Jan. ,4, 1949. _ w, A, HAGERBAUMER 2,458,162 METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR CONVERSION OF LIQUID HYDROCARBONS WITH A MOVING CATALYST _ Filed NOV. ;14, 1946 . ‘ 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 / \ HOPPER // £1 J0 32 J/ ' -———> Cl/‘RGE .—_> 2/? CONVERTOR con/0070mm‘? 2)’ - _, A? + f \ I4‘ ’ 2a C'OA/VEYO/PJ _ V / o. - INVENTOR ///////'am /7 Hayeréaumer BY . Jr!“ 42. MJ. AGEN T OR ATTORNEY Jan. 4, 1949. w, A, HAGERBAUMER 2,458,162 ‘ METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR CONVERSION OF LIQUID I HYDROCARBONS WITH A MOVING CATALYST Filed Nov. 14, 1946 ' - 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 M07012 '9. C. LEVEL \77 6 m 27 P.p#0MM,wm.16MW .1 @M 2.9 mm, W m V~M T Mm maT&N mm Mr‘.. Hm mH0mmu M QR ' Jan-.4, 1949- w. A. HAGERBAUMER I 2,458,162 METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR CONVERSION OF LIQUID HYDROCARBONS WITH A MOVING CATALYST Filed Nov. 14, _1e4e 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 _ 49 47 50 ' _ INVENTQR MY/mmi ??ayez'baamer BY - 4 jaw a. M’; .A GENT 0R ATTORNEY 2,458,162 Patented Jan. 4, 1949 uiro STATES PATENT‘ OFFICE ' ' 2,458,162 METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR- CONVER SIGN 0F LIQUID RQCARBONS WITH A MOVING CATALYST William - Eager-hammer, West?eld, N. 3., assign-v or to Socony-‘Vacuum Oil Company, Incorpo . rated, a corporation or New York il Application November 1d,,l9jé6, Serial No. 709,874 ll ?laims. (El. 196-52) This invention has to do with a method and apparatus for conversion of high boiling liquid 2 in a liquid hydrocarbon charge is passed down wardly within a substantially compact column downwardly moving of contact material particles oi.‘ an improved method and apparatus for supply hydrocarbons or mixed phase hydrocarbons to lower boiling hydrocarbons in the presence of a moving particle-form contact mass material of contact material to said column and for con which may or may not exhibit catalytic proper trol of the surface level of said column within the ties with respect to the conversion reaction. Typ ical of such processes is the catalytic conversion ' of heated liquid hydrocarbons to lower boiling gasoline containing gaseous products by the con tacting of a high boiling liquid charge at tem conversion zone. These and other objects of this invention will become apparent from the following discussion 10 of the invention. - Before proceeding with this discussion certain terms used in describing and in claiming this in peratures of the order of 850° F. and upwards with a particle-form adsorbent catalytic material. vention will be de?ned. The term “gaseous" as Other exemplary processes are the thermal vis used herein is intended to refer to a material breaking, coking or cracking of liquid or mixed 15 existing in the gaseous phase under the particular phase hydrocarbon charge by contact with heated operating conditions of pressure and temperature particle-form inert contact materials. involved regardless of‘ what may be the normal This invention has speci?cally to do with con phase of that material under ordinary atmos version processes wherein the contact material pheric conditions. The expression “contact ma is passed cyclically through a conversion zone terial’i is employed herein in a broad sense as wherein it ?ows as a substantially compact stream covering solid particles which are suitable as a while being contacted with hydrocarbons to e?ect contacting or heat carrying agent for the par their conversion and through a regeneration or ticular conversion involved regardless of whether reconditioning zone wherein it is contacted with such solid particles exhibit a catalytic e?ect a suitable gas to condition it for reuse in said 25 toward the conversion or not. conversion zone. The invention may be best understood by refer In such processes wherein the contact material ence to the drawings attached hereto, of which is catalytic in nature it may partake of the na Figure 1 is ‘an elevational view showing the ture of natural or treated clays, bauzite, activated general arrangement of a continuous hydrocar alumina or synthetic associations of silica, alumi 30 bon conversion system of the type to which this na or silica and alumina to which other substances invention may be applied; such as certain metallic oxides may be added in Figure 2 is an elevational view, partially in small amounts for speci?c purposes. When the section, showing the application of this inven contact material is inert in character it may par tion to the convertor vessel; take or the form of refractory materials such as Figure 3 is a plan view looking up from line zirkite, corhart material, or mullite or it may 3-3 in Figure 2 showing details of the ?ow throt partake of the form of stones or metallic parti tling device employed in the apparatus of Fig cles 01' balls. In order to insure practical capaci ure 2; _ ty for gas ?ow through the compact mass of con Figure 4 is a sectional view taken along-line tact material particles in the conversion and re 3-3 of Figure 3; and ' . generation zones, it has been found desirable to Figure 51s an enlarged detail view of a portion maintain the‘contact material particles within of the apparatus shown in Figure 4. the size range about 3 to 100 mesh and prefer All of these drawings are highly diagrammatic ' ably within the range about 4 to 20 mesh by in form. Tyler standard screen analysis. While operation 45 Turning now to Figure 1 there is shown a may be obtained using contact material particles converter l0, supplied by contact material from of a size outside these ranges, the resulting opera - a supply hopper ll through a, gravity feed leg tion is inferior. I2 and provided with a contact material drain A speci?c object of this invention is the pro leg l3 bearing ?ow control valve It. on its lower vision in a hydrocarbon conversion process where 50 end. Also shown is a-separate reconditioner l5 , 4 essence .' having a contact material feed conduit l6 con- . nected into its upper end and a contact material drain conduit 20 connected into its lower end. ‘ 4 gaseous pressure in the hydrocarbon conversion - zone. In 17111511183310! escape of hydrocarbons through the contact material feed system is pre Conveyors I1 and I8 are provided for transfer of _ In Figure 2, details of the construction of con the contact material particles between the con vertor l0 are shown andv like elements-in both vertor and reconditioner.. The conveyors may be ?gures bear like numerals. Looking‘ at Figure‘ 2, of any suitable construction adapted to transfer it will be seen that a partition 33 extends trans hot contact material particles without severe versely across the upper section of vessel 50 to breakage and attrition of the particles, for ex ample continuous bucket elevators. In operation, 10 divide it into a seal chamber 34 positioned in its upper end and a conversion chamber 35 posi fresh contact material at a temperature suitable tioned therebeiow. A conduit 38 for solid ?ow de for the hydrocarbon conversion is passed from pends centrally and vertically from partition 33 hopper ll through feed leg I‘! into the upper end and terminates within the upper section of the of converter It. Used contact material is with drawn from the bottom of the vessel It) through 15 conversion chamber. Positioned centrally below the lower end of conduit 36 is a symmetrical up conduit l3 at a rate controlled by valve l4 which wardly tapered baille 31 terminating on its upper is in conformance with the requirements of the end in an apex which is spaced shortly below the particular conversion operation involved. The vented. - 4 ' > used contact material is transferred by con lower end of conduit 36. The baiile shown is an within the scope of this invention. If the process _v Corresponding recessed portions are provided veyor H to the upper end ofxreconditioner it. 20 upright cone but bailies havingother cross-sec tional shapes such as square and hexagonal pyra In such processes as the ‘catalytic cracking con mids may be employed within the scope of this version of hydrocarbons, a substantial amount of carbonaceous contaminant is deposited upon‘. invention. In general the heme 31 should be of the same horizontal cross-sectional shape as the con the used contact material in which case the recon ditioner takes the form of a catalyst regenerator. 25 version chamber but should be of substantially less horizontal cross-sectional area at its base Air is introduced into the lower section or vessel than the conversion chamber at the level of the it through conduit 2| and is permitted to pass up baiile. The baiiie 31 may be supported from the wardly through the column of used contact mate vessel shell by means of rods 88. rial withln vessel is to burn oil‘ the contaminant. Studying now Figures 2, 3, 4 and 5 together, a Flue gas is withdrawn from the upper section 30 flow throttle device 40 is positioned below the of the vessel 85 through conduit 22. In order to lower end of conduit 36 and above the apex of remove su?icient heat from the regenerating cata baffle 81. This throttling device is constructed lyst to prevent overheating of the catalyst to heat in the manner of an iris diaphragm, and is sup damaging levels, cooling tubes (not shown) may ported from the vessel shell by suspension from be provided within the reconditioner. These angle supports 44 and 42. The device is com tubes may be supplied with a suitable cooling prised of a ?xed portion consisting of two con fluid through pipe 23. Cooling fluid may be with centric annular members, the outer member 4| drawn from the cooling tubes through pipe 24. Other regenerator constructions than that shown ' ?tting tightly around the inner member 42 and and described hereinabove are contemplated 40 being fastened thereto by means of bolts 43. involved is a strictly non-catalytic process, for example, in which the amount of coke deposit on the contact material is‘ negligible or if it be-a process wherein the amount of coke deposit on the contact material is insu?icient upon combus tion to heat the contact material to the desired inlet temperature to'the convertor, the recondi around the joining edges of both members so that when they are joined there is provided a re cessed annular opening or track 44 having a re stricted neck portion 45.’ The inside diameter of the inner member 42 is substantially greater than that of conduit 36 so that the member 42 may ?t loosely around the conduit it while providing tioner l5 may take the form of an apparatus the 60 a substantial gas space therebetween. An annu lar protruding section 46 extends downwardly principal function of which is to heat the con from. the base section of the inner member 42. tact material. Considering again the convertor This protruding section 46 serves as a ?xed mem l0, high boiling liquid hydrocarbons from a suit ber onto which a plurality of overlapping dia able charge preparation system l9 may be sup plied in heated condition into the upper section 55 phragm leaves 49 are loosely fulcrumed by means of bolts 41 at spaced points arranged concen of converter l0 through conduit 25. In some trically with respect the axis of member 42. The operations vaporized hydrocarbons may be simul .leaves 49 are pivotally connected by means of taneously supplied to the upper section of con bolts 504 to a movable annular ring 5| which is vertor I'll through conduit 26. Converted gaseous of somewhat greater diameter than the protrud hydrocarbon products which ‘may contain high percentages of motor and aviation gasoline and 80 ing section 45 of member 42. A T-shaped an nular rail 52 protrudes from the upper edge of fuel oils are withdrawn from the lower section ring 5|. The rail 52 is adapted to ?t and slide of vessel It) and passed through conduit 21- to a loosely in the recessed track 44 formed between suitable product fractionator and recovery sys tem 28. An inert purge gas such as steam or ?ue 6.5 ?xed members 4| and 42. A shaft 54 is connected to the outer periphery of the ring 5! and is‘pro gas may be introduced into the contact material vided with a‘horizontal bow shaped gear 5€on its column within the lower section of vessel It outward end. A drive shaft 56 extends through ‘through- conduit 29 for the purpose of stripping packing gland 51 and through the shell of vessel gaseous hydrocarbon products from the out ?ow It. The shaft 68 is geared by means of gears 58, ing used contact material. An inert sealgas 59 and 50 and verticalshaftil to drive the bow such as steam or ?ue gas may be introduced into shaped gear 55 on shaft 54 and thereby to actu the upper end of vessel Ill through conduit 30 ate the ring 5|. The ring 5| may be thus ro at a rate so controlled by diaphragm valve 3| tated back and forth around its vertical axis so and diiferential pressure controller 32 as to main ‘tain an inert gaseous pressure adjacent the lower 75 as to cause-the leaves 49 to provide a central circular iris opening 85 of varying size for-solid and of contact material feed leg it‘, above the 2,488,162 ‘material flow. The throttling ‘device is-so, posi tioned that the iris opening is located just over the conical ba?le and coaxially aligned therewith so that regardless of the size of the iris opening 65, the contact material from conduit 36 is di rected evenly and centrally directed onto the apex of the ba?le 3!. If desired a hand crank may be connected to 1 _ ' ‘ it is sprayed onto the shower of particles so as to thoroughly contact the contact material before reaching the surface 10 of the column. If de sired vaporized hydrocarbon charge may also be introduced into vessel It) through conduit 26. The contact material particles and liquid charge and any vapors formed or introduced pass down wardly within the’ column so as to effect con shaft 56 outside the vessel Ill to permit manual version of the liquid charge to lower boiling gas adjustment of the throttling device“. It is pre 10 eous products which are disengaged from the col ferred however to provide automatic adjustment umn in the lower section of vessel l0 and removed as will be described hereinbelow. It will be noted through conduit 27. The gaseous products with from Figure 2 that the surface level 70 of the drawn at Elmay be disengaged from the? column ' contact material column within vessel I0 is by any of a number of suitable arrangements such ' maintained a substantial vertical distance below 15 as that'shown in Simpson 'et a]. U. 8. Patent the base of conical baffle 3'! so as to provide a ver 2,336,041, or troughs such as shown in Barstow. tical section ‘it through which the contact ma et al. U. S. Patent 1,852,227, or troughs such as terial falls as a shower of dispersed freely falling shown by Fahnestock, in U. 8. Patent 2,362,621, particles. A spray device ‘I3 adapted to spray may be associated with the outlet conduit 21. liquid oil dpwnwardly into the shower of contact 20 Used contact material is withdrawn fromthe material particles is positioned in section ll of lower‘ end of vessel Ill through conduit H3. The the converter just below ‘came 31. Liquid oil rate of contact material withdrawal is throttled charge is supplied to the spray device ‘It through by valve is so as to insure a column of contact conduit 25. Two spaced apart electrical con material in the vessel in thereabove and so as to denser plates, ‘i5 and ‘it, held apart by insulators 25 control the residence time of contact material in W are supported by suitable means (not shown) the conversion zone to whatever value the par within vessel 69 so as to extend vertically along ticular operation involved requires. a short section of the vessel corresponding rough Ba?ies may be provided within the lower end iv to the range of levels within which it is de of'vessel it which are adapted to provide for sired to maintain the surface level 10 of the col 30 unifo withdrawal of contact material from all umn of contact material within the conversion sections of the horizontal cross-sectional area of zone. Contact material fills in the space between the conversion zone. Such ba?‘ies are shown in the plates 75 and i6 and upon change in level Evans et al, ‘U. S. Patent 2,412,136. The conduit causes a change in the dielectric resistance be 36 for solid flow into the conversion chamber is of tween the condenser plates. The plates are con 35 suf?cient size as to have an unthrottled ?ow ca nected into a suitable A. C. bridge circuit ‘I9 pacity above the maximum anticipated contact which may be of conventional type, and the plates material throughput. As a result, if no throttle act to set up varying currents in the bridge cir were applied to the flow from conduit 36 the con cuit in response to changes in the surface level tact material column would extend upwardly to of the column of contact material. A motor 80 40 the outlet from conduit 36. The provision of is connected through a speed reducer 8| to the throttling device 40 permits the maintenance of drive shaft ‘55 for the contact material flow the section ‘H in which contact material may fall throttling device 66. The bridge circuit 19 is V as a shower. In other words-the throttling device adapted to operate the motor 80 in such a man all permits maintenance of level 16 of the column ner as to cause it to turn the shaft 56 in a di a spaced distance below baffle 31. In the space ‘H rection which will decrease the iris opening 65 the liquid oil charge may be uniformly adsorbed of device 40 when the surface ‘I0 of the contact in the pores and/or deposited on the surface of material column rises above a predetermined the contact material particles so that it is car level and to increase the size of the iris opening ried on the particles uniformly onto all sections 65 when the surface 10 of the column falls below of the contact material column. In this manner said predetermined level. It will be understood the channeling of liquid charge in the column of that while the system described hereinabove for contact material is avoided and'uniform conver automatically adjusting throttling device 40 is a preferred form of‘ the invention, it should be understood that it is contemplated that it may be replaced by other suitable systems adapted to ad just the size of iris opening 65 in response to changes in the surface level of the contact ma terial column within the conversion zone. sion conditions and uniform. contaminant ‘depo; sition on all of the contact material is made pos- I ' sible. It will be apparent that uniform disper sion of contact material particles to all portions of the horizontal cross-sectional area of section ‘II depends on the delivery of the inlet contact ma ' terial stream \squarely and symmetrically onto In operation, particle form contact material 60 the apex of the ba?ie 31 regardless of the rate of existing at a temperature sufficiently high to sup ?ow of contact material. Such ‘delivery cannot port the desired hydrocarbon conversion passes be accomplished by means of conventional gate or as a substantially compact stream downwardly slide valves over a various range of.adiustable through conduit 36. The contact material flows ?ow rates. The throttling device 40 constructed ' from the lower end of conduit 36 into the throt tling device 40 and passes through the iris open ing 65 onto the apex of bafile 31. The'baffle 31 serves to disperse the particles so that they fall downwardly through section ‘II as a shower of uniformly dispersed, freely falling particles onto the surface ‘Ill of the contact material column therebelow. A liquid oil charge which boils for the most part above the desired conversion tem perature is introduced in heated condition in the manner of an iris diaphragm, however, in sures delivery of the contact material stream sym metrically onto the apex of ba?le 31 over a wide range of ?ow rates. The iris opening 65 is always coaxially aligned with baiiie 31 regardless of its size and is susceptible to fine adjustment from a point outside the vessel so as to permit accurate ' control of the level ‘of the surface ‘In of the con tact material column spaced below baflie 31. Since the flow throttling device is so constructed as-to' through conduit 25 into spray device 13 by which 76 permit access of gaseous pressure above and be ' _ _‘ ' 2,458,162 ll, its control on the rate of contact 1 ing conditions and of process applications of material flow is independent of pressure changes this invention given hereinabove are intended as illustrative and arenot to be construed as limit ~ low the in the conversion vessel. - ing the scope of this invention except as it may W be limited by the following claims. - The exact dimensions of the several elements which combine to provide the improved apparatus of this invention will. of course, be ‘dependent to a _ ' certain extent upon the particular operation and I claim: - 1. A method for conversion of high boiling liq uid hydrocarbons to lower boiling hydrocarbons the operating conditions involved. In general it in the presence of a moving contact material has been found desirable to provide a vertical dis tance of about ten feet between the base of the 10 which method comprises: introducing particle ba?e 81 and the surface 10 of the contact mate form contact material at a suitable tempera ture for said hydrocarbon conversion into the rial column. The surface 10 of the column should upper section of a con?ned, elongated, substan be maintained within a ,narrow ,range of levels tially vertical conversion zone as a substantially.‘ falling within a vertical length of the vessel amounting to about 2 inches. The vertical length 15 compact supply stream of solid particlesppassing the contact _material from said stream down of the column may vary from about 3 to ~40 feet wardly through an upper section of said con depending upon the process. The base of the version zone as a shower of dispersed freely fall bafile t1 should be substantially less in horizontal ing particles onto the surface of a substantially dimensions than the vessel, and its sides should slope at an angle with'the horizontal greater 20 compact bed of said contact material therebelow within said conversion zone, withdrawing used than about 30 degrees and preferably within the contact material from the bottom of said bed, con range 45 to '70 degrees. For example in a vessel having an internal diameter of 16 feet a cone having a base diameter of about 7 feet and a trolling the surface level of said bed substantially constant by adjusting the rate of ?ow of contact height of about 4 feet is considered satisfactory.‘ 25 material from said compact supply stream, intro- > ducing a spray of high boiling liquid hydrocarbon ' Thethrottle device 40 should be positioned below charge into said shower of particles in said .upper conduit 88 in such a manner as to prevent over section of said conversion zone to contact said flow of contact material over the throttle‘ de particles before reaching the surface of said bed, vice and it should be positioned so that the iris opening is within about 4 to 6 inches of the apex 30 and withdrawing gaseous hydrocarbon products from the lower section of said bed substantially of bame 81. separately of said contact material. As an example of the application of this in 2. A method for conversion of high boiling liq vention its use ‘in the catalytic cracking con uid hydrocarbons to lower boiling hydrocarbons version of high boiling ?uid hydrocarbons may be considered. In such an operation a particle 35 in the presence of a moving contact material form catalyst which may be of clay type is in which method comprises: introducing particle troduced into the conversion chamber at a tem perature within the range about 900 to 1200° F. ' form contact material at a suitable temperature for said hydrocarbon conversion into the upper may be a reduced petroleum crude which has been preheated to a temperature of the order a onto the surface of a substantially compact col umn of said contact material at a lower level in said conversion zone, spraying a heated high section .of a con?ned, elongated, substantially depending upon the desired conversion tempera ture, the clay to oil ratio and the particular 40 vertical conversion zone as a substantially com pact supply stream of solid particles, baiiling the hydrocarbon charge involved and the desired flow of particles from said stream to disperse products. A liquid hydrocarbon charge which . the particles and passing the dispersed particles may consist principally of hydrocarbons boiling as a shower of freely falling particles downwardly above the desired average conversiontempera ture is introduced through pipe 49. Such a charge 45 through a vertical section of said conversion zone ' of 600° F. to 800° F. A gas oil fraction which has boiling liquid hydrocarbon charge into said shower been vaporized and heated to a temperature of the order of 800°‘ F. to 950° F. may be introduced 50 to contact said particles before reaching the sur face of said column, passing said contact mate rial particles and said liquid hydrocarbon charge downwardly within said column to effect con-' line may be withdrawn from the conversion‘ version of said liquid hydrocarbons to lower boil chamber through conduits 53 and 54. The pres sure in the conversion chamber may be con 55 ing gaseous hydrocarbon products, withdrawing .to' the conversion chamber through conduitv 50. Gaseous products containing high yields of gaso-. ‘ trolled quite low, usually of the order of 5 to .30 used contact material from the lower section of pounds per square inch gauge. The total oil said column, withdrawing gaseous hydrocarbon products from said column substantially sep space velocity (measured as liquid oil at 60° F.) arately of the contact material and controlling may be within the range about 0.5 to 10 volumes of oil per volume of. ?owing catalyst in the con 60 the level of the surface of said column substan version zone. The relative ratio of liquid to gase tially constant by adjustably throttling the ?ow ous hydrocarbon charge may vary widely depend of contact material from said compact supply ing- upon speci?c re?nery stock conditions. The stream at a location adjacent its lower end. catalyst to oil ratio on the weight basis may be 3. A method for conversion of high boiling liquid hydrocarbons to lower boiling hydrocar within the range about 2.0 to 20 parts of catalyst bons' in the presence of a moving contact mate charged per part of oil. In the regeneration zone air may be employed to burn from the catalyst the carbonaceous contaminant formed thereon in rial which method comprises: introducing parti cle form contact material at a suitable tempera ture for said hydrocarbon conversion into the withdrawn from the catalyst during regenera 70 upper section of a con?ned, elongated, substan tionto prevent it from reaching a heat damag tialy vertical conversion zone as a substantially‘ the conversion zone. Suflicient heat should be ing temperature. For clay type catalysts the heat compact supply stream of solid particles, ba?ii'ng damaging level is of the order of about 1200° F. It should be understood that the particular de tails of apparatus construction‘ and of operat the ?ow of particles from said stream to disperse the particles and passing the dispersed particles 16 as a shower of freely falling particles down-l 2,458,189 10 wardly through a vertical section of said con version zone onto the surface of a substantially compact column of said contact material at a lower level in said conversion zone, spraying a particles and passing the dispersed particles as a shower of freely falling particles downwardly through a vertical section of said conversion zone onto the surface of a substantially compact col umn of said contact material at a lower level in said conversion zone, spraying a heated high heated high boiling liquid hydrocarbon charge into said shower to contact said particles before reaching the surface of said column, passing said contact material particles and said liquid boiling liquid hydrocarbon charge into said show er to contact said particles before reaching the surface of said column, passing said contact ma hydrocarbon charge downwardly within vsaid col umn to effect conversion of said liquid hydro 10' terial particles and said liquid hydrocarbon carbons to lower boiling gaseous hydrocarbon products, withdrawing used contact material charge downwardly within said column to effect I conversion of said liquid hydrocarbons to lower from the lower section of said column, withdraw boiling gaseous hydrocarbon products, withdraw ing gaseous hydrocarbon products from said col ing used contact material from the lower section ' umn substantially separately or the contact ma of said column, withdrawing gaseous hydrocar terial, throttling the flow of contact material ‘bon products from said column substantially from said compact supply stream at a point near separately 0f the contact material and controlling, the lower end of said stream and above said the level of the surface ‘of said column substan ing and causing the throttling of the flow tially constant by adjustably throttling the how from said compact supply stream to be adjusted 20 of contact material ‘from said compact supply by changes in the surface lev,el of said column stream at a location adjacent its lower vend, in such a manner as to control the surface level of said column within anarrow range or levels and maintaining an inert gaseous pressure in said seal zone above the gaseous pressure in said con all spaced substantially below the location at version zone. which the ?ow of contact material from said 25 supply stream is subjected to the battling. ,4. A method for conversion of high boiling I ' - 6. An apparatus for conversion of high boiling . liquid hydrocarbons to lower boiling gaseous hy- ' drocarbons in the presence of ‘a moving contact liquid hydrocarbons to lower boiling hydrocar- " bone in the presence of a moving contact mate rial which method comprises: introducing par so ticle form contact material at a suitable temper ature for said hydrocarbon conversion into the upper section of a confined, elongated, substan tially vertical conversion zone as a substantially mass material which comprises in combination: means de?ning a’ conversion chamber, a conduit extending downwardly into the upper section of said chamber for supply of contact material, an upwardly tapered symmetrical ba?le termi nating in an apex positioned within the upper section of said chamber with its apex a spaced compact supply stream of solid particles, baming 35 distance below the lower end of said conduit, the flow of particles from said stream to disperse the particles and passing the dispersed particles as a shower of freely falling particles downwardly throttling device positioned between said conduit through a vertical section of said conversion zone and said ba?ie, said throttling device being con said baffle being of substantially less cross-sec tional area at its base than said chamber, a flow onto the surface of a substantially compact col 40 structed substantially in the manner of an iris umn of said contact material at a lower level in said conversion zone, spraying a heated high diaphragm and being so positioned as to provide an adjustable iris opening for solid flow which is boiling liquid hydrocarbon charge into said show coaxialy aligned with said ba?ie, means to adjust er to contact said particles before reaching‘ the the iris opening of said throttling device from a surface of said column, passing said contact 45 location outside of said chamber, means .to with material particles and said liquid hydrocarbon draw contact material from the lower end of said charge downwardly within‘said column to eifect chamber, means to spray liquid oil charge'into conversion of said liquid hydrocarbon to lower said chamber below said ba?le and means to boiling gaseous hydrocarbon products, withdraw ing used contact material from the lower'sec tion of said‘ column, withdrawing gaseous hy withdraw gaseous hydrocarbon products from 50 the lower section of said chamber substantially separately of said contact material. , 7. An apparatus for conversion of high boiling drocarbon products from said column substan- - tially separately of the contact material and con trolling the level of the surface of said column liquid hydrocarbons to lower boiling gaseous hy- ' drocarbons in the presence of a moving contact substantially constant by adjustably restricting 55 mass material which comprises in combination: the diameter of said compact supply stream at a means de?ning a conversion chamber adapted to location adjacent its lower end in such a‘ man common substantially compact column. of parti ner that the restricted portion of said stream is cle form contact material, a conduit extending always coaxially aligned with the unrestricted downwardly into the upper section of said cham portion of saidcompact stream above the loca 60 ber for supply of contact material, an upwardly a con?ned seal zone, supplying-contact material tapered symmetrical ba?le terminating in an apex positioned within the upper section of said cham ber with its apex a spaced distance below the lower end of said conduit, said ba?le being of sub stantially less cross-sectional area at its base than said chamber, a flow throttling device positioned between said conduit and said ba?ie, said throt tling device being constructed substantially in to said bed at a temperature suitable for sup- * the manner of an iris diaphragm and being so po tionv of diameter restrictions. ' 5. The method for conversion of high boiling liquid hydrocarbons to lower gaseous boiling hy drocarbon products in the presence of a moving particle form solid contact mass material which 65. method comprises: maintaining a substantially compact bed of particle form contact material in porting conversion of said liquid hydrocarbons, 70 sitioned as to provide an adjustable iris opening passing contact material from the lower section of said bed» as a substantially compact con?ned stream downwardly into the upper section of an elongated con?ned conversion zone, battling the for solid flow which is coaxially aligned with said , ba?le, a level measuring device positioned within said chamber a spaced distance below said baille _ adapted to measure the surface level of the con ?ow of particles from said stream to disperse the 7 Cl tact material column in said chamber, mechanism 9,458,168 11 actuated by said measuring device adapted to ad just said ?ow throttling device in response to . changes in the surface level of said column in such a manner as to maintain said surface level of said column within a narrow range of levels all spaced substantially below said ba?le, means to withdraw contact material from the lower end of said chamber, means to spray liquid oil charge into said chamber below said ba?le and means to connected to an actuating ring in-such a man ner as to provide an adjustable iris opening for solid flow, a level measuring device extending along a vertical section of said chambera spaced distance below the base of vsaid baille, mechanism actuated by said measuring device adapted to ad just said ?ow throttling device in response to changes in the surface level of said column in such a manner as to maintain said surface level said column within a narrow range or levels withdraw gaseous hydrocarbon products from the 10 of all ‘spaced substantially below said bailie, means lower section of said chamber substantially sepa to withdraw contact material from the lower end, rately of said contact materia . of said‘ chamber, means to spray liquid oil charge 8. An apparatus for conversion of high boiling into said chamber below said baiiie and means liquid hydrocarbons to lower boiling gaseous hy to gaseous hydrocarbon products from drocarbons in the presence of a moving contact 16 thewithdraw lower section of said ‘chamber substantially mass material which comprises in combination: separately of said contact material. ' means de?ning a conversion chamber adapted to 10. An apparatus for conversion of high boiling con?ne a substantially compact column of parti ' cle form contact material and gaseous material conduit extending downwardly under pressure, a into the upper section of said chamber for supply of contact material, an upwardly tapered sym metrical bame terminating in an apex positioned within the upper section of said chamber with its apex a spaced distance below the lower end liquid hydrocarbons to lower .boiling gaseous hydrocarbons in the .presence of, a ‘moving con tact mass material which comprises in com bination: a substantially vertical elongated vessel, partitioning across the upper section of said vessel adapted to divide it into an upper seal chamber and a lower conversion chamber, means to in of said conduit, said ba?ie being of substantially troduce contact material into said ‘seal chamber, less cross-sectional area at its base than said chamber, a ?ow throttling device positioned be ber, a conduit depending centrally and vertically downwardly from said partition and terminating means to introduce a seal gas into said seal cham tween said conduit and said baille, said throttling device comprising a plurality of laterally overlap 80 within the upper section of said conversion cham ber, an’ upright conical ba?le positioned within ping diaphragm leaves each fulcrumed to a sta said conversion chamber so that the apex of tionary member and each pivotally connected to an annular actuator in such a manner as to pro said ba?e is centrally positioned shortlybelow the lower end of said conduit, said conical ba?le being aligned with respect said upwardly tapered ba?ie, 85 of substantially less cross-sectional area at its base than said conversion chamber. a ?ow throt operating means connected to the annular actu-_ etc: of said ?ow throttling device and ‘extending . tling device constructed to operate as an iris diaphragm positioned above said conical ba?le so through the shell of said chamber to permit ad that its iris opening is centrally positioned over justment of said throttling device from outside the apex of said cone and below the lower end of said chamber, a drive mechanism adapted to of said conduit, adjusting means adapted for drive said operating means upon suitable activa adjusting said ?ow throttling device in response tion, a level measuring device positioned within to changes in the level of a contact material said chamber a spaced distance below said tapered column in said conversion zone, means to with-' ba?e adapted to activate said drive mechanism in draw contact material from the lower end of said response to changes in surface level of the con vessel; a liquid spray device positioned in said 'tact material column within the level range of vessel below said conical ba?ie, and means to said measuring device, means to withdraw con withdraw gaseous material from the lower sec tact material from the lower section of said tion of said conversion chamber. chamber, a liquid spray device positioned below 11. ‘Apparatus for conversion of high boiling said tapered baiile, means to supply liquid hydro vide an adjustable iris opening whichis coaxially carbon charge to said spray device and means to liquid ‘hydrocarbons. to lower boiling gaseous hydrocarbons in the presence of a moving particle withdraw gaseous products from the lower sec form contact mass material which apparatus com tion of said chamber. prises in combination: means de?ning an elon-_ 9. Apparatus for conversion of high boiling liq uid hydrocarbons to lower boiling gaseous hydro .55 gated conversion chamber adapted to con?ne a carbons in the presence of a moving particle form _ substantially compact column of contact material particles and gaseous material, a contact mate contact mass material which apparatus com rial supply conduit extending substantially ver prises in combination: means de?ning an elongat tically and centrally into the upper section of ed conversion chamber adapted to con?ne a sub stantially compact column of contact material 60 said'conversion chamber, a symmetrical upwardly tapered baiile terminating in an apex positioned particles ‘and gaseous material, a contact ma symmetrically below the lower end of said con terial supply conduit extending substantially ver duit, said baiile being of substantially less cross ticaliy and centrally into the upper section of sectional area at its base than said chamber. a said conversion chamber, a symmetrical upwardly tapered baille terminating in an apex positioned 65 ?ow throttling device positioned shortly above the apex of said ba?le and coaxially with respect to symmetrically below the ‘lower end of said con said conduit and'said tapered bai?e, said throt-' duit, said baiile being of substantially less cross tling device comprising a plurality of laterally sectional area at its base than said chamber, a overlapping diaphagm leaves having curved edges, ?ow throttling device positioned shortly above the apex of said battle and coaxially with respect 70 said leaves being loosely iulcrumed to a stationary member and said leaves being pivotally connected to said conduit and said tapered ba?ie, said _ to an actuating ring in such a manner as ‘to pro throttling device comprising a plurality of later vide an adjustable iris opening for solid ?ow, ally overlapping diaphragm leaves having curved means connected to said ring adapted to permit edges, said leaves being loosely fulcrumed to a stationary member and said leaves being pivotally 75 adjustment of said ?ow throttling device from a ' 2,453,102 13 14 location outside of said vessel, a liquid spray device adapted to spray liquid downwardly in‘ REFERENCES CITED said chamber positioned below said tapered ba?ie, ?l'relhgf fgéligwgzgeggerences are of record in the means to supply liquid oil charge to said spray - ' device, means to withdraw gaseous products from 5 the lower section of said chamber'and means to Withdraw used contact material from the lower end of said chamber substantially uniformly from Number 1,836,325 mm A. Name Date James __________ __ Dec_ 15, 1931 ' all portions of its horizontal cross-sectional area. , UNITED STATES PATENTS OTHER REFERENCES 10. Noll et aL, “Houdry Pioneer,” vol. 2, No. 1, October pages).