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Jan- 18, 1949-
s. B. GRlscoM r-:T AL
2,459,640
REGULATING SYSTEM
Filed June 2, 1947
ATTORN
2,459,640
Patented Jan. 18, 1949
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,459,640
REGULATING SYSTEM
Samuel B. Griscom and Raymond L. Witzke,
Pittsburgh, Pa., assignors to Westinghouse
Electric Corporation, East Pittsburgh, Pa., a
corporation of Pennsylvania
Application June 2, 1947, Serial No. '751,810
'7 Claims. (Cl. S22-24)
1
2
connected in series circuit between the armature
windings 38 of the pilot exciter 30 and the field
An object of this invention is to provide a
windings 28 of the main exciter 24. An adjust
regulating system ~for a- dynamo-electric machine.
able resistor 40 is connected in circuit relation
Another object of this invention Iis to provide
with the shunt lield winding 34 for purposes of
a regulating system for a dynamo-electric ma
adjusting the degree of energization thereof. The
chine in which .provision is made for insuring
series field winding 32 and the shunt neld wind
minimum excitation of the machine.
ing 34 of the pilot exciter 30 may be cumulative
A more speciñc object of this invention is the
with the series iield winding 32 providing slightly
provision, in a regulating system for a dynamo
electric machine having a voltage reference net lll less than required sustaining field strength, and
the shunt iield winding 34 being only strong
work for directionally controlling a self-excited
enough for adjusting the self-excitation field
exciter in response to load conditions, for .modi
strength to compensate for manufacturing dif
tying the operation of the Voltage reference net
ferences and installation adjustments or the like.
work to insure a predetermined minimum exci
On the other hand, the shunt iield windings 34
tation of the dynamo-electric machine.
may be wound to oppose the series field wind
Other objects of this invention will become
This invention relates to regulating systems.
apparent from the following description when
taken in conjunction with the accompanying
drawing, in which:
Figure 1 is a diagrammatic view of apparatus
and circuits embodying the teachings of this in
vention;
ings 32 where the windings 32 supply slightly
more than required sustaining field strength.
As illustrated, the control field winding 36 is
connected through a voltage reference network
42 and a potential transformer 44 to be supplied
in accordance with the line voltage. The voltage
reference network 42 illustrated is of the type
disclosed and claimed in the copending applica
Fig. 2 is a diagrammatic view of another em.
bodiment of this invention, and
25 tion, Serial No. 567,256, filed December 8, 1944,
Fig. 3 is a diagrammatic View of apparatus and
now Patent No. 2,428,566, issued October 7, 1947,
Lcircuits constituting another embodiment of the
by E. L. Harder et al. and comprises a non-linear
teachings of this invention.
impedance circuit 48 connected through conduc
Referring to the drawing and, in particular,
tors 50 and 52 to be simultaneously energized
to Fig. l thereof, there is illustrated a dynamo
from the transformer 44 in accordance with the
electric machine I0, such as a generator or the '
line Voltage. The non-linear impedance circuit
like, for supplying a load represented by line con
46 and the linear impedance circuit 48 are con
ductors l2, I4 and I6. The generator I6 com
nected to rectiflers 54 and 56, respectively, the
prises the armature windings lil connected to
output terminals of the rectlfying units being
the line conductors I2, I4 and I6 and a field wind
connected in series circuit relation with each
ing 20. The ñeld winding 20 is connected across
other through suitable series connected resistors
the armature windings 22 of the main exciter 24,
and series connected smoothing reactors. An
a. resistor 26 being connected across the field
insulating transformer 58 is illustrated as con
winding 20, the purpose of which will be ex
nected in the supply of the linear impedance
plained more Afully hereinafter. The main ex
,
citer 24 is also provided with a ñeld winding 28, 40 circuit 48.
The control field winding 36 of the pilot ex
the energization of which is controlled by a pilot
citer 30 is connected across the direct current
exciter 30.
series circuit connecting the rectifier units 54 and
In the embodiment illustrated, the pilot exciter
56 at points 6U and 62, which for a predetermined
3l is of the self-excited or “series-tuned” type
line voltage are at zero potential. The imped
which normally operates along the linear part oi
ance elements of the non-linear impedance cir
its saturation curve. The exciter 39 is provided
cuit 46 and of the linear impedance circuit 48
with a series field winding 32 for normally sup
have intersecting impedance characteristics and
plying the majority of the excitation re'^\‘“"‘e
as the line voltage or generator terminal voltage
ments, yand a shunt field winding 34 for
plying the remainder of the excitation of the eX- ' ñuctuates from a predetermined value which is
to be maintained, the current drawn by the cir
citer, and a control iicld winding 36 disposed to
cuits varies with the result that an unbalanced
be directionaliy energized in respons-e to the op
condition between the output of the rectifying
eration of the generator Il), the excitation of
,units 54 and 56 occurs and the control ñeld wind
which is `controlled by the main exciter 2li.
55 ing '.36 isenergized in one or the other directions,
As illustrated, the series ñeld winding 32 is ,
2,459,640
3
depending upon the output of the unbalanced
condition.
.
In the embodiment illustrated in Fig. 1, in or
der to modify the operation of the voltage ref
erence network 42, a saturable core reactor 64 is
disposed with its alternating current windings
Et connected across the conductors 50 and 52
which supply the voltage reference network.
In
this embodiment, a reactor 68 is preferably con
nected in series circuitl in the conductor 52 for
cooperating with the saturable core reactor $4
as will be explained more fully hereinafter.
In order to control the saturation of the sat
urable core reactor E4, a direct current control
winding 10 is disposed on the middle leg of the
reactor and is connected in circuit relation with
two sources of direct current voltage. One of the
terminals of the direct current control winding
10 is connected to an output terminal 'l2 of a
measuring network 14, the other terminal of the
direct current control winding 'lll being connect
ed through terminal 7E, a section of resistor 26
and the adjustable tap 78 to the other output
terminal 80 of the measuring network 74. Thus,
the section of the resistor 2G connected in cir
cuit relation with the direct current control wind
ing 'l0 of reactor 64 provides a source of direct
current voltage which is a measure of the voltage
across the field winding 30 of the dynamo-elec
tric machine I0.
The other source of direct current voltage forA
controlling the energization of the direct current
control winding of the reactor t4 is represented as
the output terminals 'l2 and 89 of the measuring
network 14 and is supplied by the full wave recti
fying unit 82, the output terminals of which are
connected to terminals 'i2 and 333. As illustrated,
one of the input terminals of the rectifying unit
82 is connected through an adjustable tap 84, a
section of resistor 86 and the secondary winding
of the potential transformer 44 to the other input
terminal of the rectifying unit 82. The resistor
4
winding 'l0 of the reactor 64 are of opposite
polarity, it being noted that when the direct cur~
rent voltage appearing across the section of re
sistor 25 connected between terminal 715 and tap
T8 predominates over the direct current voltage
across terminals 'l2 and 83, current does not flow
in. the direct current control winding 7E! since the
rectifying unit 82 eiîectively blocks such flow of
current. On the other hand, if the directeur
rent voltage appearing across terminals l2 and
8U of the measuring network i4 predominates over
the direct current voltage across the section of
resistor 26 connected between terminal l5 and tap
it, current will ilow from the positive terminal
of the rectifying unit 82 through the inductor Sil,
terminal 8U, tap 18, a section of resistor 26, ter
minal 'I6 and direct current control winding 'lEä to
the terminal l2 and the negative terminal of the
rectifying unit 82 to effect the energization of the
direct current control winding l0.
t
In operation, assuming that the generator l0
and the main exciter 24 and pilot exciter 30 are
being driven by some suitable means (not shown)
for supplying power at a constant Voltage to a
load (not shown), the windings 32 and 3d of the
tuned pilot exciter 3B are suñlcient for normally
maintaining the excitation of the main exciter 2li
and, consequently, the generator or dynamo-elec~
tric machine Hl to maintain constant voltage
across the line conductors I2, E4 and l5.
As the
non-linear impedance circuit ¿it and the linear
impedance circuit t8 of the voltage reference
network d2 are so selected that at the predeter
mined line voltage which is to be maintained the
circuits 45 and 48 have intersecting impedance
characteristics and the voltages across rectifying
units 54 and 56 and at the points [email protected] and 52 are '
equal, a voltage does not appear across the control
ñeld winding 35.
If during normal operation of the system the
line voltage should increase from the predeter
mined value, then the non-linear impedance cir
8E is connected across current transformers 88
cuit ¿i6 draws more current than the linear im
and 90 which are disposed in inductive relation
pedance circuit 4B and the output voltages across
with the line conductors I4 and I2, respectively. 45 the re‘ctifyingI units 54 and 55 are unbalanced.
so that a current flows through _the resistor 85
With such an unbalanced condition, the larger
which is a measure of the generator current. The
potential across the rectifying unit 56 effects a
voltage appearing across the resistor 86 is in
voltage drop across the control iield winding 3S in
phase with the voltage across the transformer 44
a direction to produce an action to oppose the
when the generator output is at unity power 50 excitation of the field windings 32 and 34 to de
factor.
crease the output of the pilot exciter 3l) and, con
Thus, a voltage is impressed across the rectify
scquently. decrease the excitation of the main
ing unit 82 which is a composite of the generator
exciter 24 with a corresponding decrease in eX
terminal voltage as represented by the potential
citation of the generator Hi to return the line
across the secondary windings of transformer 44 "- voltage to the predetermined value.
and a potential drop which is a measure of the
If the chan-ge in the line voltage is a decrease,
generator current as represented by the potential
then the linear impedance circuit L38 draws more
across the section of resistor 8B which is con
current than the non-linear impedance circuit 46
nected in circuit relation with the rectifyin-g unit
with the result that the potentials at terminals
82. The resultingr direct current voltage from the 60 Bt and 62 become so unbalanced as to effect a
rectifying unit 82 as measured across terminals
12 and 8!! is an approximation of the watt output
Voltage drop acrossl the control ñeld winding 36
in a direction to produce an action to aid the ñeld
of the generator l D. In practice, this approxima
>windings 32 and 34 to increase the excitation of
tion is .found to so closely follow the watt output
the tuned pilot exciter 3l! and thereby eiîect an
that for purposes of this invention such direct 65 increase in the excitation of the main exciter 24
current voltage can be taken as >a measure of the
with a resulting increase in the excitation of the
watt output of the dynamo-electric machine l0.
generator Hl to maintain the line Voltage at its
The capacitor 92 and inductor 94 connected
predetermined value.
across the rectifying unit 82 are for purposes of
The foregoing description of the operation of
smoothing any ripple which may occur in the rec~ 70 the regulating system is for a normal operation
tiñed voltage in accordance with well known
of the system, wherein the excitation of the gen
practice.
erator l!! is maintained at a value above a pre~
The two sources of direct current voltage just
determined minimum excitation. If in the op
described and which are utilized for controlling
erations just described, the voltage across the
the energization of the direct current control 75 generator ñeld 20 is increased with the result that
2,460,840
5.
6
the direct Acurrent voltage appearing across ter
minal 16 and tap 18 of the resistor -26 is increased
to .al value 'in -excess of the direct current voltage
decreases and the linear velement in the linear
impedance circuit 48 draws more current with the
put ofthe generator I0, then the measuring net
of the voltages across the rectifying units 54 and
56, the voltage reference network functions `to
change the flow of current in the control ñeld
winding 36 in a direction to aid the action of the
control field windings 32 and 34 to effectively in
crease the excitation of the pilot exciter 30 and
thereby increase the excitation of the generator
I0 to at least the predetermined minimum value.
As will be appreciated, if the modifying eiïect
of the reactor 64 is superimposed on the linear
impedance circuit 48 while the voltage reference
network 42 is operating to correct for an increase
in line voltage, >then the reactor 54 functions to
decrease the differential between the voltages
across rectifying units 54 and 56 so that the op
posing action of the control field winding 36 to
the excitation of the field windings 32 and 34 is'
decreased somewhat so that, in eiiect, the exci
tation of the pilot exciter 30 is increased to the
extent of the modiñcation due to the action of the
reactor 64.
On the other hand, if the regulator 64 >is ener
gized when the voltage reference network 42 .is
result that the voltage across the rectifying unit
56 increases with respect to the voltage across the
appearing across terminals 'l2 and '80 which is a
measure or an approximation of the watt out In rectifying unit 54. By thus changing the relation
work 14 has no effect on the control of the excita
tionof the >pilot‘generator 30 since the rectifying
unit «M of the measuring network '14 effectively
blocks the ñow of current resulting from Asuch
differential between the two sources of direct cur
rent voltage and current fails to flow in the direct
current control winding 10 of the saturable re
actor 64.
Ifduring the normal operation of the system,
the voltage across the control field winding 2li
o'f the vgenerator l0 should decrease to a value
where the voltage drop between the terminal 16
and tap 18 across »the section of resistor 26 is be«
low the value of the direct current voltage across
the terminals 12 and 80, then as a result of the
differential -of the two direct current voltages,
current ñows through the direct current control
winding 16 of the reactor 64 to effect a lowering
of the alternating current impedance of the al
ternating current winding 66 of the reactor 64.
The »reactor 64 thus cooperates with the series
connected reactor 68 to effectively lower the volt~
age supplied to the voltage reference network 42l
As the input to the non-linear impedance cir
cuit 46 and to the :linear impedance circuit 48 has
thus changed by reason of the decrease in the
voltage across the supply to the respective cir
cuits, the voltage across the rectifyíng units 54
and 56 is so varied that it tends to vary or change
the current .flowing through the control field wind
ing 36 in a direction to produce `or modify the
action thereof to aid the action of .thewindings
32 4and y34 to effectively increase the excitation of
operating to correct Afor a decrease in line volt
age, then the modifying action of the reactor A64
is additive to the action of the linear impedance
circuit 48 whereby the differential in voltages
across the rectifying units 54 and 56 is increased
and the voltage drop across the control field wind
ing 36 is increased to produce a larger action to
aid the field windings 32 and 34 to increase the
excitation of the pilot exciter 30 and effectively
increase the excitation of the generator I0 to a
value above the predetermined minimum excita
tion value.
The embodiment of the invention illustrated in
Fig. 3 is somewhat similar to that of Fig. 2,
except that the alternatinrr current windings 66
the pilot generator 30. By thus increasing the
excitation `of the >pilot generator 3D, the output
thereof is increased to effect an increase kin the
excitation of the main generator 34 `with a cor
responding increase Vin excitation ofthe generator
ID to 'such an extent `that a predetermined mini
mum excitation ofthe iield winding 2U is main
of the saturable core reactor 64 are connected
45 across the non-linear impedance circuit 46 to
tained. It will be appreciated ythat `the action of
the :reactor 64 is superimposed upon the normal
functioning of the voltage reference network f4!
so that where -the normal operation of the net
work 42 `in response to a change in line voltage
modify the `action of only that circuit as op
posed to the linear impedance circuit 48. Thus,
the direct current control winding 1D of the
reactor 64 is energized, the reactor 64 draws more
current vso that the voltage drop across 'the re
actor 164 increases with the result that the voltage
is to effect either an increase or decrease in the
across the rectifying unit 54 decreases with re
excitation ofthe pilot exciter 30, the effect of ‘the
spect to the potential across the rectifying unit
modification is vadditive thereto -to further in
55 56 of the measuring network 42. In such in
crease'the excitation of the pilot exciter 30 or to
stances the normal operation of the reactor 64 is
so modify the decreasing effect as to insure that
to yeii‘ect a voltage drop across the control field
a minimum excitation of the generator l0 is main
winding 36 of the pilot exciter 39 in a direction
tained.
to produce an action to aid the iield windings 32
In *the embodiment illustrated in Fig. 2, the re
60 and 34 to increase the excitation of the pilot
actor-»64 is connected only-ln the linear impedance
exciter 3i) and thereby effectively increase .the
circuit 48 whereby only the linear impedance cir
excitation of the generator Hl to a value at least
cuit 48 is modiñed in response to the differential
above the predetermined minimum excitation'
of 'the two direct current voltages as `the excitation
of the field winding of the generator .ID is de 65 value.
The modifying action of the reactor 54 in thisv
creased `to or below the predetermined minimum
embodiment is superimposed upon the normal
excitation value. Thus, the alternating current
functioning of the voltage reference network 42 `
windings 66 of the reactor 64 are connected di«
as described hereinbeîore with respect to the
rectly across the linear impedance circuit so that
embodiment oi Fig. 2 so that regardless of the
when the direct current control winding 10 of the
normal operation of the unmodified network 42
reactor 64 is energized, such as when the direct
in response to a change in line voltage, the re
current voltage across terminals 'l2 and 60 of .the
actor 64 functions to,v in effect, tend to increase
measuring circuit 1-4 predominates over the meas;
the excitation ‘of `the pilot exciter 30 lwhen the'r
ure of the -voltageacross‘theñeld -winding .20., the
alternating current impedance .of 'the winding `66"
direct lcurrent control ‘Winding "l0 is energized
because of thediiîerential of the direct current
voltages described hereinbefore.
' In each of the embodiments described, the sys
8
the field-excitation of the dynamo-electric ma
chine, a control l'ield winding forv the exciter dis
posed to be directionally energized, a voltage net
work comprising a non-linear impedance circuit
and a linear impedance circuit connected to be
simultaneously supplied from the load circuit and
disposed whenY unbalanced to control the direc
tional energization of the control field Winding,
tem is very sensitive to changes in `the ñeld volt
age of the gen-erator I D and as to the watt output
therefrom for effecting a modification in the
operation of the voltage reference network to in
sure correct operation of the pilot exciter @d to
maintain at least a predetermined minimum ex
citation of the generator I9. The systems de 10 means for producing a direct current voltage
which is a measure of the watts output of the
scribed are eñicient in operation and are formed
dynamo-electric machine, means for producing a
of standard components and can be readily
direct current voltage which is a measure of the
duplicated. The minimum excitation featurev in
voltage across the iield winding of the dynamo
cluded in the regulating system shown and de
electric machine, and means responsive to' the
scribed provides an eiîicient control of the opera
tion of the dynamo-electric machine.
»
We claim as our invention:
15 differential oi said direct current voltages only
when said iirst direct current is in excess of lsaid
second direct’ current voltage, said last respon
1. In a regulating system for a dynamo-electric
sive means being connected in the supply cir
machine disposed to supply -a load circuit, in
cuit of said non-linear and linear impedance cir
combination, a self-excited exciter for supplying 20 cuits for modifying the operation of the voltagethe field-excitation of the dynamo-electric ma
network to maintain at least a predetermined
chine, a control iield winding for the exciter clis
minimum excitation of the dynamo-electric ma
yposed to be directionally energized, a voltage net
chine.
_
i
work comprising a non-linear impedance circuit
4.
In
a
regulating
system
for
a
dynamo-electric
and a linear impedance circuit connected to be 25
machine disposed to supply a load circuit, in com
simultaneously supplied from the load circuit and
bination, a self-excited-exciter for supplying the
disposed when unbalanced to control the direc
ñeld»excitation of the dynamo-electric machine, a
tional energization of the control ñeld winding,
control iield winding for the exciter disposed to
means for producing a direct current voltage
be directionally energized, a voltage network
which is a measure of the watts output of the 30
comprising a non-linear impedance circuit and
dynamo-electric machine, means for producing a
a linear impedance circuit connected to be simul
direct current voltage which is a measure of the
taneously supplied from the load circuit and dis
voltage across the iield winding of the dynamo
posed when unbalanced to control the directional
electric machine, and means responsive to the
energization of the control iield Winding, and a
differential of said direct current voltages only 35 reactor connected in the supply circuit of said
when said ñrst direct current voltage is in excess
non-linear and linear impedance circuits, the re
of said second direct current voltage, said last
actor having a direct current control winding
responsive means being disposed in circuit rela
disposed to be' energized in response to the co
tion with at least one of said impedance circuits
operative eiîect of the neld voltage and the Watt
for modifying the operation of the voltage net 40 output of the dynamo-electric machine under
work to maintain at least a predetermined mini
predetermined operating conditions of the ma
mum excitation of the dynamo-electric machine.
chine to modify the operation of the voltage'net
» 2. In a regulating system for a dynamo-electric
machine disposed to supply a load circuit, in com
work to maintain at least a predetermined min
imum excitation of the dyamo-electric machine.
bination, a self-excited exciter for supplying the 45
5. In a regulating system for a dynamo-electric
ñeld-excitation of the dynamo-electric machine,
a- control field Winding for the exciter disposed
to be directionally energized, a voltage network
machine disposed to supply a'load circuit, in com
bination, a self-excited exciter for’supplyin‘g the
iield-excitation of the dynamo-electric machine,
comprising a non-linear impedance circuit and a
a control ñeld winding for the exciter disposed
linear impedance circuit connected to be simul 50 to be directionally energized, a voltage network
taneously supplied from the load circuit and dis
comprising a non-linear impedance circuit and a
posed when unbalanced to control the directional
linear impedance circuit connected to be simul
energization of the control field winding, means
taneously supplied from the load circuit and dis
for producing a direct current voltage which is a
posed when unbalanced to control the directional
55
measure of the Watts output of the dynamo
energization of the control ñeld winding, means
.electric machine, means for producing a direct
for producing a direct current voltage which is a
current voltage which is a measure of the voltage
measure of the watt output of the dynamo-elec
across the field winding of the dynamo-electric
tric machine, means for producing a direct cur
machine, and a reactor having alternating cur
rent voltage which is a measure of the voltage
rent and direct current windings, the direct 60 across the field winding of thedynamo-electric
current windings being connected to be energized
machine, and a reactor connected in the supply
in response to the diiîerential Iof said direct cur
circuit of said non-linear and linear impedance
rent voltages only when said first direct current
circuits, the reactor having a direct current con
trol Winding disposed to be energized in response
voltage is in excess of said second direct current
voltage, the alternating current windings oi the 65 to the differential of said direct current voltages
only when said first direct current voltage is in
reactor being connected in circuit relation with
at least one of said impedance circuits to modify
excess of said second direct current voltage to.
thereby modify the operation of the voltage net
the operation of the voltage network when the
work to maintain at least a predetermined min
directcurrent windings are energized to main
tain at least a predetermined minimiurn excita 70 imum excitation of the dynamo-electricmachine.
6. In a regulating system for a dynamo-elec
tion of the dynamo-electric machine.
tric machine disposed to supply a load circuit, in
3. In a regulating system for a dynamo-electric
combination,- a self-'excited exciter for supplying
machine disposed to supply a load circuit, in
field-excitation of the dynamo-electric ma
combination, a self-excited exciter, for supplying 75 the
chine, a control field winding for the exciter dis
2,459,640
9
posed to be directionally energized, a voltage net
work comprising a non-linear impedance circuit
and a linear impedance circuit connected to be
simultaneously supplied from the load circuit and
disposed when unbalanced to control the direc
tional energization of the control ñeld winding,
means for producing a direct current voltage
10
taneously supplied from the load circuit and dis
posed when unbalanced to control the directional
energization of the control field winding, means
for producing a direct current voltage which is
a measure of the watt output of the dynamo
electric machine, means for producing a direct
current voltage which is a measure of the voltage
across the ñeld winding of the dynamo-electric
which is a measure of the watt output of the dy»
machine, and a reactor connected in the non
namo-electric machine, means for producing a
direct current voltage which is a measure of the 10 linear impedance circuit, the reactor having a
direct current control winding disposed to be en
voltage across the ñeld winding of the dynamo
ergized in response to the differential of said di»
electric machine, and a reactor connected in the
rect current voltages only when said ñrst direct
linear impedance circuit, the reactor having a
current voltage is in excess of said second direct
direct current control winding disposed to be
current voltage to thereby modify the operation
energized in response to the differential of said
of the voltage network to maintain at least a
direct current voltages only when said first di
predetermined minimum excitation of the dy
rect current voltage is in excess of said second
namo-electric machine.
direct current voltage to thereby modify the op
SAMUEL B, GRISCOM.
eration of the voltage network to maintain at
RAYMOND L. WITZKE.
least a predetermined minimum excitation of the
dynamo-electric machine.
7. In a regulating system for a dynamo-electric
machine disposed to supply a load circuit, in com
bination, a self-excited exciter for supplying the
field-excitation of the dynamo-electric machine,
a control field winding for the exciter disposed
to be directionally energized, a voltage network
comprising a non-linear impedance circuit and
a linear impedance circuit connected to be simul
REFERENCES CITED
The following references are of record in the
rile of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS
Number
Name
Date
2,259,135
2,396,851
Hill ______________ __ Oct. 14, 1941
Hyser ____________ __ Mar. 19, 1946
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