10 description is given in my application Serial No.
is slideable on the rollers II and when such
553,082, ?led September 7, 1944. >
motion takes place the arm 1 is moved to rotate
The lifting rotor composed of blades l is nor
the auxiliary flap.
“mally rotated by means of the jet issuing from
The motion of the cam plate I0 is referred’
slot 6 as a relatively cold jet. Under special
to the orbital position of the blade about the
conditions such as climbing or when very high
upright axis by means of the cam I2 and suit
forward speed is desired, fuel is to be burned in
able mechanism connecting it to the cam plate.
‘a portion of the air ?owing in the blade to in
Cam I2 is attached rigidly to shaft I3 which
crease the jet velocity and thereby the propulsive
is in turn ?xed rigidly to the aircraft structure.
power driving the blades.
Plate I4 is part of the hub to which the heli 20 ' The blade interior is divided into a plurality of
copter blades I are attached and is free to
spanwise ducts by partitions 85, 81, 88 and 89
rotate on bearings i5. Fork I6 which is part
having portions of the slot 6 as their exits. Into
of plate I4 supports fork I‘! on the axis I8.
some of these ducts fuel is injected and burned.
Fork I1 is an integral part of arm I9 which is
The ?ap 4 is divided into two parts, an inner
caused to oscillate around axis I8 by roller
one 4b for the control of the slot area for the
20 riding in the slot of cam I2. Fork 2I is
relatively cold jet, and an outer one 4a for the
pinned to nut block 22 at one end and at the
control of the hot jet. The control of the move
other to slide rod 22a which slides in sleeve
ment of the outer portion of the flap 4a in rela
2212 supported on arm 220 which is part of plate
tion'to the combustion of fuel is altered from
I4. Slide rod 22a actuates ?exible push-pull 30 the general motion provided by the cam I0 as
cable 23 which transmits spanwise motion to slide
, previously described. When the outer jet is not
rod 23a and in turn moves cam plate I0. Slide
hot the mechanism reverts to the same type of
rod 23a is supported by sleeve 24 which is fas
control as for the cold jet of the inner portion
tened to the blade structure. The blade~I is free
‘ to swing vertically around horizontal hinge 2a
of the slot.
which causes sleeve 24 and slide rod 23a to move
up’ and down relative to slide rod 22a. Flexible ,
push~pull cable 23 permits this relative vertical
motion without affecting the spanwise positions
The fuel metering mechanism is shown in Fig
ure 7. The cam 90 is ?xed to‘and rotates with
the hubcylinder 59. The roller 92 is attached
to the central slide rod 94 and is held against
the cam by the spring 96. The slide rod 94 rides
of either slide rod 22a or 23a. Rollers II, sup 4" inside the tube 98 the position of which is con
ported by the blade structure, allow cam I0 to
trolled by the pilot by means of rod 99, and this
slide spanwise. Link 25 connects a plurality of
tube in turn rides inside the valve cylinder I 00
cams identical to In distributed along‘ the span.
which is ?xed to the fuselage. With the rota
Nut block 22 can be moved so that axis 25 can
tion of the cam plate 90 the central slide rod
be moved from position A to position B by 45 94 oscillates at a frequency proportional to the
revolving screw 21. Screw 21 is turned by pinion
rotor speed and with a constant stroke. By ad
28 mating with rack 29. Universal joint 30 fas
justing the tube 98 the length ‘of time during
tened to rack 29 lies on axis I8 so that oscillation
which the rod slot I02 and the tube slots I04
of arm I9 will not affect the vertical position of
register with each other can be varied. The fuel
rack 29. Link 3| is moved by arm 32 which is 50 is fed to the valve by a constant pressure pump
pivotally supported by fork 33. They revolve
with hub I4 around shaft I3. Grooved sleeve 34
does not revolve on shaft I3 but is ,free to
‘slide vertically by the action of bellcrank 35 and
link 36. The last is attached 0 a control oper
able by the pilot.
'
For forward ?ight, nut block 22 remains ?xed
at the outer‘ end of crank I9 and oscillates be
tween positions A and C‘by the action of roller
and enters through the opening v I06, passing
through the valve during the time the slots reg
ister and leaving through the fuel line I08. ‘The
' fuel enters the fuel lines I I0 of each blade through
55 the slip valve I I2 mounted on the stationary shaft
l3. The slot I I4 permits fuel to be fed only to the
advancing blade since only one fuel line passes
by the slot .I I4 at any instant.
Before the fuel. reaches the injection nozzles
20in cam I2. Cam I0 is thereby caused to re 60 within the blade it passes a needle valve I I6 which
ciprocate moving roller 9 and arm 1 causing
compensates for the temperature and mass flow
flap 4 to move from position D to F and back.
of the air in the duct, thus maintaining a proper
As the rotor blade revolves around its orbit
fuel-‘air mixture. Within the blade the venturi
from G to H (see Fig. 4. of which direction GK
I I8 attached to the Sylphon I20 corrects for mass
is forward) the ?ap 4 opens from F to D (see 65 flow variations of the duct air and the sealed Syl
‘ Fig. 3). As the blade revolves from H to I to J
phon I22 corrects ‘for the duct air temperature.
the ?ap 4 remains wide open. Revolving ‘from . See‘Figures 2 and 8. The two Sylphons are con
J to K the ?ap 4 closes down again to F and re
nected in series and in such a manner that the
mains there while theblade revolves to L and
net expansion or contraction, whichever the case
then to G.
70 may be, moves the push rod I24 and the link I26
In hovering flight nut block 22 is moved from
which turns the needle I I 6 by means of the needle
position A to B with the crew 21. Position B is
’ crank arm I20. This screws the needle up or
on axis I8, therefore the oscillation of crank arm
down and changes the metering of the fuel.
I9 imparts no motion to link 2|. The geometry
The nozzles I30 through which the fuel is in
of point B relative to A and C is such that cam 76 jected contain a spring-loaded needle valve I32
Mamas
5
.
.
I
x
8
breaker which‘ provides a means of increasing
the Jet slot area in cooperation with the fuel in
that is seated in the nozzle opening I“. The
high pressure of the fuel forces the needle back
from the nozzle opening by extending the ?exible /
seal I” and compressing the spring I”. The.
jection. .
‘
due jet of fuel strikes the dash plate ‘Ill. which.
disintegrates the fuel into very minute particles
It willnow be clear that I have provided a
unique means of burning fuel in the blade to aug
ment the power available for climbing and high
that mix readily with the passing air.
speed.
' 1
ignition spark plugs I42 is shown. Fuel is burned
only in theouter portion of the blade and the air
feeding that portion of- the blade is separated
from the inboard air by the partition I5. There
burning coincides with the advancing position of
x the blade.
'
I have also provided a unique means of con
trolling the cross sectional area of the jet at
are four sets of the fuel nozzles and spark plugs,
each located in a separate duct and at an equal
distance from the jet slot 8 so that the hot'air
exit which makes added power and high emciency
available.
will be jetted evenly along the full length of the
portion of the slot emitting hot air.
Since the hot jet occurs only at the outer half
of the slot it is necessary, to divide the jet flap
4 into two parts la and 4b so that the opening
,
The fuel is burned intermittently in part so
that the blade can be cooled, This is also the de
sirable condition for forward ?ight if the fuel
In the plan view of the blade, Figure 2, the
arrangement of the injection nomies I" and the
20
through which~ the hot air passes can be ‘wider ‘
than that emitting the cold air jet.
The mechanism by which the jet opening is
enlarged during the jetting of the hot air is 25
_
-
I have now described suitable embodiments of
my invention which are now preferred. It is to
be understood however that the invention is not
limited to the particular construction illustrated
and described and that I intend to claim it broad
l? as indicated by the scope of the appended
claims.
-
‘
I claim:
1. In combination in a rotary wing aircraft, a
shown in Figure 9. The rear spar I“ contains
the opening I46 and the vanes I“ which direct
the air rearward. The ?ap la is operated by the
hollow blade, means supporting said blade for
rotation about an upright axis, said blade having
a spanwise slot in its surface adapted to discharge
same mechanism as shown in Figure 3 during the
a gaseous ?ow therethrough, a partition. within
said bladedividing the interior thereof into a plu- .
time in which the cold air jet is in effect. Addi
rality of ducts each having a portion of said slot
tional jet opening is obtained by means of a set
as an exit, means to cause combustion in a said
of solenoids which vary the action of the primary
duct to raise the temperature of said air therein,
mechanism employing the cam plates II. The
and ?ap means on said blade associated with said
arm ‘I in this instance is hinged at the flap hinge
l but is free from the ?ap la. The link III con 35 duct in which combustion has taken place to
provide increased flow area to accommodate the I
nects the flap to the solenoid arm in which
greater volume of flow of the heated air there
hinges about the point I" on the arm I" ‘?xed
to the main ?ap arm ‘I. The arm In is essen
through.
2. In combination in a rotary wing aircraft, a
tially the core of the solenoid I" and its move
ment is restricted by the poles of a second U 40 blade, means supporting said blade for rotation
about an upright axis, said blade having a span
shaped solenoid I" fixed to the flap arm ‘I. .When
‘wise slot in its surface leading out of the blade
the solenoid circuit is closed, the arm I" is drawn
interior and adapted to discharge a gaseous ?ow
forward and held against the lower pole of sole
therefrom, means to heat a portion of said air
noid I" thus causing the flap 4 to decrease the
jet opening to normal. When the hot gases are 45 being emitted from a portion of said slot, and flap
means on said blade associated with said slot and
passing through the slot, the solenoid circuit is
adjustable differentially to provide increased flow
broken thus permitting the internal pressure to
area in that portion of the slot through which
open the slot to its maximum width as shown
the heated portion of the air is emitted.
in Figure I9.
'
‘
'_ The‘circuit breaker controlling the solenoids is 50 3. In combination in a rotary wing aircraft, a
blade having a spanwise passage for the ?ow of
shown in Figure 7. The circuit is opened and
air therethrough, means supporting said blade for
closed by a sliding contactor I62 which is attached
rotation about an upright axis, said blade having
to and moves with the slide rod 94, Fig. 7. The
a spanwise ?ap adjustably supported'thereon to
circuit is open as shown in Figure"! and will
be closed when the contactor I82 lies between 55 form a slot between the wing surface and said
?ap surface adapted to discharge a gaseous ?ow
the- two contactor plates I“. These plates are
therefrom, means to periodically heat said air '
housed in a cylinder I" the position of which,
within said blade to vary its temperature, and
relative to the stroke of the sliding contactor, can
means to adjust said ?ap to vary said slot open
be regulated by the pilot by means of rod I01
so that the period of time during which the Jet 60 ing concurrently with said heating of said air.
4. In combination in a direct lift aircraft. a
slot is wide open will produce the most effective
blade, means supporting said blade for rotation
about an upright axis. said blade having an open
ing in im surface leading into the blade interior
of the advancing side of the orbit it is desired
that only the advancing blade ?ap circuit be 65 forming a slot adapted to discharge a flow there
broken. This is achieved by‘ means of a split
- from, means to cause periodic combustion in said
, air within said blade to increase the air tempera
slip ring I" mounted on the stationary shaft I3.
The electrical circuit is shown in Figure 10. The
ture, and means to vary the size of said opening
in timed relation to said combustion periods.
brushes I'll contact the slip ring and complete
the circuits within the blades. The half of the 70 5. In combination in a rotary wing aircraft, a
blade having a slot of variable area leading out of a
slip ring on the retreating side is connected di
the blade interior adapted to discharge a gaseous
rectly to the electric power source I" and there
fore the closed circuit holds the jet slot to the
flow therefrom, means supporting said blade for
normal width. The advancing side of the slip ring
rotation about an upright axis, controllable
has between it and the power source the circuit ‘75 means .to inject fuel into‘ said air within said
and emcient jet action.
' -
Since the fuel is burned only during a portion -
2,457,930,
7
,
blade, means to ignite said fuel, and means on
erable in accordance with the orbital position of
said blade to coincidentally control the said slot
area and the injection of said fuel.
8. In combination in a rotary wing aircraft, a
‘blade having a slot leading out of the blade in
terior adapted ,to discharge a gaseous'?ow there
from, means supporting said blade for rotation
about an upright axis,‘means'to initiate. com
‘
6. In combination in a rotary wing'aircraft, a
blade having a slot of variable area leading out
bustion in said‘ air within said blade, and means '
‘of the blade interior and adapted to discharge a
to increase said slot area upon initiation of said
gaseous ?ow therefrom, means supporting saidv
blade for rotation about an upright axis, con
‘
r
EDWARD A. STAIKER.
trollable means to intermittently inject fuel into 10
said air within said blade, means to ignite said
REFERENCES
combustion.
fuel, means to vary said slot area, and means op
ly with said injection of fuel.
'7. In combination in a rotary wing aircraft, a
blade main body and a flap supported thereon,
I said flap and 1said main body forming a slot there
between leading out of the blade interior adapted
to control said auxiliary ?aps to provide increased
flow area to accommodate the greater volume of
?ow of the heated air discharged , therethrough
f ollowlng combustion therein.
.
file of this patent:
15
.
'
‘ UNITED STATES PATENTS
‘Number.
Name
Date
1,620,827 >
Mock ____________ .... Mar. 15, 1927
1,820,946
Pitcairn -'_ ________ -- Sept. 1, 1931
1,879,717
to discharge a gaseous ?ow therefrom, a plurality
of auxiliary ?aps supported on said blade to con
trol said slot area, means to cause combustion
in a part of said air within said blade, and means
,‘
‘The following references areof record in the
erable coincidentally with the operation of said
fuel injection means for controlling said slot vary
ing means to increase said slot area intermittent
,
‘
Number '
Sikorsky ____ ....,_..___ Sept. 27, 1932
FOREIGN PA'I'ENTS
Country
Date '
648,107
France ____________ __ Aug, '7, 1928
27,087,
227,151
Great Britain ____________ __ 1910,
Great Britain a ____ __ Jan. 12,‘ 1925
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