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Feb. 1, 1949.
s; CSZIKLAI
2,460,402
ELECTRON DISCHARGE DEVICE _
Filed Sept}. 6, ‘1945
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INVENTOR
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65am? 6. Sz/KM/
'ATTORNEY
ZAQAZ
Patented Feb. 1, 1949
I
STAT
Es PATENT omce
7 2,460,402
‘ELECTRON DISGHARGE DEVICE
George (1. Szilglai, Princeton, N. 3., assignor to > .
Radio Corporation of vAmerica, a corporation of
Delaware’ ‘
Application September 6, 1945, Serial No. 614,692.
7 Claims. (Cl. 315—6)
1
.
" useful at ultra high frequencies and more
ularly to such. devices employing velocity
In
2
.
.
Thevoltagesources- is, 20‘ and 2!. are provided
ior applying the proper voltages to the various
‘My‘invention~ relates to electron discharge de
electrodes, the resonators- Hi, ill and #8 being
maintained. at high positive potentials, the re~
@7192? 3.4119? inductive Output and utilizing
ilector. H5, being properly biased to re?ect the
grits: monsters.
The prir "pal'object ofrny invention is to pro
vides; velocity modulated oscillator capable of de~
liverine. manpower at high. frequencies and with
improved efficiencies, and‘ to the methods for
electrons as described above, the collector . i 3 being
maintained at a lower positive potential for re".
ceiving the electrons.
Since the‘ same beam. current is used in all
stages, higher. efficiency may be obtained than in
modulating. said devices
conventional oscillators utilizing cavityv resona:
Thenovel' features which I believe to be char
acteristic of my invention are‘ set‘ forth with
tors._ The cascade ampli?er portion,..particularly
particularity in. tbeapncnclsd claims, but the 111
the resonator ll‘, acts as a. bu?er and prevents
interaction between the output resonator section
vehtion;it's if‘ will best be understood. by reference
it and the oscillator section !6. By use of the
to; tbefqllowine description taken in connection ' *
magnetic‘ ?eld the. combination or" the oscillator
and ampli?er sections is made possible with the
with the; accompanying. drawing which Figure
I“ is a,v sche atic longitudinal‘ section of an elec
result that theinput power. may be‘materially
reduced: it is also obvious'that by. changing the
potential of the re?ector M within limits the
oscillator rnayv be frequently modulated. Thus
tron disohargedevice made according to my in
veniicn and‘ Figure 21.5 a‘ diagrammatic longt
tu‘dinal section of a modi?cation oi the device
shown .1111; Figure 11>
I
20
.
the output off the devicemay be. frequently modu
In accordance wtih my. invention the electron
discharge device. is‘ provided‘ with an elongated
envelope H3" having: a transverse oiTset portion
"l'l Mounted at one tad of the: envelope is an
lated by the. same nieces-
.
.
.
- beam current passing the last resonator _ it must
be varied. Thisvariation, ‘however,‘ must _be'
effected after the ‘beam passes through the os
in‘direqtl'y' heateai- anode. u’ and" beam forming
electrode’ i2‘; electrons being directed toward ‘a
collector It at the other end of the envelope.
Positioned intermediate the cathode and collector
y .
In order to amplitude modulate the device the
cillator, ’ otherwise frequency modulation will
is an electromagnet ltffor providing a magnetic 30s
occur simultaneously. A device foraccomplisb
ing amplitude mqdulationis disclosedin‘F-igure 2.
?eld: transverseto the path of the beam of elec
trons. As a resultof this ?eld the electrons take
In Figure 2‘ like numerals, refer to like parts
as in Figure 1', the ampli?er section alone being
the curved path indicated and. are directed to
different. The beam after being velocity, modu
lated by the oscillator portion of the envelope
ward‘ re?ecting electrode‘ M" passing through the
resonator l6 and being re?ected back along‘ the as passes through the bu?er stage ll and'e’ntersthe
deflection ?eld between deflecting plates
and
dotted path. tolthe; magnetic. field’ which causes
Z3, de?ecting the beamacross the aperture or gate
the electron path to reverse itself and be directed
toward the collector l3. The beam on passing
through’ the» grids l6! of- the resonator t6; issub
,i'e‘ctedito a-rv-elocit-y modulation, becomes-bunched
and; passing through the resonator again‘, main
tains'the resonator in oscillation, causing this
portion of the device to act in the manner of a
reflex oscillator or as a space charge grid Bark~
hausen oscillator,
_
2*!’ in the apertured plate 2E; vthe amount of de
?ection determining the beam density and hence
the output current. The amount of current pass.
ing‘through the gate or aperture isdetermined by
the amplitude of the potential‘ appliedv to the de
flecting plates 22, 23. In order to straighten the
beam after passage through the aperture 24, a
45 second set of de?ecting electrodes 25 and 26 are
i The bunched electrons then pass through the
provided, these de?ecting electrodes being cross
grid H’ of the resonator l'l inducing a high
frequency voltage in this resonator, which in turn
connected with the plates 22 and 23 so that the
same potential is applied twice but in opposite
directions to straighten out the beam path. The
velocity modulates the beam again, thus accentu"
ating the bunching. The beam then is directed
through the grids l8’ of the resonator l8, energy
being extracted in a manner now well known.
The electrons are then collected by the collector
l3. A'coupling loop 30 may be used for extracting
energy in the usual manner.
device shown in Figure 2 possesses all of the ad
vantages of the device shown in Figure 1.
While I have indicated the preferred embodi
ments of my invention of which I am now aware
and have also indicated only one speci?c applica
tion for which my invention may be employed,
2,480,402
3
4
it will be apparent that my invention is by no
means limited to the exact forms illustrated or the
use indicated, but that many variations may be
made in the particular structure used and the
purpose for which it is employed without depart
ing from the scope of my invention as set forth
in the appended claims.
second resonator for velocity modulating said
electron stream and a third resonator for in
ductively extracting energy from said velocity
modulated electrons.
5. An electron discharge device having cath
ode means for directing a stream of electrons
What I claim as new is:
along a beam path, a ?rst electrode in said path
toward which said electrons are directed, means
1. An electron discharge device having cath
for de?ecting said stream at an- angle to said
ode means for directing a stream of electrons 10 path, means for velocity modulating said de?ected
electrons and returning said electrons along said
?rst path toward said ?rst electrode, and means
for further velocity modulating said returned
electrons and further means for extracting en
trons, and returning said electrons along said 15 ergy from said velocity modulated electron stream,
and means for amplitude modulating’ said elec~
?rst path toward said electrode, means for fur
ther velocity modulating said returned electrons,
tron stream and including a pair of de?ecting
and means for extracting energy from said veloc~
electrodes positioned between said last two means.
ity modulated electron stream.
6. An electron discharge device having cath
along a‘3__beam path, an electrode in said path
toward which said electrons are directed, means
for de?ecting said stream at an angle to said path,
means for velocity modulating said de?ected elec»
2. An electron discharge device having a cath
ode means for directing a stream of electrons
ode for directing electrons along a predetermined 20 along a beam path, a ?rst means in said path
path, means for generating a magnetic ?eld
transversely to said path for causing said elec
toward which said electrons are directed, means
for de?ecting said stream at an angle to said
trons to be de?ected from said path, means for
path, means for velocity modulating said electrons
and returning said electrons along said ?rst path
toward said ?rst means, resonator‘ means ‘for
path including a ?rst resonator and a re?ecting
further velocity modulating said electrons and
electrode, a second resonator in the path of said
other resonator means for extracting energy from
electrons for further velocity modulating said
said velocity modulated electron stream, and
electrons, a third resonator for extracting en
80 means for amplitude modulating said electron
ergy irom said electrons, and a collector for said
stream and including a pair of de?ecting elec
trodes positioned between said last two resona
electrons,
velocity modulating said de?ected electrons and
for directing said electrons back toward said
3. An electron discharge device having a cath
ode for ‘directing electrons along a predetermined
tors.
7. An electron discharge device having cath
path, an electrode toward which said electrons 35 ode means for directing a stream of electrons
are directed, means for generating a magnetic
along a beam path, a ?rst means in said path
?eld transversely to said path ,for causing said
toward which said electrons are directed, means
electrons to be de?ected from said path, means
for de?ecting said stream at an angle to said
for velocity modulating said de?ected electrons
path, means for velocity modulating said elec
and for directing said electrons back toward said 40 irons and returning said electrons along said ?rst
path including a ?rst resonator and a re?ecting
path toward said ?rst means, resonator means
electrode, a second resonator in the path of said
for further velocity modulating said electrons and
electrons for further velocity modulating said
other resonator means for extracting energy from
electrons, and a third resonator following said
said velocity modulated electron ‘stream, and
second resonator for extracting energy from said
means for amplitude modulating said electron
electrons.
4. An, electron discharge device having an
elongated envelope and an offset portion trans
verseto said elongated portion, a cathode at one
endof said electrode and a ?rst electrode at the
other end of said envelope, said cathode direct
ing electrons toward said electrode, means posi
tioned adjacent said envelope for directing a
magnetic ?eld transversely to said electron path
stream and including a pair of successively posi
tioned de?ecting electrodes positioned along the
path of said electrons between said resonators,
and an aapertured electrode positioned between
said pair of de?ecting electrodes.
GEORGE C. SZIKLAI.
REFERENCES CITED
The following references are of record in the
at the transverse portion of said envelope, a re
?eeting electrode at the end of said offset por
tion toward which said electrons are directed, a
?le of this patent:
?rst resonator positioned between said re?ect
Number
ing electrode and the means providing said elec
tromagnetic ?eld, and other resonator means posi
tioned between said ?rst electrode and the trans
verse portion of said envelope, and including a
'
UNITED STATES PATENTS
Name
Date
1,450,265
2,081,429
2,272,165
Slepian __________ __ Apr. 3, 1923
Gaede ____________ __ May 25, 1937
Varian et a1 _______ __ Feb. 3, 1942
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