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Jan. 4, 1949.
c. c. HAYS
Filed April 6, 1944
3 Sheets-Sheet 1
Clyde C. 13.235300
Jan. 4, 1949,
c. c. HAYS
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
Filed April 6, 1944
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J. 4, 1949.
c, g, HAYS
Filed April 6, 1,944
3 Sheets-Sheet 3
I07 I08
Patented Jan. 4, 1.949
Clyde 0. Hays, Waco, Tex.‘
Application April 6, 1944, Serial No. 529,733
3 Claims.
This invention relates to new and useful im
provements in sewage treating processes.
Many processes have been conceived for the
treatment of sewage and industrial or other
analogous waste by aerobic means, the coagu
lated and precipitated solids or sludge being
collected and digested septically or anaerobically
so as to break up the various organic substances
into solids, gases and an exceptionally toxic, un
stable, anaerobic liquid which is commonly
known as supernatant. The latter, upon being
returned to the aerobic process, has an extremely
detrimental or fatal eifect upon the aerobic
bacteria or biological organisms.
One object of the invention is to provide an
improved process for the thorough treating of
sewage, industrial or other analogous Waste so
(or. 210-2)
together with a contact aeration chamber which
has means for coagulating and precipitating cer
tain suspended and colloidal solids in the ?ow
stream, as well as means for receiving and
anaerobically or septically digesting the solids
precipitated and settled out in the chambers;
the system also including means for rendering
the anaerobic supernatant aerobic whereby the
same may be returned to the flow stream with
10 out the usual detrimental effect.
A still further object of the invention is to
provide an improved sewage treating system
having an aerobic contact unit for receiving the
anaerobic supernatant from sludge digesting
" means and reducing the same to an aerobic con
dition, the unit including a contact aeration
chamber wherein said supernatant is admixed
with an alkaline material to raise its pH and is
as to e?iciently and completely purify the same.
subjected to certain contact biological organisms,
An important object of the invention is to
which organisms may be activated by aeration
provide an improved sewage treating- process
and replenished by the addition of aerobic sludge.
wherein the solids are coagulatedand precipi
Another object of the invention is to provide
tated out of the ?ow stream and then treated by
an improved sewage treating system, of the
anaerobic digestion, the resultant anaerobic
character described, having means for collect
liquid or supernatant being reduced to an aerobic
25 ing and concentrating all of the sludge precipi
condition whereby said supernatant may be re
tated and settled out by the system and thereby
turned to the ?ow stream without the usual
facilitate the continuous or batch treatment
detrimental effect.
A particular object oi’ the invention is to pro
A further object of the invention is to provide
vide an improved sewage treating process, of the
character described, wherein the coagulated and
precipitated solids are gathered in concentrated
form for further treatment in a suitable manner.
90 an improved contact chamber for use in various
units of a sewage treating system which includes
suitably-spaced contact media of any desired
form or shape so long as it provides satisfactory
Another object of the invention is to provide
surface area upon which biological organisms
an improved treating process, of the character
may attach themselves and passages for ac
described, wherein the anaerobic supernatant
commodating the ?ow of sewage, together with
is reduced to an aerobic condition by rejuvenat
means for aerating the sewage so as to activate
ing the same or raising the pH of its alkalinity
the biological organisms; the contact media be
through admixing alkaline material therewith
ing formed of inorganic compounds, of natural
and subjecting the mixture to the action of
arti?cial formation, or of organic plastics of
facultative and aerobic organisms activated by 40 or
arti?cial formation and preferably having means
or in the presence of forced aeration or mechani
in the ?ow passages thereof for de?ecting the
cal agitation, the aerobic organisms being pre
how and prolonging the aerating action.
viously grown upon suitable contact media in
any suitable manner and being replenished by 45 A construction designed to carry out the in
vention will be hereinafter described together
the addition of aerobic sludge.
with other features of the invention.
A further object of the invention is to provide
The invention will be more readily understood
an improved sewage treating process, of the
from a reading of the following speci?cation and
character described, wherein the sewage is pre
by reference to the accompanying drawings, as
aerated or pre-agitated so as to facilitate sub
sequent settling out of suspended and colloidal 56 an example of the invention is shown. and
Figure 1 is a diagrammatic plan view of a sew
Still another object of the invention is to pro
age treating system, constructed in accordance
vide an improved sewage treating system which
with the invention,
includes a settling chamber for receiving the
Figure 2 is an enlarged, longitudinal, vertical,
sewage and for settling out the solids therein,
sectional‘ view of one of the contact aeration
Figure 3 is a transverse, vertical, sectional view
of one of the chambers of the contact aeration
Figure 4 is an enlarged plan view of the cham
ber shown in Figure 3,
Figure 5 is an isometric view of the contact
media mounted in said chamber,
Figure 6 is a longitudinal, vertical, sectional
view of one tank of the aerobic contact unit.
Figure '7 is a transverse, vertical, sectional view
of the contact aeration chamber of the tank
shown in Figure 6,
Figure 8 is a transverse, vertical, sectional view ~
of the pre-aeration or pre-agitation unit,
Figure 9 is a plan view of a portion of the baffles
mounted in the pre-agitation unit,
Figures 10 and 11 are isometric views, show
ing portions of modi?ed forms of contact media. _
In the drawings, the letter A designates a pri
mary settling tank or chamber which is prefer
ably constructed of concrete or other suitable ma
terial and which has a general rectangular shape
in cross-section. The tank has an open top and
its inlet end is formed with a depending hopper
or fan 23 for supplying air to said nozzle or dif
fuser. This aeration of the in?uent causes grease
and other light scum, such as lubricating oil, to
?oat on the surface of the liquid within the tank
and, in cooperation with the ba?le l2, assists in
settling the heavier solids or sludge directly to
the hopper ID. A well 24, having a sludge dis
charge pipe 25 leading therefrom, is disposed be~
tween the inlet pipe H and ba?le I2 for receiving
and removing the grease and other scum from
the tank as it collects‘ upon the surface of the
liquid therein. The hopper l0 also communicates
with the discharge pipe 25, whereby the sludge
accumulated within said hopper may be with
drawn therefrom. The opposite end’of the dis
charge pipe which has suitable manual control
valves mounted therein is connected by a line 21
to a wet well or pump 28 which serves to remove
scum from the well 24 and sludge from the in
terior of said hopper. The e?luent, which-will
contain certain suspended and colloidal solids,
will ?ow from the tank-A through the outlet pipe
l5 so as to be conducted to a pre-aerating cham
ber or unit B, wherein said e?luent is subjected to
agitation to facilitate settling out of the sus
or reservoir III, the hopper preferably being made
pended and colloidal solids.
the interior of said tank adjacent the inlet pipe,
whereby the in?uent strikes the de?ector or ba?le
and falls downwardly within the tank. Due to
the provision of the de?ector [2, the solids in
the in?uent which are of sufficient weight will
immediately settle out of the in?uent so as to
conical hopper bottom 29. A transverse, vertical
Although the chamber B may be of any suit
integral with the bottom of the tank as shown
~ able construction, the preferred manner of con
in Figure l. A sewage inlet pipe H. is connected
in the inlet end of the tank and an inclined, 30 structing the same is shown in Figure 8 and is
preferably of a general circular shape having a
transverse de?ector or ba?le I2 is disposed Within
baffle 30 extends across the chamber and is dis
posed in spaced relation to the end of the pipe
15 which extends through the wall of said cham
ber. The ba?ie extends from the top of the cham
ber B to a point spaced immediately above the
hopper 29, whereby the in?uent stream entering
accumulated solids will be hereinafter referred
said chamber is directed downwardly into said
hopper and then ?ows upwardly into the main
drop downwardly into the hopper [0.
to as sludge.
The liquid level within the tank A is controlled
by a weir l3 which is disposed at the end of said
tank opposite the inlet pipe II. A small outlet
chamber I4 is formed beyond the weir l3 and a
suitable outlet pipe l5, having a manual control
valve connected therein, extends from this cham
ber. A transverse, vertical de?ector or ba?le I6
is disposed adjacent the weir so as to provide a
quiescent chamber or zone I‘! at the e?luent end
of the tank between the ba?le and weir, thereby
facilitating the ‘settling of ?nely-divided, sus
pended sludge from the in?uent. The chamber
or zone I‘! is provided with an inclined bottom
(8 which is preferably a continuation of the bot
tom of the tank for conducting the settled sludge
from said zone to said tank bottom. It is noted
that the ba?ies I2 and I6 extend entirely across
the tank, being spaced from the bottom thereof
and having their upper ends above the weir l3
and the liquid level but below the top of said
tank. Thus, the in?uent under normal ?owing
conditions must Pass beneath the ba?les in order
portion of the chamber. The ?ow is then over a
weir 3|, preferably diametrically opposed from
the baffle 30, into a sump 32 which projects lat
erally from the chamber B adjacent the weir and
which has an outlet pipe 33 extending from the
bottom thereof. A suitable agitator is disposed
axially in the main portion of the chamber B
and includes a suitable motor 34 supported by
cross-members 35 which span the open top of
said chamber and 9. depending drive shaft 36 hav
ing blades 31 mounted‘ on the lower end thereof.
In order to assure agitation or aeration of all
of the stream which passes through the cham
ber B, a plurality of transverse, vertical de?ectors
38 may be disposed radially at the lower end of
saidchamber so as to separate the same from
the hopper 29 and each de?ector may be pro
vided with a suitable recess 39 which is vertically
alined with the drive shaft 36 of the_ agitator for
receiving the blades 31. The latter are arranged
to force the liquid downwardly through the re
cessed portions of the de?ectors, whereby said
to escape from the tank ‘A. A collector IQ, of
liquid is thoroughly agitated or aerated to facili
the usual construction, is mounted between the
tate settling of the solids, and to add dissolved
ba?les I2 and I 6 so as to scrap sludge from the
oxygen. From the foregoing, it will be readily
bottom of the tankand convey it to the hopper l0.
apparent that the flow from the pipe I5 is brought
As the in?uent enters the tank through the
into the chamber B and is directed downwardly
pipe H, it is aerated by means of a suitable air
around the ba?le 30 into the ‘hopper 29,; being
nozzle or diffuser 20 which is located in the lower
circulated by the blades 3'! prior to passing up
portion of said tank between the bailie l2 and 70 wardly into the main portion of said chamber.
the inlet end of the tank. An air inlet pipe 2|
The ?ow is then over the weir 3| into the sump
extends downwardly to the central portion of
32 and then outwardly through the pipe 33. As
_ the nozzle or diffuser 2!} and is connected to an
is clearly shown in Figure 1, the sludge which
falls downwardly into the hopper 29 is withdrawn
the discharge or pressure side of a suitable blower 75 from said hopper by a pipe 40 having a valve
air supply pipe 22 which, in turn, is connected to
therein and which is connected to the sludge
discharge pipe 25.
For coagulating and precipitating the sus
pended and colloidal solids, a primary submerged
biological contact aeration unit 0 is provided and
is preferably constructed in the form of a gen
eral rectangular tank. As shown in Figure 2, the
tank includes a pair of chambers ii and 42 with
substituted for said ?at plates. Attention is di
rected to the fact that the plates and tubes merely
provide spaced contact media and that the shape
or form of the same is not important so long as
a satisfactory surface area on which biological
organisms may attach themselves is provided.
The material or composition of the contact media
may consist of inorganic compounds, either of
sludge accumulating hoppers 43 and 44 disposed
natural or arti?cial formation, or organic plas
beneath and communicating with the chambers. 10 tics of arti?cial formation, and may include ce
ment asbestos, mineral aggregate, cement, cellu~
A transverse, vertical partition or wall 45, having
losive acetate butyrate, chemically-treatedwood or
other suitable material. ‘Also, the invention is not
to be limited to the particular means and method
chamber B extends through one wall of the 15 of assembling the plates as any suitable means
for maintaining said plates in the required or de
chamber (ii at substantially mid-height there
sired spaced relation may be utilized. Of course,
of so as to communicate with and discharge said
the contact media may be mounted within the
e?uent into said chamber. A transverse, ver
chambers in any desired manner.
tical ba?ie #36 extends across the chamber iii in
spaced relation to the inner end of the pipe 33, 20 Aeration, which is necessary for the activating
its upper end terminating short of the top of the .
tank, separates the chambers from each other.
The pipe 33 which conducts the e?luent from the
whereby the stream entering said chamber is di
rected downwardly into the hopper 43. The ?ow
is then upwardly through the chamber iii and over
the upper end of the partition 45 into the cham
ber 432, wherein said ?ow is de?ected downwardly
of the biological organisms which collect and ad
into the hopper 46 by a baiile 41 which is substan
Although the nozzle or porous diffuser may be
tially identical to the battle at. As is clearly
shown in Figure 2, the baffles 46 and 4‘! extend to
the top of the tank above the liquid level, where
by the flow must pass downwardly through the
vertical passages or channels formed by said
bailles. In the chamber 62, the ?ow is upwardly
disposed in any desired position, the'same is pref
erably located adjacent one wall of the chamber
(Figs. 3 and 4). Each nozzle or porous diffuser
from the hopper M and over a weir 58 which
plastic tubes, extends transversely at substantially
here to the surface of the contact media or plates
52, is supplied through an air nozzle or porous
di?user 58 mounted within the lower portion of ,
each chamber of the unit C below said plates.
which may be supported in any suitable manner
and which is preferably formed of fused silicon,
oxide aluminum or other ceramics or organic
a right angle to the plates and having a plurality
is secured to the adjacent end wall of the tank.
A sump :39 extends laterally of the tank adjacent 85 of fine openings. An air inlet pipe 59 extends
downwardly to the medial portion of each nozzle
the weir {l8 and has an outlet pipe 50 extending
or porous diffuser 58 and has itsupper end con
therefrom. Thus, the ?ow from the pipe 33 is di
nected to the air supply line 22. It is noted that
rected downwardly around the ba?e (i8, upwardly
the plates between which the air inlet pipe 59
through the chamber ti, over the partition £35,
downwardly around the baiiie ill, upwardly so extends are spaced a greater distance from each
through the chamber 52, over the weir fit into
the sump t9 and then outwardly through the
pipe 5!}.
For coagulating and precipitating certain sus
pended and colloidal solids as the sewage ?ows -
other as shown at ti by means of relatively-thick
spacer blocks 68, one of which surrounds said
pipe so as to permit removal of said inlet pipe
and its nozzle or porous diffuser upon rotating
the same to aline said nozzle or porous diffuser
with the space 8i (Fig. 4).
The spacer blocks 5% are pdsitioned so as to
not interfere with the flow of air from the nozzle
through the chambers iii and 52, each chamber
is provided with a plurality of plate or baffle units
P. Since the arrangement of the plate units with
in each chamber is the same, a description of
or porous di?user at upwardly through the spaces
one will suflice. For supporting each unit, suit 50 or passages 55. It is pointed out that when the
able longitudinal shoulders or ledges iii are
blocks 54 are disposed in the path of the up
formed within the lower end of each chamber
wardly ?owing air, the same are disposed ver
along the end walls thereof (Fig. 3). Each plate
tically so as to present the smallest possible ob
unit includes a plurality of sheets or plates 52
structing area or surface to said ?ow. As is
which are maintained in spaced relation by rec 55 clearly shown in Figures 3 and 5, the de?ectors
tangular de?ectors 53 and spacer blocks 56, the
53 are disposed at the upper portion of each flow
plates being fastened to the spacer blocks and
passage 55 adjacent the vertical edges of the
to each other by nails, tacks or other suitable
plates and at an angle or inclination. One of
means. The spacing of the plates 52 from each
the de?ectors 53 is disposed substantially in ver
other is subject to rather wide variation and is 60 tical alinement with the nozzle or porous diffuser
controlled by the quantity of surface area re
58 and both de?ectors have their upper ends con
quired to support the biological organisms which
verging toward each other. Thus, the upward
are needed to effect coagulation and precipita
?ow of the air through each passage 55 is de?ected
laterally across said passage by the overlying de
tion of the suspended and colloidal solids in the
sewage stream ?owing between said plates. 65 ?ectors into engagement with the angularly-dis
posed de?ector on the opposite side of the pas
When the plates are positioned within their re
sage. Due to the disposition ofthe latter de?ec
spective chambers, the same are preferably dis
tor, it is obvious that the air will be de?ected
posed vertically therein so as to form a plurality
downwardly toward they lower portion of the
of vertical ?ow passages or spaces 55 for accom
chamber. Thus, a rotation or whirling action in
modating the flow through the chambers.
a vertical plane is imparted to the air by the de
Although the plates 52 have been shown as
?ectors 53 and such motion will be transmit
?at and parallel so as to form straight ?ow pas
ted to the liquid within the chambers of the unit
sages 55 (Figs. 2 to 5), it is manifest that cor
C. Manifestly, this rotation or whirling of the
rugated plates 58 as shown in Figure 10 or cylin
air delays the escape of the same from the liquid,
drical tubes 51 as shown in Figure 11 could be
whereby a greater amount of aeration is obtained
from a given quantity of air and whereby the
biological organisms which collect and adhere to
valves therein and having connection with the
sludge discharge pipe 25, conduct the sludge from
the hoppers of the secondary contact unit. The
the surfaces of the plates 52 are more thor
e?luent ?ows from the secondary contact unit
through a pipe ‘III to a third or ?nal settling tank
F which is identical to the settling tank I). The
passage of the ?uid through the ?nal settling
tank is the same as has been described in connec
oughly activated.
From the foregoing, it will be readily apparent
that the sewage stream which ?ows from the tank
A through the pipe I5 to the chamber B and from
said chamber is introduced by the pipe 33 into
tion with the other settling tanks and the sludge
the primary contact unit C at one side of the ll is accumulated in the hopper I8 of said tank,
chamber 45. The ?ow is downwardly into the
whereby the same may be withdrawnthrough
lower portion of the chamber around the ba?le
an outlet pipe ‘II, having a pipe therein, into the
sludge discharge pipe 25. A ?nal discharge line
ately settle downwardly into the sludge hopper 43.
‘I2 extends from the outlet end of the ?nal set
The ?ow is then upwardly through the passages 15 tling tank F and conducts the clear liquid there
' 46 and the heavier solids therein will immedi
55 between the plates 52, whereby the sewage
stream is broken up into a plurality of small
Thus, the sewage is conducted alternately
through settling tanks and contact units and is
streams or channels with each small stream con
tacting the surfaces of adjacent plates. Aerobic
preferably mechanically agitated intermediate
bacteria or biological organisms will accumulate 20 the primary settling tank A and contact unit C.
on the surfaces of the plates and the introduction
In each tank or unit, the removal of solids is
of air through the nozzles or porous diffusers will
e?ected and the sludge is accumulated in the
activate these organisms. Manifestly, the sew
hoppers of the various tanks or units. All of the
age will be brought into intimate contact with the
latter have connection with the sludge discharge
aerobic organisms on the surfaces of the plates,
pipe 25 which is connected to the suction side of
whereby coagulation and precipitation of the
the wet well or pump 28. Thus, the wet well acts .
suspended and colloidal solids in the sewage will
to withdraw the sludge accumulation from the
be e?ected. Of course, most of these solids will
various hoppers and may serve to pump said
drop into the sludge hopper 43. After leaving
sludge to a reconcentration unit G through the
the chamber 4 I , the ?ow is upwardly over the par "30 pipe 21 and a connecting pipe I22 both of which
tition 45 and downwardly into the lower portion of
have valves therein. However, under ordinary
the chamber 43 around the baiile 41. Since this
circumstances, the sludge will flow by gravity
chamber has the same plate unit therein, the
from the hoppers through the sludge discharge
same action will be repeated in said chamber and
pipe 25 and the pipe I22 directly into the recon
the solids will accumulate as sludge in the lower -
centration unit G.
end of the hopper 44. As has been hereinbefore
explained, the de?ectors 53 will de?ect the ?ow
of air through the passages 55 of the plate units
The unit G includes an open tank, preferably
constructed of concrete or other suitable mate
rial, which is divided into a pair of chambers ‘I3
P so as to prolong the presence of the air within
and 14 by a central, vertical partition or wall
the sewage and thereby more thoroughly acti 40 ‘I5. Each chamber has a tapered or hopper
vate the biological organisms which adhere to
shaped bottom and its open upper end receives
the plates 52. The eiiiuent escapes from the
the pipe I22 or its branch ‘I6. Within the cham- .
chamber 42 through the outlet pipe 50, while the
sludge is withdrawn from the hoppers 43 and 44
through pipes 62 and 63 which have valves
mounted therein and which are connected with
the sludge discharge pipe 25 that leads to the
wet well or sludge reconcentration unit 28.
Upon its discharge from the primary contact
' unit 0, the sewage is conducted to an interme
bers ‘I3 and ‘I4, the sludge from the hoppers of
the various tanks and units is allowed to remain
for a period of time su?icient for said sludge to
separate from the water which enters said chain-i
bers therewith. After this settling of the sludge,
the liquid is drawn or allowed to ?ow by gravity
50 into the wet well 28 by means of a plurality of
diate or secondary settling tank D. The latter
is substantially identical in construction to the
tank A with certain exceptions. The grease sump
24, air nozzle or di?user 20 and line 2i are
omitted, while a collector 65, having both of its 55
flights disposed adjacent the bottom of the tank
D beneath the liquid level, is substituted for the
collector I9 of the tank A. Since the tank D
need not handle the same volume as the primary
settling tank’ A, the capacity of the former may 60
be less than the latter. The outlet pipe 50, which
extends from the primary contact unit C, is con
nected to the inlet end of the intermediate set
tling tank I) and the sludge from the hopper II}
of said intermediate settling tank is discharged 65
therefrom through an outlet pipe 66 having a,
valve therein into the sludge discharge pipe 25.
The e?luent from the intermediate settling
tank D is conducted from its sump I4 by a pipe
6‘! to a secondary submerged biological-contact 70
unit E which is identical in construction to the
primary contact unit C. Within the secondary
contact unit, the same action is repeated and
the sludge is collected in the hoppers 43 and 44
of said unit. Suitable pipes 68 and 39, having 75
outlet pipes 17 which extend through the wall of
each chamber and have suitable valves connected
therein for controlling the ?ow from the cham
bers. The outlet pipes 11 are disposed at different
levels to permit the withdrawal of liquid from dif- ,
ferent levels and have connection with- the wet
well 28 through a pipe ‘l8 so as to permit the dis
charge of liquid thereinto. From the wet well,
the liquid is recirculatedthrough the entire sys
tem by a valved pipe ‘I9 which communicates with
the pipe 21 and which extends to the inlet pipe
iI leading to the primary settling tank A. A
pipe 80, having a valve connected therein, estab-.
lishes communication between the pipe ‘I9 and
the pipe I5 which lead from the primary settling
tank A to the pre-_aeration or agitating unit B,
whereby the liquid from the reconcentration unit
G, or a portion thereof, may be conducted di
rectly to said unit B. The hopper-shaped bot
toms of the chambers ‘I3 and ‘I4 of the reconcen
tration unit G are connected by pipes 8|, having
valves therein, with the wet well 28, whereby the
sludge may ?ow or be withdrawn from said
chambers into said wet well and then pumped
through the pipe 21 and a communicating valve
pipe 82 into a septic or anaerobic sludge digest-‘
ing unit H.
The sludge digesting unit H includes a tank of
concrete or other suitable material having a
closed top 83 and a hopper bottom 84. An anae
robic biological action takes place within the
sludge digestive unit H for reducing and separat
natant conducted from the sludge digesting unit
Hto the chamber 95~is relatively low, consider
ably below 'Z.2, and is very toxic to aerobic biologi
cal growths. In order to rejuvenate the super
natant and raise its pH to an alkalinity of 7.6
or higher so as to provide a more favorable bio
logical environment and reduce said superna
tant to an aerobic condition, an alkaline material,
ing the sludge into gases, solids and liquids, the
such as alkaline aerobic biological sludge, lime,
latter being commonly known and referred to as
supernatant. The separated gases are dis 10 or calcium hydroxide, may be added to said
supernatant prior to or at the time it enters the
charged through a suitable vent pipe 85 mount
chamber 95 of the tank 92. A suitable feeder
ed in the top 83 of the unit H to a flare or other
N12 for delivering the alkaline material to the
disposal means. A plurality of liquid discharge
supernatant as it enters the contact aeration
pipes 86, having manual control valves mounted
chamber has its discharge pipe 103 extending
therein, extend through one wall of the tank at
through one wall of said chamber above the inlet
different levels and are connected with a pipe
' pipe 94. The solid alkaline material is preferably
8? which leads to an aerobic contact unit 1,
admixed with water or other liquid prior to its
whereby the liquid or supernatant may be with
introduction into the chamber and the solution
drawn from said tank at di?erent levels and con
ducted to the unit I.
29 may be kept in suspension‘ by being agitated due
to the introduction of air under pressure. How
The sludge which is ?nally removed from the
ever, it is pointed out that the alkaline material
system, that is the sludge which collects in the
may be fed or added to the supernatant in a
dry or powdered condition. Of course, the
hopper bottom all of the tank or unit H, passes
through a pipe 88 to a ?lter bed unit J. The
latter is constructed in the usual manner and
consists of a relatively shallow tray or vessel
having ?ltering material, such as asbestos or
feeding of the alkaline material is regulated in
accordance with the ?ow of the supernatant or
its alkalinity. The diffused air or free oxygen
supplied by the air nozzle or di?iuser 58 also
sand, disposed therein. The bottom of the tray
aidsin the rejuvenation of the supernatant. It
or unit J is inclined toward the center thereof
as shown at 90 and a suitable discharge port 30 is- also highly desirable to introduce a small
in is locatedat the lowest point of this inclination
to permit the escape of liquid which is ?ltered
through the bed 89.
The aerobic biological contact unit l, to which
the supernatant is conducted iromthe sludge di
gestive unit H through the pipes 535 and 8?, pref
quantity of alkaline aerobic biological sludge,
from the primary and secondary contact aera
tion units C and E into the chamber 95 of the
tank Q2, whereby the same may be admixed with
35 the supernatant to assist in the rejuvenation
thereof. For conducting the aerobic sludge from
erably includes a pair of tanks 92 and @3, one of
which is shown in detail in Figures 6 and 7. How
ever, only one tank may be used if desired, especi
the units C and E, a valved pipe Md extends from
the sludge discharge pipe 25 to the inlet pipe all.
Thus, by manipulating the proper valves, any de
ally in relatively small systems and depending dd sired quantity of the aerobic sludge from the
units C and E may be conducted to the chamber
upon the biochemical oxygen demand of the
$5 and admixed with the supernatant therein.
supernatant as well as the desired degree of treat
Facultative and aerobic organisms may be grown
ment. An inlet pipe 9% connects the tank 92
on the contact surfaces of the plate units P prior
to the pipe 8? and extends through one end
wall thereof into a contact aeration chamber 95 45 to the introduction of the aerobic sludge into the
contact unit I and this growth may be accom
which is separated from a decanting chamber 95
plished by passing the aerobic sludge from the
by a transverse, vertical partition or wall 9?.
unit C or E therethrough.
The partition 97 extends from the bottom of the
After the supernatant, the aerobic sludge and
tank 92 to a point spaced from the top of said
tank so as to control the liquid level in the 60 alkaline material have been admixed and aerated
together within the chamber for a sufficient
chamber 95. It is pointed out that the chamber
length of time to bring about coagulation of the
95 is very similar to the ‘chambers 5i and d2 of
organic matter suspended in said supernatant,
the contact aeration units C and E, with the ex
the same, together with the coagulated solids, ?ow
ception of the hoppers £53 and 4t and the ba?es
‘l6 and iii, The chamber may have a substan 55 over the partition 9'! into the decanting chamber
95. -Within this chamber, the flow is quiescent
tially ?at or concave bottom 98 with one or more
so as to permit settling of the solids into a hopper
plate units P disposed in the interior thereof,
whereby the end plates 52, adjacent the inlet
E05 which is ‘preferably made integral with the
lower end of said chamber, said solids accumulat
pipe Bil function and serve the same purpose as
the baffles t6 and iii. The air nozzle or diffuser 60 ing as sludge in the bottom of the hopper and
escaping through a valved outlet pipe “)6 into
58 is disposed within the chamber beneath the
the sludge discharge pipe llll. A weir lll‘l which
plate units P and has its air pipe 59 connected
is located at the end of the tank 92 opposite the
to the air line 22 by a suitable pipe as. It is
inlet pipe 95 controls the liquid level within the
manifest that the ?ow from the pipe at is down
wardly between the end wall of the tank and the 65 chamber 96 and has a sump I08 disposed beyond
and contiguous thereto. The liquid or eiiluent
adjacent end plate 52 into the bottom of the
chamber 95 and then upwardly through the spaces '
55 of the plate unit P and then over the partition
9? into the decanting chamber 96. The solids
which precipitate and fall downwardly to the 70
which flows over the weir Ill‘l into the sump I08
escapes through an outlet pipe Hi9 which com’
municates with the contact aeration chamber 95
of the second tank 93.
With the exception of the feeder “12, the tank
93 is identical to the tank 92. The aerobic sludge
from the units C and E may be introduced into
the tank 93 by means of a valved pipe H0 which
bottom of the chamber will accumulate as sludge
and escape through a valved outlet pipe lOll into
a sludge discharge pipe llll which communicates
with the wet well 28.
Ordinarily, the pH of the anaerobic super 75 establishes communication between the sludge
discharge pipe 25 and the inlet pipe I09 of said
tank. Due to the identical construction of the
tank 93, the same action takes place in said tank
as in the tank 92 and additional organic matter is
coagulated and settled out as sludge within its
chambers 95 and 96. This sludge escapes through
the outlet pipes I00 and I08 and is conducted by
the sludge discharge pipe ill! to the wet well 28.
From the well 28, the sludge is conducted through
the pipes 21 and I22 to the reconcentration unit
G wherein the liquid is separated from the sludge
and returned to the in?uent end of the primary
‘ 12
size, shape, and materials, as well as in the details
of the illustrated construction may be made,
within the scope of the appended claims, without
departing from the spirit or the invention.
What I claim and desire to secure by Letters
Patent is:
1. The process of treating sewage which in
cludes, separating the solids from the sewage,
then treating said solids by anaerobic digestion,
and then admixing in the presence of artificial
aeration an alkaline material with the anaerobic
supernatant resulting from the digestion step so
settling tank A or the pre-aeration unit B by ' as to reduce said supernatant to an aerobic condi
- means of the pipes ‘ll, 18, 27, ‘I9 and H or 80. The
tion so that it may be‘ returned to the sewage
reconcentrated solids or sludge are returned to 15 without detrimental effect.
the sludge digesting unit H, together with fresh
sludge from the various units by means of the
pipes BI, 27 and 82. The liquid or emuent from
the tank 93', which has been reduced to an aerobic
condition, ?ows through an outlet pipe I H to the 20
2. The process of treating sewage which in
cludes, separating the solids from the sewage,
then treating said solids by anaerobic digestion,
admixing an alkaline material with the anaerobic
supernatant resulting from the digestion Step to
raise the pH of its alkalinity, and contacting said
?nal eiliuent pipe ‘I2. However, it is pointed out
that a short pipe H2 establishes'communication
supernatant with biological organisms activated
between the outlet pipe ill and the pipe 21,
by arti?cial aeration, whereby said supernatant,
whereby the liquid or eiiluent from the tank 93
is reduced to an aerobic condition so that it may
may be conducted to the in?uent end of the pri 26 be returned to the sewage without detrimental
mary settling unit A or the pre-aeration unit B.
Also, a valved by-pass line H3 extends from the
3. A sewage ,treating process which includes,
?nal e?iuent pipe 12 to each of the units or
producing a biologically active sludge'from sepa
tanks B, D, E and F, being directly connected
rated solids coagulated and precipitated from
to the pipe I5 and having connection with the 30 the sewage by passing said sewage successively
pipes 50, 61 and 10 through valved pipes H4, H5
through a plurality of settling and contact cham
and H6, respectively. Thus, a portion of the
bers, removing the sludge from each chamber
liquid may be withdrawn from the ?ow prior to
and concentrating the same in a reconcentration
its entering the chambers B, D, E or F,
unit, reducing the concentrated sludge to gases,
From the foregoing, it is readily apparent that 35 solids and liquids inra, septic digestion unit, and
an ef?cient sewage treating process and ‘system
admixing alkaline‘ material with the liquid from
is provided. The sewage is introduced into the
the septic digestion unit and contacting said
primary settling tank and the heavier, as well as
liquid with biological organisms activated by arti
lightest, solids are removed therefrom. Then, the
?cial aeration so as to render said liquid aerobic
sewage ?ows through pre-aeration unit B, where 40 whereby the same may be returned to the sewage
in settling of the suspended and colloidal solids
without detrimental effect.
is facilitated by mechanical agitation and by
' added dissolved oxygen.
After this, the solids in
suspension are coagulated and precipitated within
the contact unit C. From this point, the sewage
passes through the secondary settling tank D, then
through the secondary contact unit E and ?nally
through the ?nal settling tank F. The sludge,
The following references are of record in the
?le of this patent:
which is removed from all of the tanks and
units, is conducted to the reconcentration unit G 50 1,420,250
and then to the digesting unit H. The liquid,
separated from the sludge in the sludge recon
centration unit, is recirculated through the sys
tem by being conducted either to the primary
settling tank A or pre-aeration unit B. From
the sludge digesting unit, the sludge passes to
the ?lter unit J and the anaerobic liquid or
supernatant ?ows to the aerobic biological con
tact unit I so as to be rejuvenated and rendered
aerobic by being admixed with an alkaline mate 60 2,188,162
rial and a small quantity of alkaline aerobic
sludge from the unit C or E. The e?luent from
the aerobic contact unit may be‘ discharged with
the ?nal e?iuent of the system or may be con
Re. 22,144
ducted to the primary settling tank or pre-aera
tion unit for recirculation through said system.
From the unit I, the sludge is delivered to the
reconcentration unit G and then returned to the
digesting unit H.
The foregoing description of the invention is 70
explanatory thereof and various changes in the
Gavett ______ .._'__..- June 20, 1922
Travers -1 ________ __ June 5, 1928
Sperr, Jr. ___.._ ____ ._ Apr. 7, 1931
Le?ler __________ __ Nov. 21, 1933
Fischer ___________ __ Nov. 27, 1934
Fischer __________ ___Apr. 9,‘ 1935
Streander ________ __ Apr. 20,
Shook __________ __ Aug. 17,
Fischer __________ __ Sept. 6,‘
Rankin __________ __ Nov. 22,
Schulhoii.’ ________ __ Jan. 23, 1940
Fischer __________ __ Feb.- 13, 1940
, >Durdin __________ __ Nov. 12, 1940
Pecker ____________ __ Jan. 7, 1941
Ward _______ ______ ,July 21, 1942
Levine ___.. ______ __ Apr. 27, 1943
Green ____________ __ May 2,
Tolman __________ .... May 23,
Schlenz etal _____ __ Sept. 26,
Langdon ________ .. Mar. 6,
Montgomery et al. __ Nov. 13, 1945
Gri?ith _____ --,..__.._ Nov.,20, 1945
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