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EFEREF-E'JE
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Jan. 18, 1949.
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M. HALLEAD
APPARATUS FOR DRESSING THE GRINDING
2,459,641
WHEEL OF AN INTERNAL GRINDER
Filed June 13, 1945
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WHEEL OF AN INTERNAL GRINDER
Filed June 13, 1945
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2,459,641
Patented Jan. 18, 1949
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,459,641
APPARATUS FOR. DRESSING THE GRINDING
WHEEL OF AN INTERNAL GRINDER
Mervil Hallead. Detroit, Mich., assignor to Supe
rior Machine and Engineering Company, De
troit, Mich, a corporation of Michigan
Application June 13, 1945, Serial No. 599,216
25 Claims. (Cl. 125-11)
1
2
This invention relates to improvements in
internal grinders and particularly to improved
at any time desired institute a dressing cycle.
mechanism for dressing or truing up the grind
ing wheel of an internal grinder.
In the dressing or truing up of a grinding
wheel of an internal grinder one practice here
tofore followed has been for the machine op
erator. when the grinding Wheel became dull or
This dressing cycle includes the gaging of the
progress of the grinding operation being carried
out- and the automatic setting ofv the wheel ‘dress
ing element or diamond dressser in accordance
with such gaging in order that the grinding wheel
may be accurately dressed.
Another object is to provide'an internal grinder
with dressing mechanism including a gaging
needed truing up, to manually position the dia
mond dresser as accurately as possible to dress, Ill ?nger or follower and-a diamond-dresser, which
dressing mechanism'is so constructed that the
thee-wheel and then to give the wheel a dressing
follower may be moved, at anytime desired by
separation. Such positioning of the diamond
the machine operator, into the interior of the
dresser by the operator required good judgment
piece of work being ground'and into contact with
and accuracy of setting of the diamond and de
pended for itssuccess upon the good judgment ~ - the ground surface ‘thereof and the diamond
dresser may be moved toe-position in line with
and workmanship of the operator. It was an
the position found by- the follower to be properly
operation which required time and care and it
located to dress the grinding wheel.
was frequently improperly carried out.
More particularly; an object is-to provide an
Another method heretofore practiced was to
internal grinder with dressing mechanism as
provide. an internal grinder with dressing mecha
hereinabove described wherein, when the gaging
nism having a pre-selected number of dressing
element is brought into. contact with the ground
positions at which the wheel being employed in
surface of the work to determine the progress
grinding the Work would be dressed. The inter
of the grinding-operation, the diamond dresser
nal grinder was provided with gage mechanism
then automatically assumes a position as deter
which gage Was normally constantly urged to
mined by the found position of the gaging
enter the interior of the work and which gage
clement.
did enter the work as soon as the grinding op
Speci?cally an object is to provide an inter
eration progressed to the stage at which entry
nal grinder with hydraulically operated dresser
could be eifected thereby indicating, by its entry,
a dressing position at which the grinding wheel 30 mechanism positioned alongside the grinder
which dressermechanism is caused to be moved
should be ‘dressed. The diamond dresser was
tion and the dressing was accomplished.
An object of this invention is to provide an
internal grinder with dressing mechanism which
is operable at any time at the desire of the op
erator. first, to'gage the progress of the grinding
operation to determine the desired settingiof the
along a path as follows: ?rst, along a line normal
to the axis of the grinding wheel to move the
follower to a point within such line; second.
along a line parallel such axial. line to move the
follower into the interior of the work; third,
along a. line away from such. axial line and nor
mal theretoto bring the follower into contact
diamond'fsecond. to position the diamond dresser
with the ground surface of the work; fourth,
then positioned at its pre-selected dressing posi
at such setting to ‘dress or true up the grinding 40 to move the diamond dresser to a point‘ in line
with the follower when in contact with the
wheel, and third;-to dress the grinding wheel.
Another object of this invention is to provide
an improved mechanism for carrying out the
dressing or truing up of the grinding wheel of
an internal grinder rapidly, economically and
accurately. The construction is such that upon
ground surface of the work, and ?fth, to with
operation.
rest of a the follower when the follower is in con
draw the follower from the work and advance
the diamond dresser along a .line parallel said
axial line and across the face of the grinding
wheel to dress or true up the wheel.
The ?nal position of the diamond dresser is
the institution of a dressing cycle a gaging mem
on a line with-that found by the follower when
er automatically moves to determine the proper
brought into contact with the ground surface of
position at which the wheel dressing element
should be set and the wheel dressing element 50 the work. The diamond dresser moves automati
cally upon movement of the follower and is auto
‘then automatically moves and is accurately set
matically stopped on a line with the position of
at the proper point to perform the_dressing
tact with the work.
One important object is to provide improved
A meritorious feature is. that the-several move
mechanism whereby the machine operator may 65
i.
3
c
2,459,641
ments are hydraulically carried out and upon the
institution of the hydraulic cycle successive
movements take place automatically in sequence
‘.vithout'iurther effort on the part of the machine
operator until the diamond dresser is brought to
its dressing position on a line with the position
4
the lower slide S—3 started toward the left over
the piston C--3.
Figure 3 is a diagrammatic illustration of the
dresser mechanism with the lower slide S—3 and
the upper slide S—2 each completely extended
to the left relative to the pistons C—3 and 0-2
respectively, and showing the valve V--4 shifted
determined by the follower in its contact with
mechanically to the left from the right position
the ground surface of the work and the diamond
at which it was shown in Figures 1 and 2 and
dresser is moved along such line across the face
10 showing the valve V—6 shifted hydraulically up
of the grinding wheel to dress the wheel.
wardly from the down position at which it was
A further meritorious feature is that the fol
shown in Figures 1 and 2.
lower or gaging ?nger is caused to automatically
Figure 4 is a diagrammatic illustration of the
follow such a path that it is brought gradually
dresser mechanism with the lower slide and the
into contact with the ground surface of the work
upper slide shown as remaining completely ex
without danger of injury or disturbance either to
tended to the left as shown in Figure 3, and also
the mechanism or to the work to determine the
showing the two slides shifted relative to piston
proper position of the diamond dresser. Further
0-4 and axially of the grinding wheel toward
more, the diamond dresser moves automatically
the work. The follower ?nger 1D has moved into
to the precise line to be traversed by the diamond
the work and the valve V—2 has been shifted me
in the required dressing of the grinding wheel
chanically to the left from the right position at
and is advanced along such line to dress the
which it was shown in Figures 1, 2 and 3.
wheel. Such functioning is automatic and inde
Figure 5 is a diagrammatic illustration of the
pendent of regulation by the machine operator
and judgment or accuracy of manipulation by
dresser mechanism showing the upper slide S—2
the operator is not a factor in carrying it out suc
retracted to the right from the position shown in
cessfully.
Figure 4 sufficiently to have brought the follower
?nger into contact with the interior surface of the
slide and a secondary slide. These slides are so
work but with the upper slide in the process of
supported and actuated that both slides are ad
continuing its retraction to the dressing position
vanced ?rst as a unit and thereafter the sec 30 shown in Figure 6.
ondary slide is advanced independently of the pri
Figure 6 is a diagrammatic illustration of the
mary slide to move the follower or gaging element
dresser mechanism showing the upper slide S—2
into contact with the work. The diamond dresser,
retracted to the right to the dressing position of
whichis carried by the secondary slide is advanced
the diamond as determined by contact of the fol
therewith during these movements. The dia 35 lower ?nger with the work, and with the follow
mond dresser includes a diamond dresser slide
valve V—-F shifted to the left, from the position
which is so supported upon the secondary slide
shown in Figure 5, by contact of the follower
as to be movable independently thereof to ad
?nger with the work. The valve V—-| is shown
vance the diamond to a position in line with the
as shifted hydraulically to the right from the left
follower. The primary and secondary slides are 40 position at which it was shown in Figure 5, and
then moved to withdraw the follower from the
the diamond slide S—| is shown as extended to
work and to advance the diamond across the face
the left to the dressing position of the diamond,
of the grinding wheel. All of these movements
The dressing mechanism comprises a primary
automatically follow in sequence once the dress
ing cycle is instituted and continue to completion
of the dressing cycle.
Upon institution of the dressing cycle the slides
move as a unit and relatively predetermined dis
tances to position the follower within the interior
of the work. The secondary slide is then with
drawn until the follower comes into contact with
the ground surface of the work. The diamond
dresser slide is then automatically moved to posi
tion the diamond in line with the follower on a
line parallel the axial line of the work. The slide -
and the valve V—4 is shown as shifted hy
draulically to the right from the left position at
which it was shown in Figure 5.
Figure '7 is a diagrammatic illustration of the
dresser mechanism showing the position as the
diamond is being advanced across the face of the
grinding wheel during the progress of the dressing
stroke. The follower ?nger is shown as with
drawn from the work and the follow valve has
been returned by its spring to the right to the
position shown in Figure 5. Both the upper slide
and the lower slide are shown at an intermediate
stage in their movement of withdrawal‘ away
from the work axially of the grinding wheel.
Figure 8 is a diagrammatic illustration show
assembly is then withdrawn to an out of the way
ing the position of the dresser mechanism follow
position to permit continuance of the grinding
60 ing the completion of the dressing stroke and
operation.
showing the diamond slide S-l retracted to the
Other objects, advantages and meritorious fea
right from the left position at which it was shown
tures will more fully appear from the following
in Figure '7. The valve V--| is shown as shifted
description, appended claims and accompanying
mechanically to the left from the right position
drawings wherein:
Figure 1 is a diagrammatic illustration of the 65 at which it was shown in Figure 7.
Figure 9 is a diagrammatic illustration showing
dresser mechanism in the idle position. There
the position of the dresser mechanism with the
is pressure in the hydraulic system but the dress
upper slide S-Z completely retracted to the right
ing cycle has not yet been instituted by receipt
but with the lower slide S—3 still extended to
of a starting impulse.
the left.
Figure 2 is a diagrammatic illustration of the
Figure 10 is a perspective of a conventional
dresser mechanism at the beginning of the dress
assembly is then moved to advance the diamond
across the face of the grinding wheel. The slide
ing cycle, following receipt of the starting im
pulse, and with the valves V—S and V-—3 moved
hydraulically to the left from the right position
at which they are shown in Figure 1 and with 75
I
n
internal grinder showing the improved dresser
mechanism of this application mounted there
upon.
Figure 11 is a front elevation, partly in section,
2569;341
of‘ the dresser taken ‘on the ‘line i l-H' of Figure
to ‘revolve therein and during the ‘revolution ‘of
the work to grind the piece of work internally.
12.
The work table 32 is supported ina conventional
Figure 12 is an elevaticn'of the right side of
manner for reciprocation axially of ‘thegrinding
the *dresser shown in Figure 1-1 taken along the
Wheel.
21
line 12-12 of Figure 11.
As desired the machine operator may recipro
Figure 13 isa vertical crosssection'through the
cate the table and the work head manually by a
dresser taken along the line -i3--l~3 of Figure 11.
hand wheel 42 and the grinding wheel head may
Figure 14 is a vertical cross section=through~the
be reciprocated manually by a hand wheel 14.
dresser taken along the line l4-l4 of Figure 11.
This structure is conventional and the manual
Figure 15 is a vertical’ cross section-through the
operations described‘may be carried out by power
lower slide taken on the line iii-l5 of Figure 14.
means
without varying in any Way the invention
Figure 15A is a vertical cross section through
hereinafter set forth. The dresser mechanism
the lower slide taken on the line l5A-—l5A of
assembly is illustrated in Figure 10_at '46.
Figure 14.
This dresser mechanism “is Imounted alongside
Figure 1513 is a vertical cross section through
the internal grinder and is supported thereupon
the lower slide taken on the line l5B--l5B of
in any suitable manner. Preferably the dresser
Figure 114.
mechanism is supported upon the grinding wheel
Figure 16 is a vertical sectional view taken on
head structure forconcurrent adjustable tposi
the line Iii-l6 of Figure 11.
tioning therewith. The dresser mechanism ‘is
Figure 17 is a horizontal sectional view taken
adapted to be operated to project a gaging ele
along the line 11-11 of ‘Figure 12, showing the
ment ‘In into the piece of work 36 being ground
bed plate and associated structurein plan.
to determine the position to which the grinding
v‘Figure 18 is an elevation, partly in section, of
operation has progressed. Upon the determina
the left side of the dresser shown in Figure 11
tion of this position' the dresser mechanism func
taken along the line=l8-—l8 but showing both the
tions to project a diamond or wheel dressing
upper and lower slides fully extended as com
element 68 automatically to the proper position,
pared with the retrac‘ted positions at which the
as found by the gaging element, to dress the
slides are shown in Figure 12.
grinding wheel 40 and also functions to advance
Figure 19 is a plan of the dresser showing the
the diamond across the face of the wheel. It
upper slide »and*the lowerlslide in the fully ex
is a purpose of this invention to provide dresser
tended position as-in Figure 18.
mechanism which, upon-institution of a dressing
Figure 20 is a vertical section taken on line
cycle, proceeds automatically ‘to determine the
20-20 of Figure 18.
proper
setting for the diamond, to set the dia
Figure 21 is a diagrammatic view of ‘the me
mond
at
such posltiom'to advanc‘elth'e diamond
chanical valveoperating ‘cams when the dresser
across the faceiof' the grinding ‘wheel and try-then
occupies the position shown in ‘Figure 3.
Figure 22 is a diagrammatic view of the me
chanical valveoperating cams when the dresser
occupies the position shown in-Figure 4.
Figure 23 is a diagrammatic view of the me
withdraw the diamond away from‘the grinding
wheel, thereby completing the cycle.
There is illustrated diagrammatically in Fig
40 ure 10 liquid pressure developing mechanism in
cluding a liquid carrying tank 48, a pump 50
having an intake line-52 leading into the tank
and a pressure outlet line 54 leading from the
pump. The pump may be'driven'by an electric
motor'56 and a switch 58 is provided to control
occupies the position shown‘ in Figure 8.
the functioning of ‘the motor. The outlet 54
In the accompanying drawing, Figures 1
from the pump has a branch‘Bll, denominated a
through 9 illustrate successive stages in the proc
pressure line, marked with a capital P, and a
ess embodying the complete dressing cycle.
branch 62 denominated an impulse line marked
These ?gures'also- illustrate diagrammatically the
with a capital I. A manual control valve 64 is
hydraulic circuit mechanism whereby the dress 50 located
in the impulse line. A line ‘66 leads from
ing operation is accomplished. Figure 10 illu
the hydraulic circuit of the dresser back into
strates a conventional-internal‘ grinder. It is be
the tank through a discharge ‘outlet pipe 14,
lieved that the invention can be more readily
chanical valve operating'cams when the dresser
occupies theposition shown in Figure 6.
Figure 24 is a diagrammatic view-of the me
chanical valve operating-cams when the dresser
discharging liquid from the dresser hydraulic
understood by first considering‘ these Figures 1
circuit
back into the tank and this line is de
55
through 9, with preliminary reference to Figure
nominated a tank line indicated‘by a capital T.
10.
These same lines, pressure, impulse and tank
In Figure 10 an internal grinder is shown in
appear in the hydraulic diagrams, Figures 1
cluding a machine frame 30 supporting a work
through
9.
table 32, which. table 32 carries an angularly ad
Considering now'the‘Figures '1 through 9; in
justable rotatable work head 34, which head is 60 each ?gure the hydraulic circuit is illustrated in
adapted to receive, support and revolve a piece of
connection with functioning hydraulic mechan
worki36 in theiusual manner. The piece of work
ism and with the grinding wheel I40 of the in
is shown as having a cylindrical bore adapted to
ternal grinder and the hollow cylindrical piece
be ground by a grinding wheel. A grinding wheel
of work 36 supported by the work head of the
head 238 is provided which head overhangs the
grinder shown diagrammatically in positions
table and supports for revolution a grinding wheel
they would occupy with respect to the gaging ele
40. This grinding wheel head 38 is supported in
a conventional manner for movement along a
line normal to the axis of the wheel to carry out
the grinding operation. This work head is also
conventionally adjustable parallel to the axis of
the ‘grinding wheel to accommodate pieces of
work of different dimensions and grinding wheel
quills of different lengths. The grinding wheel
is adapted'to lee-received within- the .work 36 and 75
ment or follower ‘Hi-of the dresser and the dia
mond dresser or wheel dressing element ‘8’ which
are shown in plan.
Figure 1 illustrates the mechanism in ‘the
normal idle position. wherein'the system is ?lled
with liquid and‘ the pumpris operating maintain
ing a pressure in ‘the pressure line and placing
certain :parts‘ of the hydraulic mechanism‘ under
2,459,041
7
left, V—3 moves in response to the impulse and
pressure to maintain the mechanism as shown
in Figure 1. In this ?gure pressure is main
remains left.
When V—3 moves left by the pressure on its
right end it exhausts and forces the liquid at its
tained in the pressure line BI] and in the sub
"s'idiary lines in the dresser communicating there
left end back into the system through lead 88,
sequence valve chamber V—S, lead 86 therefrom
and into the pressure line 60. At this time se
with as shown in such ?gures, such as lines 16,
‘I8, 82, 84, 86, 88, 92, l3l, I32 and in chambers
V—S, V—T, V—3, V—Il, C-—4, C-—3 and V—B,
quence valve V--S is at the right as shown in
maintaining the valves and parts in the positions
shown in such ?gure during the time the pump
Figure 1.
As the valve V—3 moves left it places the line
90 in communication with lead 82 through cham
ber V—3 and blocks communication between lead
82 and 92 through such chamber V—3, all as
shown in Figure 2 as compared with the showing
in Figure 1. Lead 90 extends from chamber V—3
to the left end of the piston and cylinder assem
bly C—3, which operates the lower slide of the
dresser assembly. Since the piston in this assem
is operating but prior to the institution of a
dressing cycle. The follower l0 and the dia
mond dresser G8 are both held withdrawn away
from the Work and from the grinding wheel and
at the positions to which they were moved as
shown in Figure 9 and the internal grinding
operation of the machine can proceed without
interference from the dresser.
A predetermined pressure is maintained within
the system upon certain selected parts as here
inafter referred to and this predetermined pres
bly C—3 is stationary the lower slide S—3 begins
to move out as shown in Figure 2 when liquid
pressure builds up at the left end of C—3. Liquid
pressure is from the pressure line 60, through lead
sure may be regulated so as to permit continuing
operation of the pump, by a relief valve ‘12 shown
in Figure 10, which relief valve may be set to
release liquid, upon a predetermined pressure
18, throttle valve chamber V—T, port 80, branch
build up in the system, to recirculate through __
the outlet 14 back into the tank 48 with the de
sired pressure being maintained within the
system.
There is pressure from the pressure line 60
directly into the right end of the chamber of
sequence valve V—S through lead 16 and indi
rectly into the left end of sequence valve cham
ber V—S through a lead 78 and through the valve
chamber V-—T and port 80 therefrom into lead
82 and through lead 82 and lead 84 into the left
end of the sequence valve chamber V—S. The
30
of lead 82 leading to chamber V—3, line 90 and
piston C-3 into the left end of chamber C—3.
C—3 exhausts from the chamber at the right
end of the piston head through the lowermost
dotted line outlet lead 92 into chamber V—3,
and through branch lead 94 into the tank line 66
and back into the tank. This occurs while the
lower slide S—3 is being moved outwardly. Actu
ally from descriptive matter hereinafter appear
ing the mechanical construction of piston 0-3
is not precisely as diagrammatically illustrated in
these hydraulic diagrams Figures 1 through 9 but
the operation is as here described.
The dresser assembly comprises a lower slide
8-3 and an upper slide S--2 (Figures 1 through
9). These two slides are mechanically coupled
lead 18 is into the chamber of a manually con
trolled throttle valve V—T which throttle valve
may be manually set as desired to regulate de
livery of liquid through the outlet from lead '18 40 together as hereinafter described and move out
in unison a predetermined distance toward the
into the system. Valve V—T is shown in Figure
axial line of the grinding wheel under the im
17 as having a head which is threaded and pro
pulse of the liquid pressure in cylinder C-3.
vided with a kerf in the end to receive a screw
When
the lower slide S-—3 arrives at the limit of
driver upon removal of a plug in the outer plate
of the valve block permitting threaded adjust
ment of the valve to regulate liquid delivery.
Valve V—S is held to the right at this time as
shown in Figure 1 because the left end of the
valve is larger in cross section than the right
end thereof.
There is pressure also in the left end of cham
ber V—3 from pressure line B!) through lead
86 through sequence valve chamber V—S and
lead 88 therefrom to the left end of valve cham
its outward movement, the beginning of which
movement is shown in Figure 2 and the comple
tion of which movement is shown in Figure 3,
the upper slide S—2 is hydraulically actuated to
continue independently in the same direction,
through functioning hereinafter described, to the
position also shown in Figure 3. If desired, as is
hereinafter brought out, instead of the upper slide
in its independent movement following the move
ment of the lower slide, the upper slide may be
moved outwardly relative to the lower slide at
ber V—3. holding valve V—3 to the right. Valve
the same time that both slides are being moved
V—3 is held to the right until an impulse is
out through movement of the lower slide.
received on the right end thereof, as hereinafter
Generally speaking the movement of the dress
described.
er assembly in determining the proper position
This impulse is given when desired by the ma
chine operator by actuation of the valve 64 (Fig 60 of the diamond, and then in carrying out the
dressing operation is as follows: After the grind
ure 10). Operation of this valve 64 which opens
ing wheel has been withdrawn from the work and
the impulse line 62 to hydraulic pressure cre
the dresser mechanism, ?rst both slides together
ates a surge or impulse therein, This oil pressure
and preferably thereafter the upper slide inde
impulse is received directly on the right end of
pendently of and over the lower slide, is moved
V—3 and moves V—3 to the left and institutes
out radially of the grinding wheel to position
the dressing cycle. The impulse lasts part way
the follower upon the projection of the axial line
through the dressing cycle. The piston V—3 is
of the work; then the dresser mechanism is moved
shown at the right in Figure l as it would be
parallel to such axial line until the follower is
disposed before the receipt of the impulse. When
the impulse described reaches the right end of 70 disposed within the interior of the work; the
upper slide of the dresser is then withdrawn over
V—3 this piston moves from the right to the
the lower slide and radially of the work until the
left as shown in Figure 2. V—3, at all times the
follower contacts the ground surface of the work;
pump is operating and the valve 64 in the im
the diamond dresser element is then projected
pulse line is open, has equal unit pressure on both
radially of the work into alignment with the fol
ends, but since the right end is larger than the
o
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