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Jan. ,4, 1949.
_
w, A, HAGERBAUMER
2,458,162
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR CONVERSION OF LIQUID
HYDROCARBONS WITH A MOVING CATALYST
_ Filed NOV. ;14, 1946
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INVENTOR
///////'am /7 Hayeréaumer
BY
. Jr!“ 42. MJ.
AGEN T OR ATTORNEY
Jan. 4, 1949.
w, A, HAGERBAUMER
2,458,162
‘ METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR CONVERSION OF LIQUID
I
HYDROCARBONS WITH A MOVING CATALYST
Filed Nov. 14, 1946
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' Jan-.4, 1949-
w. A. HAGERBAUMER I
2,458,162
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR CONVERSION OF LIQUID
HYDROCARBONS WITH A MOVING CATALYST
Filed Nov. 14, _1e4e
3 Sheets-Sheet 3
_
49
47
50
'
_
INVENTQR
MY/mmi ??ayez'baamer
BY
-
4
jaw a. M’;
.A GENT 0R ATTORNEY
2,458,162
Patented Jan. 4, 1949
uiro STATES PATENT‘ OFFICE
'
'
2,458,162
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR- CONVER
SIGN 0F LIQUID
RQCARBONS WITH A
MOVING CATALYST
William
-
Eager-hammer, West?eld, N. 3., assign-v
or to Socony-‘Vacuum Oil Company, Incorpo
. rated, a corporation or New York
il
Application November 1d,,l9jé6, Serial No. 709,874
ll ?laims. (El. 196-52)
This invention has to do with a method and
apparatus for conversion of high boiling liquid
2
in a liquid hydrocarbon charge is passed down
wardly within a substantially compact column
downwardly moving of contact material particles
oi.‘ an improved method and apparatus for supply
hydrocarbons or mixed phase hydrocarbons to
lower boiling hydrocarbons in the presence of a
moving particle-form contact mass material
of contact material to said column and for con
which may or may not exhibit catalytic proper
trol of the surface level of said column within the
ties with respect to the conversion reaction. Typ
ical of such processes is the catalytic conversion
' of heated liquid hydrocarbons to lower boiling
gasoline containing gaseous products by the con
tacting of a high boiling liquid charge at tem
conversion zone.
These and other objects of this invention will
become apparent from the following discussion
10 of the invention.
-
Before proceeding with this discussion certain
terms used in describing and in claiming this in
peratures of the order of 850° F. and upwards
with a particle-form adsorbent catalytic material.
vention will be de?ned. The term “gaseous" as
Other exemplary processes are the thermal vis
used herein is intended to refer to a material
breaking, coking or cracking of liquid or mixed 15 existing in the gaseous phase under the particular
phase hydrocarbon charge by contact with heated
operating conditions of pressure and temperature
particle-form inert contact materials.
involved regardless of‘ what may be the normal
This invention has speci?cally to do with con
phase of that material under ordinary atmos
version processes wherein the contact material
pheric conditions. The expression “contact ma
is passed cyclically through a conversion zone
terial’i is employed herein in a broad sense as
wherein it ?ows as a substantially compact stream
covering solid particles which are suitable as a
while being contacted with hydrocarbons to e?ect
contacting or heat carrying agent for the par
their conversion and through a regeneration or
ticular conversion involved regardless of whether
reconditioning zone wherein it is contacted with
such solid particles exhibit a catalytic e?ect
a suitable gas to condition it for reuse in said 25 toward the conversion or not.
conversion zone.
The invention may be best understood by refer
In such processes wherein the contact material
ence to the drawings attached hereto, of which
is catalytic in nature it may partake of the na
Figure 1 is ‘an elevational view showing the
ture of natural or treated clays, bauzite, activated
general arrangement of a continuous hydrocar
alumina or synthetic associations of silica, alumi 30 bon conversion system of the type to which this
na or silica and alumina to which other substances
invention may be applied;
such as certain metallic oxides may be added in
Figure 2 is an elevational view, partially in
small amounts for speci?c purposes. When the
section, showing the application of this inven
contact material is inert in character it may par
tion to the convertor vessel;
take or the form of refractory materials such as
Figure 3 is a plan view looking up from line
zirkite, corhart material, or mullite or it may
3-3 in Figure 2 showing details of the ?ow throt
partake of the form of stones or metallic parti
tling device employed in the apparatus of Fig
cles 01' balls. In order to insure practical capaci
ure 2;
_
ty for gas ?ow through the compact mass of con
Figure 4 is a sectional view taken along-line
tact material particles in the conversion and re
3-3 of Figure 3; and
'
.
generation zones, it has been found desirable to
Figure 51s an enlarged detail view of a portion
maintain the‘contact material particles within
of the apparatus shown in Figure 4.
the size range about 3 to 100 mesh and prefer
All of these drawings are highly diagrammatic '
ably within the range about 4 to 20 mesh by
in form.
Tyler standard screen analysis. While operation 45 Turning now to Figure 1 there is shown a
may be obtained using contact material particles
converter l0, supplied by contact material from
of a size outside these ranges, the resulting opera
- a supply hopper ll through a, gravity feed leg
tion is inferior.
I2 and provided with a contact material drain
A speci?c object of this invention is the pro
leg l3 bearing ?ow control valve It. on its lower
vision in a hydrocarbon conversion process where 50 end. Also shown is a-separate reconditioner l5
,
4
essence .'
having a contact material feed conduit l6 con- .
nected into its upper end and a contact material
drain conduit 20 connected into its lower end.
‘
4
gaseous pressure in the hydrocarbon conversion
- zone.
In 17111511183310! escape of hydrocarbons
through the contact material feed system is pre
Conveyors I1 and I8 are provided for transfer of
_ In Figure 2, details of the construction of con
the contact material particles between the con
vertor l0 are shown andv like elements-in both
vertor and reconditioner.. The conveyors may be
?gures bear like numerals. Looking‘ at Figure‘ 2,
of any suitable construction adapted to transfer
it will be seen that a partition 33 extends trans
hot contact material particles without severe
versely across the upper section of vessel 50 to
breakage and attrition of the particles, for ex
ample continuous bucket elevators. In operation, 10 divide it into a seal chamber 34 positioned in its
upper end and a conversion chamber 35 posi
fresh contact material at a temperature suitable
tioned therebeiow. A conduit 38 for solid ?ow de
for the hydrocarbon conversion is passed from
pends centrally and vertically from partition 33
hopper ll through feed leg I‘! into the upper end
and terminates within the upper section of the
of converter It. Used contact material is with
drawn from the bottom of the vessel It) through 15 conversion chamber. Positioned centrally below
the lower end of conduit 36 is a symmetrical up
conduit l3 at a rate controlled by valve l4 which
wardly tapered baille 31 terminating on its upper
is in conformance with the requirements of the
end in an apex which is spaced shortly below the
particular conversion operation involved. The
vented.
-
4
'
>
used contact material is transferred by con
lower end of conduit 36. The baiile shown is an
within the scope of this invention. If the process _v
Corresponding recessed portions are provided
veyor H to the upper end ofxreconditioner it. 20 upright cone but bailies havingother cross-sec
tional shapes such as square and hexagonal pyra
In such processes as the ‘catalytic cracking con
mids may be employed within the scope of this
version of hydrocarbons, a substantial amount
of carbonaceous contaminant is deposited upon‘. invention. In general the heme 31 should be of the
same horizontal cross-sectional shape as the con
the used contact material in which case the recon
ditioner takes the form of a catalyst regenerator. 25 version chamber but should be of substantially
less horizontal cross-sectional area at its base
Air is introduced into the lower section or vessel
than the conversion chamber at the level of the
it through conduit 2| and is permitted to pass up
baiile. The baiiie 31 may be supported from the
wardly through the column of used contact mate
vessel shell by means of rods 88.
rial withln vessel is to burn oil‘ the contaminant.
Studying now Figures 2, 3, 4 and 5 together, a
Flue gas is withdrawn from the upper section 30
flow throttle device 40 is positioned below the
of the vessel 85 through conduit 22. In order to
lower end of conduit 36 and above the apex of
remove su?icient heat from the regenerating cata
baffle 81. This throttling device is constructed
lyst to prevent overheating of the catalyst to heat
in the manner of an iris diaphragm, and is sup
damaging levels, cooling tubes (not shown) may
ported from the vessel shell by suspension from
be provided within the reconditioner. These
angle supports 44 and 42. The device is com
tubes may be supplied with a suitable cooling
prised of a ?xed portion consisting of two con
fluid through pipe 23. Cooling fluid may be with
centric annular members, the outer member 4|
drawn from the cooling tubes through pipe 24.
Other regenerator constructions than that shown ' ?tting tightly around the inner member 42 and
and described hereinabove are contemplated 40 being fastened thereto by means of bolts 43.
involved is a strictly non-catalytic process, for
example, in which the amount of coke deposit on
the contact material is‘ negligible or if it be-a
process wherein the amount of coke deposit on
the contact material is insu?icient upon combus
tion to heat the contact material to the desired
inlet temperature to'the convertor, the recondi
around the joining edges of both members so
that when they are joined there is provided a re
cessed annular opening or track 44 having a re
stricted neck portion 45.’ The inside diameter of
the inner member 42 is substantially greater than
that of conduit 36 so that the member 42 may ?t
loosely around the conduit it while providing
tioner l5 may take the form of an apparatus the 60 a substantial gas space therebetween. An annu
lar protruding section 46 extends downwardly
principal function of which is to heat the con
from. the base section of the inner member 42.
tact material. Considering again the convertor
This protruding section 46 serves as a ?xed mem
l0, high boiling liquid hydrocarbons from a suit
ber onto which a plurality of overlapping dia
able charge preparation system l9 may be sup
plied in heated condition into the upper section 55 phragm leaves 49 are loosely fulcrumed by means
of bolts 41 at spaced points arranged concen
of converter l0 through conduit 25. In some
trically with respect the axis of member 42. The
operations vaporized hydrocarbons may be simul
.leaves 49 are pivotally connected by means of
taneously supplied to the upper section of con
bolts 504 to a movable annular ring 5| which is
vertor I'll through conduit 26. Converted gaseous
of somewhat greater diameter than the protrud
hydrocarbon products which ‘may contain high
percentages of motor and aviation gasoline and 80 ing section 45 of member 42. A T-shaped an
nular rail 52 protrudes from the upper edge of
fuel oils are withdrawn from the lower section
ring 5|. The rail 52 is adapted to ?t and slide
of vessel It) and passed through conduit 21- to a
loosely in the recessed track 44 formed between
suitable product fractionator and recovery sys
tem 28. An inert purge gas such as steam or ?ue 6.5 ?xed members 4| and 42. A shaft 54 is connected
to the outer periphery of the ring 5! and is‘pro
gas may be introduced into the contact material
vided with a‘horizontal bow shaped gear 5€on its
column within the lower section of vessel It
outward end. A drive shaft 56 extends through
‘through- conduit 29 for the purpose of stripping
packing gland 51 and through the shell of vessel
gaseous hydrocarbon products from the out ?ow
It. The shaft 68 is geared by means of gears 58,
ing used contact material. An inert sealgas
59 and 50 and verticalshaftil to drive the bow
such as steam or ?ue gas may be introduced into
shaped gear 55 on shaft 54 and thereby to actu
the upper end of vessel Ill through conduit 30
ate the ring 5|. The ring 5| may be thus ro
at a rate so controlled by diaphragm valve 3|
tated back and forth around its vertical axis so
and diiferential pressure controller 32 as to main
‘tain an inert gaseous pressure adjacent the lower 75 as to cause-the leaves 49 to provide a central
circular iris opening 85 of varying size for-solid
and of contact material feed leg it‘, above the
2,488,162
‘material flow. The throttling ‘device is-so, posi
tioned that the iris opening is located just over
the conical ba?le and coaxially aligned therewith
so that regardless of the size of the iris opening
65, the contact material from conduit 36 is di
rected evenly and centrally directed onto the
apex of the ba?le 3!.
If desired a hand crank may be connected to
1
_ '
‘
it is sprayed onto the shower of particles so as to
thoroughly contact the contact material before
reaching the surface 10 of the column. If de
sired vaporized hydrocarbon charge may also be
introduced into vessel It) through conduit 26.
The contact material particles and liquid charge
and any vapors formed or introduced pass down
wardly within the’ column so as to effect con
shaft 56 outside the vessel Ill to permit manual
version of the liquid charge to lower boiling gas
adjustment of the throttling device“. It is pre 10 eous products which are disengaged from the col
ferred however to provide automatic adjustment
umn in the lower section of vessel l0 and removed
as will be described hereinbelow. It will be noted
through conduit 27. The gaseous products with
from Figure 2 that the surface level 70 of the
drawn at Elmay be disengaged from the? column '
contact material column within vessel I0 is
by any of a number of suitable arrangements such '
maintained a substantial vertical distance below 15 as that'shown in Simpson 'et a]. U. 8. Patent
the base of conical baffle 3'! so as to provide a ver
2,336,041, or troughs such as shown in Barstow.
tical section ‘it through which the contact ma
et al. U. S. Patent 1,852,227, or troughs such as
terial falls as a shower of dispersed freely falling
shown by Fahnestock, in U. 8. Patent 2,362,621,
particles. A spray device ‘I3 adapted to spray
may be associated with the outlet conduit 21.
liquid oil dpwnwardly into the shower of contact 20 Used contact material is withdrawn fromthe
material particles is positioned in section ll of
lower‘ end of vessel Ill through conduit H3. The
the converter just below ‘came 31. Liquid oil
rate of contact material withdrawal is throttled
charge is supplied to the spray device ‘It through
by valve is so as to insure a column of contact
conduit 25. Two spaced apart electrical con
material in the vessel in thereabove and so as to
denser plates, ‘i5 and ‘it, held apart by insulators 25 control the residence time of contact material in
W are supported by suitable means (not shown)
the conversion zone to whatever value the par
within vessel 69 so as to extend vertically along
ticular operation involved requires.
a short section of the vessel corresponding rough
Ba?ies may be provided within the lower end
iv to the range of levels within which it is de
of'vessel it which are adapted to provide for
sired to maintain the surface level 10 of the col 30 unifo
withdrawal of contact material from all
umn of contact material within the conversion
sections of the horizontal cross-sectional area of
zone. Contact material fills in the space between
the conversion zone. Such ba?‘ies are shown in
the plates 75 and i6 and upon change in level
Evans et al, ‘U. S. Patent 2,412,136. The conduit
causes a change in the dielectric resistance be
36 for solid flow into the conversion chamber is of
tween the condenser plates. The plates are con 35 suf?cient size as to have an unthrottled ?ow ca
nected into a suitable A. C. bridge circuit ‘I9
pacity above the maximum anticipated contact
which may be of conventional type, and the plates
material throughput. As a result, if no throttle
act to set up varying currents in the bridge cir
were applied to the flow from conduit 36 the con
cuit in response to changes in the surface level
tact material column would extend upwardly to
of the column of contact material. A motor 80 40 the outlet from conduit 36. The provision of
is connected through a speed reducer 8| to the
throttling device 40 permits the maintenance of
drive shaft ‘55 for the contact material flow
the section ‘H in which contact material may fall
throttling device 66. The bridge circuit 19 is V as a shower. In other words-the throttling device
adapted to operate the motor 80 in such a man
all permits maintenance of level 16 of the column
ner as to cause it to turn the shaft 56 in a di
a spaced distance below baffle 31. In the space ‘H
rection which will decrease the iris opening 65
the liquid oil charge may be uniformly adsorbed
of device 40 when the surface ‘I0 of the contact
in the pores and/or deposited on the surface of
material column rises above a predetermined
the contact material particles so that it is car
level and to increase the size of the iris opening
ried on the particles uniformly onto all sections
65 when the surface 10 of the column falls below
of the contact material column. In this manner
said predetermined level. It will be understood
the channeling of liquid charge in the column of that while the system described hereinabove for
contact material is avoided and'uniform conver
automatically adjusting throttling device 40 is
a preferred form of‘ the invention, it should be
understood that it is contemplated that it may be
replaced by other suitable systems adapted to ad
just the size of iris opening 65 in response to
changes in the surface level of the contact ma
terial column within the conversion zone.
sion conditions and uniform. contaminant ‘depo;
sition on all of the contact material is made pos- I '
sible. It will be apparent that uniform disper
sion of contact material particles to all portions of
the horizontal cross-sectional area of section ‘II
depends on the delivery of the inlet contact ma
' terial stream \squarely and symmetrically onto
In operation, particle form contact material 60 the apex of the ba?ie 31 regardless of the rate of
existing at a temperature sufficiently high to sup
?ow of contact material. Such ‘delivery cannot
port the desired hydrocarbon conversion passes
be accomplished by means of conventional gate or
as a substantially compact stream downwardly
slide valves over a various range of.adiustable
through conduit 36. The contact material flows
?ow rates. The throttling device 40 constructed
' from the lower end of conduit 36 into the throt
tling device 40 and passes through the iris open
ing 65 onto the apex of bafile 31. The'baffle 31
serves to disperse the particles so that they fall
downwardly through section ‘II as a shower of
uniformly dispersed, freely falling particles onto
the surface ‘Ill of the contact material column
therebelow. A liquid oil charge which boils for
the most part above the desired conversion tem
perature is introduced in heated condition
in the manner of an iris diaphragm, however, in
sures delivery of the contact material stream sym
metrically onto the apex of ba?le 31 over a wide
range of ?ow rates. The iris opening 65 is always
coaxially aligned with baiiie 31 regardless of its
size and is susceptible to fine adjustment from a
point outside the vessel so as to permit accurate
' control of the level ‘of the surface ‘In of the con
tact material column spaced below baflie 31. Since
the flow throttling device is so constructed as-to'
through conduit 25 into spray device 13 by which 76 permit access of gaseous pressure above and be
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2,458,162
ll, its control on the rate of contact
1 ing conditions and of process applications of
material flow is independent of pressure changes
this invention given hereinabove are intended as
illustrative and arenot to be construed as limit
~ low the
in the conversion vessel.
-
ing the scope of this invention except as it may W
be limited by the following claims.
-
The exact dimensions of the several elements
which combine to provide the improved apparatus
of this invention will. of course, be ‘dependent to a _
' certain extent upon the particular operation and
I claim:
-
1. A method for conversion of high boiling liq
uid hydrocarbons to lower boiling hydrocarbons
the operating conditions involved. In general it
in the presence of a moving contact material
has been found desirable to provide a vertical dis
tance of about ten feet between the base of the 10 which method comprises: introducing particle
ba?e 81 and the surface 10 of the contact mate
form contact material at a suitable tempera
ture for said hydrocarbon conversion into the
rial column. The surface 10 of the column should
upper section of a con?ned, elongated, substan
be maintained within a ,narrow ,range of levels
tially vertical conversion zone as a substantially.‘
falling within a vertical length of the vessel
amounting to about 2 inches. The vertical length 15 compact supply stream of solid particlesppassing
the contact _material from said stream down
of the column may vary from about 3 to ~40 feet
wardly through an upper section of said con
depending upon the process. The base of the
version zone as a shower of dispersed freely fall
bafile t1 should be substantially less in horizontal
ing particles onto the surface of a substantially
dimensions than the vessel, and its sides should
slope at an angle with'the horizontal greater 20 compact bed of said contact material therebelow
within said conversion zone, withdrawing used
than about 30 degrees and preferably within the
contact material from the bottom of said bed, con
range 45 to '70 degrees. For example in a vessel
having an internal diameter of 16 feet a cone
having a base diameter of about 7 feet and a
trolling the surface level of said bed substantially
constant by adjusting the rate of ?ow of contact
height of about 4 feet is considered satisfactory.‘ 25 material from said compact supply stream, intro- >
ducing a spray of high boiling liquid hydrocarbon '
Thethrottle device 40 should be positioned below
charge into said shower of particles in said .upper
conduit 88 in such a manner as to prevent over
section of said conversion zone to contact said
flow of contact material over the throttle‘ de
particles before reaching the surface of said bed,
vice and it should be positioned so that the iris
opening is within about 4 to 6 inches of the apex 30 and withdrawing gaseous hydrocarbon products
from the lower section of said bed substantially
of bame 81.
separately of said contact material.
As an example of the application of this in
2. A method for conversion of high boiling liq
vention its use ‘in the catalytic cracking con
uid hydrocarbons to lower boiling hydrocarbons
version of high boiling ?uid hydrocarbons may
be considered. In such an operation a particle 35 in the presence of a moving contact material
form catalyst which may be of clay type is in
which method comprises: introducing particle
troduced into the conversion chamber at a tem
perature within the range about 900 to 1200° F. '
form contact material at a suitable temperature
for said hydrocarbon conversion into the upper
may be a reduced petroleum crude which has
been preheated to a temperature of the order a
onto the surface of a substantially compact col
umn of said contact material at a lower level
in said conversion zone, spraying a heated high
section .of a con?ned, elongated, substantially
depending upon the desired conversion tempera
ture, the clay to oil ratio and the particular 40 vertical conversion zone as a substantially com
pact supply stream of solid particles, baiiling the
hydrocarbon charge involved and the desired
flow of particles from said stream to disperse
products. A liquid hydrocarbon charge which .
the particles and passing the dispersed particles
may consist principally of hydrocarbons boiling
as a shower of freely falling particles downwardly
above the desired average conversiontempera
ture is introduced through pipe 49. Such a charge 45 through a vertical section of said conversion zone '
of 600° F. to 800° F. A gas oil fraction which has
boiling liquid hydrocarbon charge into said shower
been vaporized and heated to a temperature of
the order of 800°‘ F. to 950° F. may be introduced 50 to contact said particles before reaching the sur
face of said column, passing said contact mate
rial particles and said liquid hydrocarbon charge
downwardly within said column to effect con-'
line may be withdrawn from the conversion‘
version of said liquid hydrocarbons to lower boil
chamber through conduits 53 and 54. The pres
sure in the conversion chamber may be con 55 ing gaseous hydrocarbon products, withdrawing
.to' the conversion chamber through conduitv 50.
Gaseous products containing high yields of gaso-. ‘
trolled quite low, usually of the order of 5 to .30
used contact material from the lower section of
pounds per square inch gauge. The total oil
said column, withdrawing gaseous hydrocarbon
products from said column substantially sep
space velocity (measured as liquid oil at 60° F.)
arately of the contact material and controlling
may be within the range about 0.5 to 10 volumes
of oil per volume of. ?owing catalyst in the con 60 the level of the surface of said column substan
version zone. The relative ratio of liquid to gase
tially constant by adjustably throttling the ?ow
ous hydrocarbon charge may vary widely depend
of contact material from said compact supply
ing- upon speci?c re?nery stock conditions. The
stream at a location adjacent its lower end.
catalyst to oil ratio on the weight basis may be
3. A method for conversion of high boiling
liquid hydrocarbons to lower boiling hydrocar
within the range about 2.0 to 20 parts of catalyst
bons' in the presence of a moving contact mate
charged per part of oil. In the regeneration zone
air may be employed to burn from the catalyst
the carbonaceous contaminant formed thereon in
rial which method comprises: introducing parti
cle form contact material at a suitable tempera
ture for said hydrocarbon conversion into the
withdrawn from the catalyst during regenera 70 upper section of a con?ned, elongated, substan
tionto prevent it from reaching a heat damag
tialy vertical conversion zone as a substantially‘
the conversion zone. Suflicient heat should be
ing temperature. For clay type catalysts the heat
compact supply stream of solid particles, ba?ii'ng
damaging level is of the order of about 1200° F.
It should be understood that the particular de
tails of apparatus construction‘ and of operat
the ?ow of particles from said stream to disperse
the particles and passing the dispersed particles
16 as a shower of freely falling particles down-l
2,458,189
10
wardly through a vertical section of said con
version zone onto the surface of a substantially
compact column of said contact material at a
lower level in said conversion zone, spraying a
particles and passing the dispersed particles as
a shower of freely falling particles downwardly
through a vertical section of said conversion zone
onto the surface of a substantially compact col
umn of said contact material at a lower level in
said conversion zone, spraying a heated high
heated high boiling liquid hydrocarbon charge
into said shower to contact said particles before
reaching the surface of said column, passing
said contact material particles and said liquid
boiling liquid hydrocarbon charge into said show
er to contact said particles before reaching the
surface of said column, passing said contact ma
hydrocarbon charge downwardly within vsaid col
umn to effect conversion of said liquid hydro
10' terial particles and said liquid hydrocarbon
carbons to lower boiling gaseous hydrocarbon
products, withdrawing used contact material
charge downwardly within said column to effect
I conversion of said liquid hydrocarbons to lower
from the lower section of said column, withdraw
boiling gaseous hydrocarbon products, withdraw
ing gaseous hydrocarbon products from said col
ing used contact material from the lower section '
umn substantially separately or the contact ma
of said column, withdrawing gaseous hydrocar
terial, throttling the flow of contact material
‘bon products from said column substantially
from said compact supply stream at a point near
separately 0f the contact material and controlling,
the lower end of said stream and above said
the level of the surface ‘of said column substan
ing and causing the throttling of the flow
tially constant by adjustably throttling the how
from said compact supply stream to be adjusted 20 of contact material ‘from said compact supply
by changes in the surface lev,el of said column
stream at a location adjacent its lower vend,
in such a manner as to control the surface level
of said column within anarrow range or levels
and maintaining an inert gaseous pressure in said
seal zone above the gaseous pressure in said con
all spaced substantially below the location at
version zone.
which the ?ow of contact material from said 25
supply stream is subjected to the battling.
,4. A method for conversion of high boiling
I
'
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6. An apparatus for conversion of high boiling .
liquid hydrocarbons to lower boiling gaseous hy-
' drocarbons in the presence of ‘a moving contact
liquid hydrocarbons to lower boiling hydrocar- "
bone in the presence of a moving contact mate
rial which method comprises: introducing par so
ticle form contact material at a suitable temper
ature for said hydrocarbon conversion into the
upper section of a confined, elongated, substan
tially vertical conversion zone as a substantially
mass material which comprises in combination:
means de?ning a’ conversion chamber, a conduit
extending downwardly into the upper section of
said chamber for supply of contact material,
an upwardly tapered symmetrical ba?le termi
nating in an apex positioned within the upper
section of said chamber with its apex a spaced
compact supply stream of solid particles, baming 35 distance below the lower end of said conduit,
the flow of particles from said stream to disperse
the particles and passing the dispersed particles
as a shower of freely falling particles downwardly
throttling device positioned between said conduit
through a vertical section of said conversion zone
and said ba?ie, said throttling device being con
said baffle being of substantially less cross-sec
tional area at its base than said chamber, a flow
onto the surface of a substantially compact col
40 structed substantially in the manner of an iris
umn of said contact material at a lower level
in said conversion zone, spraying a heated high
diaphragm and being so positioned as to provide
an adjustable iris opening for solid flow which is
boiling liquid hydrocarbon charge into said show
coaxialy aligned with said ba?ie, means to adjust
er to contact said particles before reaching‘ the
the iris opening of said throttling device from a
surface of said column, passing said contact 45 location outside of said chamber, means .to with
material particles and said liquid hydrocarbon
draw contact material from the lower end of said
charge downwardly within‘said column to eifect
chamber, means to spray liquid oil charge'into
conversion of said liquid hydrocarbon to lower
said chamber below said ba?le and means to
boiling gaseous hydrocarbon products, withdraw
ing used contact material from the lower'sec
tion of said‘ column, withdrawing gaseous hy
withdraw gaseous hydrocarbon products from
50 the lower section of said chamber substantially
separately of said contact material.
,
7. An apparatus for conversion of high boiling
drocarbon products from said column substan- -
tially separately of the contact material and con
trolling the level of the surface of said column
liquid hydrocarbons to lower boiling gaseous hy- '
drocarbons in the presence of a moving contact
substantially constant by adjustably restricting 55 mass material which comprises in combination:
the diameter of said compact supply stream at a
means de?ning a conversion chamber adapted to
location adjacent its lower end in such a‘ man
common substantially compact column. of parti
ner that the restricted portion of said stream is
cle form contact material, a conduit extending
always coaxially aligned with the unrestricted
downwardly into the upper section of said cham
portion of saidcompact stream above the loca
60 ber for supply of contact material, an upwardly
a con?ned seal zone, supplying-contact material
tapered symmetrical ba?le terminating in an apex
positioned within the upper section of said cham
ber with its apex a spaced distance below the
lower end of said conduit, said ba?le being of sub
stantially less cross-sectional area at its base than
said chamber, a flow throttling device positioned
between said conduit and said ba?ie, said throt
tling device being constructed substantially in
to said bed at a temperature suitable for sup- *
the manner of an iris diaphragm and being so po
tionv of diameter restrictions.
'
5. The method for conversion of high boiling
liquid hydrocarbons to lower gaseous boiling hy
drocarbon products in the presence of a moving
particle form solid contact mass material which
65.
method comprises: maintaining a substantially
compact bed of particle form contact material in
porting conversion of said liquid hydrocarbons, 70 sitioned as to provide an adjustable iris opening
passing contact material from the lower section
of said bed» as a substantially compact con?ned
stream downwardly into the upper section of an
elongated con?ned conversion zone, battling the
for solid flow which is coaxially aligned with said
, ba?le, a level measuring device positioned within
said chamber a spaced distance below said baille
_ adapted to measure the surface level of the con
?ow of particles from said stream to disperse the 7 Cl tact material column in said chamber, mechanism
9,458,168
11
actuated by said measuring device adapted to ad
just said ?ow throttling device in response to .
changes in the surface level of said column in such
a manner as to maintain said surface level of
said column within a narrow range of levels all
spaced substantially below said ba?le, means to
withdraw contact material from the lower end
of said chamber, means to spray liquid oil charge
into said chamber below said ba?le and means to
connected to an actuating ring in-such a man
ner as to provide an adjustable iris opening for
solid flow, a level measuring device extending
along a vertical section of said chambera spaced
distance below the base of vsaid baille, mechanism
actuated by said measuring device adapted to ad
just said ?ow throttling device in response to
changes in the surface level of said column in
such a manner as to maintain said surface level
said column within a narrow range or levels
withdraw gaseous hydrocarbon products from the 10 of
all
‘spaced substantially below said bailie, means
lower section of said chamber substantially sepa
to withdraw contact material from the lower end,
rately of said contact materia .
of said‘ chamber, means to spray liquid oil charge
8. An apparatus for conversion of high boiling
into said chamber below said baiiie and means
liquid hydrocarbons to lower boiling gaseous hy
to
gaseous hydrocarbon products from
drocarbons in the presence of a moving contact 16 thewithdraw
lower section of said ‘chamber substantially
mass material which comprises in combination:
separately of said contact material.
'
means de?ning a conversion chamber adapted to
10. An apparatus for conversion of high boiling
con?ne a substantially compact column of parti
'
cle form contact material and gaseous material
conduit extending downwardly
under pressure, a
into the upper section of said chamber for supply
of contact material, an upwardly tapered sym
metrical bame terminating in an apex positioned
within the upper section of said chamber with
its apex a spaced distance below the lower end
liquid hydrocarbons to lower .boiling gaseous
hydrocarbons in the .presence of, a ‘moving con
tact mass material which comprises in com
bination: a substantially vertical elongated vessel,
partitioning across the upper section of said vessel
adapted to divide it into an upper seal chamber
and a lower conversion chamber, means to in
of said conduit, said ba?ie being of substantially
troduce contact material into said ‘seal chamber,
less cross-sectional area at its base than said
chamber, a ?ow throttling device positioned be
ber, a conduit depending centrally and vertically
downwardly from said partition and terminating
means to introduce a seal gas into said seal cham
tween said conduit and said baille, said throttling
device comprising a plurality of laterally overlap 80 within the upper section of said conversion cham
ber, an’ upright conical ba?le positioned within
ping diaphragm leaves each fulcrumed to a sta
said conversion chamber so that the apex of
tionary member and each pivotally connected to
an annular actuator in such a manner as to pro
said ba?e is centrally positioned shortlybelow the
lower end of said conduit, said conical ba?le being
aligned with respect said upwardly tapered ba?ie, 85 of substantially less cross-sectional area at its
base than said conversion chamber. a ?ow throt
operating means connected to the annular actu-_
etc: of said ?ow throttling device and ‘extending . tling device constructed to operate as an iris
diaphragm positioned above said conical ba?le so
through the shell of said chamber to permit ad
that its iris opening is centrally positioned over
justment of said throttling device from outside
the apex of said cone and below the lower end
of said chamber, a drive mechanism adapted to
of said conduit, adjusting means adapted for drive said operating means upon suitable activa
adjusting said ?ow throttling device in response
tion, a level measuring device positioned within
to changes in the level of a contact material
said chamber a spaced distance below said tapered
column in said conversion zone, means to with-'
ba?e adapted to activate said drive mechanism in
draw contact material from the lower end of said
response to changes in surface level of the con
vessel; a liquid spray device positioned in said
'tact material column within the level range of
vessel below said conical ba?ie, and means to
said measuring device, means to withdraw con
withdraw gaseous material from the lower sec
tact material from the lower section of said
tion of said conversion chamber.
chamber, a liquid spray device positioned below
11. ‘Apparatus for conversion of high boiling
said tapered baiile, means to supply liquid hydro
vide an adjustable iris opening whichis coaxially
carbon charge to said spray device and means to
liquid ‘hydrocarbons. to lower boiling gaseous
hydrocarbons in the presence of a moving particle
withdraw gaseous products from the lower sec
form contact mass material which apparatus com
tion of said chamber.
prises in combination: means de?ning an elon-_
9. Apparatus for conversion of high boiling liq
uid hydrocarbons to lower boiling gaseous hydro .55 gated conversion chamber adapted to con?ne a
carbons in the presence of a moving particle form _ substantially compact column of contact material
particles and gaseous material, a contact mate
contact mass material which apparatus com
rial supply conduit extending substantially ver
prises in combination: means de?ning an elongat
tically and centrally into the upper section of
ed conversion chamber adapted to con?ne a sub
stantially compact column of contact material 60 said'conversion chamber, a symmetrical upwardly
tapered baiile terminating in an apex positioned
particles ‘and gaseous material, a contact ma
symmetrically below the lower end of said con
terial supply conduit extending substantially ver
duit, said baiile being of substantially less cross
ticaliy and centrally into the upper section of
sectional area at its base than said chamber. a
said conversion chamber, a symmetrical upwardly
tapered baille terminating in an apex positioned 65 ?ow throttling device positioned shortly above the
apex of said ba?le and coaxially with respect to
symmetrically below the ‘lower end of said con
said conduit and'said tapered bai?e, said throt-'
duit, said baiile being of substantially less cross
tling device comprising a plurality of laterally
sectional area at its base than said chamber, a
overlapping diaphagm leaves having curved edges,
?ow throttling device positioned shortly above
the apex of said battle and coaxially with respect 70 said leaves being loosely iulcrumed to a stationary
member and said leaves being pivotally connected
to said conduit and said tapered ba?ie, said _
to an actuating ring in such a manner as ‘to pro
throttling device comprising a plurality of later
vide an adjustable iris opening for solid ?ow,
ally overlapping diaphragm leaves having curved
means connected to said ring adapted to permit
edges, said leaves being loosely fulcrumed to a
stationary member and said leaves being pivotally 75 adjustment of said ?ow throttling device from a
'
2,453,102
13
14
location outside of said vessel, a liquid spray
device adapted to spray liquid downwardly in‘
REFERENCES CITED
said chamber positioned below said tapered ba?ie,
?l'relhgf fgéligwgzgeggerences are of record in the
means to supply liquid oil charge to said spray
-
'
device, means to withdraw gaseous products from 5
the lower section of said chamber'and means to
Withdraw used contact material from the lower
end of said chamber substantially uniformly from
Number
1,836,325
mm A.
Name
Date
James __________ __ Dec_ 15, 1931
'
all portions of its horizontal cross-sectional area.
,
UNITED STATES PATENTS
OTHER REFERENCES
10.
Noll et aL, “Houdry Pioneer,” vol. 2, No. 1,
October
pages).
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