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Feb. l, 1949.
F'. E.'sNow
I 2,450,368
Filed Aug. 5d, 1947
aflayd ¿i Jaua,
, Afro/:NEM
Patented Feb. 1, 1949
, UNITED) lsfrègflîlîs PATENT OFFICE
, ‘»
. ' Floyd E. Snow, Pasadena, Calif., assigner to Tech
nical Coatings, Inc., Pasadena, Calif., a cor
poration ofCalifornia
Application August so, 1941, seri-a1 No. 771,505s claims. (C1. 22o-_71)
This invention relates to airplane fuelvtanks
iñed form of the invention; and ’
and particularly to fuel Ytanks incorporated as
parts of the wing structures.
Fig. 3 is a view similar to Fig-2, but of a mod
Fig. 4 is an enlarged sectional view-of one of
the vent fittings.
The airfoil surfaces of airplane wings are nec
essarily designed to be as freey of, obstructions to
Y The tank for the airplane is shown as bounded
the air stream as possible. Since the minimiz
ing of weight is also an importantfactor, the
rigidity of such `Wing structures is- ycommonly
obtained by the aid‘of trusses and. other rein
forcement members in the Vinterior of the wings;
by the outer wall l of a wing section having’?a
leading edge 2. Although this outer Wall l `is
and often, hollow channel-like “hat sections” are
attached to the interior of the plates forming
Running parallel with the leading edge 2 `are
the wings, and running parallel to an edge of
the wing structure.
When the interior of sucha Wing section is
used as a fuel tank, and the Ahat section stiiîen
ers are sealed aroundvtheir ends and edges to
prevent fuel from entering areas not accessible
shown as a continuous wall, it is tobe understood
that `the usual structural elements vto form. the
wing section may be used, joined together as by
welding or riveting.
a number of reinforcing channel members 3, or
dinarlly termed “hat sections.”v These are at
tached in any appropriate manner` to the'inner
surface of the outer wall l, some of them being
located adjacent the top of the wing section and
others at the bottom of the Wing section.: The
tank compartment is deñned by the wall l and
for adequate installation of sealant, minor leaks 20 the internal gir-dery plate 4, shown in Fig. l.
can develop' around and into the hat sections.
Transverse trusses 5 having apertures-6, l, il,v etc.
The ñow and accumulation ‘of fuel over a period
are Ydisposed in spaced relationship along _the
may readily lead to dangerous lire hazards. Fur
length of the wingstructure.Y
s ^
thermore, thefuel may leak into the space de
All of the hat sections 3 are of similar configu
ñned between the interior surface of the wing 25 ration. They extend entirely along the whole
and the hat sections attached thereto. In such
length of the tank and form closed spaces, such
a conñned space, the vapor pressure may reach
as 9, at the top of the tank, and spaces l0 at
a relatively high value with consequent attend
the bottom of the tank. Appropriate sealing
ant danger of aggravating the existing leaks or
means, such as the putty-like seal l l (Fig. 4) may
establishing additional ones.
30 be placed between the edges of the hat section
It is one of the objects of this invention to re
flanges and Wall I, to reduce the likelihood of
duce these hazards by ensuring that the hat
leaks from the interior of the tank to the spaces
section spaces are vented; thus preventing any
9 and I0.
rise in pressure.
Each of the top spaces 9 is vented to the ex- '
It is another object of this invention to provide 35 terior of the Wing section, as by the aid of the
a simple and effective construction for this pur
Vents I2 through the wing section. In this Way,
pose, that can be readily installed in a fuel tank.
should there be any leaks from the interior of
the tank past any edge of the hat sections 3, the
This invention possesses many other advan
tages, and has other objects which may be made
fuel collected in these closed spaces 9 would not
more clearly apparent from a consideration of 40 be subject to other than atmospheric pressure.
Furthermore, since the tank would not be en
several embodiments of the invention. For this
tirely filled with liquid, the likelihood of any ma
purpose there are shown a few forms in the draw
terial amount of fuel leaking into these upper
ings accompanying and forming part of the
present specification. The forms will now be
spaces is reduced.
described in detail illustrating the general prin- 45 However, fuel may leak into the lower spaces l il
in spite of all precautions to seal these spaces.
ciples of the invention; but it is to be understood
If there were no vents from these spaces, vapor
that this detailed description is not to .be taken
pressures would occur in these closed spaces that
in a limiting sense, since the scope of this in
vention is best deñned by the appended claims.
would aggravate the leak. Accordingly, provi
50 sions are made to vent each of the lower spaces
l0 to the upper space 9 by the aid of vent con
Figure 1 is a sectional, pictorial view of a fuel
nections that are located Within the tank or
tank incorporating the invention, some of the
Referring to the drawings:
parts being shown diagrammatically ;
Fig. 2 is a fragmentary, sectional view of the
tank on an enlarged scale;
wing section
Thus, as shown most clearly in Fig. 2, a, number
55 of spaces l0 may be joined by the vent connec
tions I3 and I4 and a cross connection I5. The
cross connection I5 is in communication with a
vent pipe I6 leading to an upper space 9. The
pipe connection I 6 may be appropriately attached
to a truss 5, as by the cli-p I 'I'.
Similarly, the vent pipes I8 and I9 serve to
connect the two-right hand spaces IU to the ex
treme righteha‘nd'. upper` space- 9: i Tl‘ie 'ventco'n
nection‘iIWmay be attached, as by clip 2U, tothe
truss 5.
I6 in sealed relation to the lower end of the
nipple 30.
All of the Vent pipes shown may be similarly
joined and coupled.
The inventor claims:
1. In an airplane fuel tank; walls defining the
tank structure; channel-,like members secured on
the- interior" 'òf "the wällslforlreiniforcement and
forming"`s’pacés :betweeiï'tlië walls and the mem
It iS required merely that all of the lower spaces i I?" bers; at least some of the members being at the
bottom wall; and means within the tank for
I0 be connected to a vented upper spacefordi
rectly to the upper surface the arrangementi‘of
the vent pipes being otherwise immaterial.
‘venting `Athe.' said"F spaces that are adjacent the
bottom Wall.
2. In an airplane fuel tank: walls defining the
For example, in the form‘ef Fig: 3,'fthe upper 15
space 2| is vented, but other upper spaces’ 2'2"and ‘ tank' “structures ;` " channel-like members secured
23 are not vented. Here, all of these three upper
spaces are in communication with the atmosphere
by the aid of the vent connections 24 and 25. The
vent connections to the lower spaces I0"arel`ëf-
ohëthèlïint'erior’ofthe Wall for reinforcement and
«right-ghandspaces> Iûgïan'd.y by the ‘supplemental Y
lforming spaces between the walls and the mem
bers'çïthosë"Spaces‘at the top of the tank being
vented; and means within the tank connecting all
of thespaces adjacent Íthe bottom wall to vented
spaces at thetop of the tank.
vent connection 2'! jcinedïtolthisvtop space-2?'.
The manner .-inïwhichth'e ventpipeemay be
tank structure; >’-~ine`1r1]oers‘secured‘ori
fected by the vent connection 28, joined to the
connected is a matter of choice.
Fignázshows one .structure to effect such connec
tions?from-theïvent‘pipes to either a top or bot
tom space.
..‘„'I’hus»;:in Fig. 4, the hat section 3 is shown as
having-a large aperture128 at its crest covered by
afriveted.arcuatefplate 291 lPassingthrough the
plate 29 is a nipple 3U having' 'an integral’hex
agonalî'sectionl 3 Iv lintermediate lthe body“ of the
.nut 32 inside Lspaceiä servesto fasten
the‘f'innerfend Aof` the‘ßnipple' in" a íiuid-tigl‘it`~man
ner‘tofzthe'zfcover 'plate'129'_~"~ A-coupling nut 33‘en‘
gages-tne-lower end of the nipple' 3S.' It engages
" “3. Iman airpl'aine lfuel- tank: walls deiining the
the interior of the wall for’i‘ein‘forcement"and
"forming ‘spaces b'etweien'the'“ walls',> and' theV mem
`vented; and means within the tank connecting all
of the'spaces adjacent thebòttom wall to vented
spaces at the topòf'fthetank';comprising venting
tube ontubes connecting VNthe _l?'lott'orn> spaces with
spaces. 1.-..
~' «,- fi
r .fd
" '
.` »s
' Yor this
which-fisïinfsealed‘contact with the lower end -`of
thenippl’e‘ 30;' Since such‘pipe uniens‘are‘well
known, it1is«»not necessary-to disclose further de 49
upper ñanged ends offthe sleeve 3:3 andfvent pipe
'Ifile following
references arehoîif record >in _the
af'sleeve"34ithrough'which the vent I5 passes-and
1» fTheì nut 33 is tightened
' ï
' Y
f to
' 1,651,521 .
ame .
Girardifille ________ __ Deo. 6,' 1927
Mascuch "i________ __ June 4, 1935
. Ho?töüet al. .... __ Oct.“20, 1936
' De‘lf‘rëe's" _1; _____ __ July '1_5, 1947
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