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Feb. 1,1949.. -‘
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‘CALVERT
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2,460,411,
SOUND
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Filed March 9;? v ‘1944, j
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Patented Feb. 1, 1949
2,460,411
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFlCE
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2,460,411
SOUND RECORDER
Sumter Calvert, Chicago, I1l.,'assignor to
Raymond T. Moloney, Chicago, 111.
‘Application March 9, 1944, Serial No. 525,781
4 Claims. (01. 274-11)
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1
This invention relates to sound recording and
Other objects, advantages, and aspects of
transcribing on ?lm substances, such as motion
novelty and economy peculiar to the invention
picture ?lm and analogous tape, band, or strip
materials, by means of a stylus bearing on the
?lm and vibrated in accordance with the sound
impulses to be recorded.
The invention is particularly applicable to that
type of stylus recording in which the stylus is
_ relate to details of construction and operation
vibrated laterally of the direction or length of
of the embodiment hereinafter described in view
. of the annexed drawing in which:
Fig. l is a side elevation, partly in section,
_ showing the novel sound head;
Fig. 2 is a top plan view of the structure shown
in Fig. 1;
the sound track or groove formed by the stylus 111 Fig. 3 is a top plan View of the ?lm' track,
looking in the direction of lines 3—3 in Fig. 1;
as the ?lm is passed therebeneath.
A principal object of the invention is the pro
Fig. 4 is a vertical, lateral, section through the
?lm bed, showing'the recording unit in frag
vision of an improved sound head structure in
cluding roller means over which the ?lmpasses
mentary elevation, as viewed in the direction'of
beneath the stylus with greatly reduced frictional 15 lines 4—4 of Fig. 1;
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retarding e?ects on the ?lm, and particularly
Fig. 5 is a fragmentary longitudinal section
contrived to permit complete freedom of move
through the ?lm bed, with portions of the re
ment of the stylus in lateral, or other, recording
cording-unit shown in elevation, looking in the
motions‘ thereof, while at the same time a?ford
direction of lines 5—5 of Fig, 4;
ing a space beneath the ?lm and opposite the
‘Fig. 6 is a top plan view, to enlarged'scale, of
stylus point for displacements of the ?lm sub
a portion of the ?lm bed or track and the sound
stance which result either from recording move
bed therein;
ments of the stylus or the pressure of the stylus
Fig. 7 is a lateral, vertical section through the
on the ?lm as the latter passes therebeneath.
?lm track or bed taken along lines l—l of Fig. 6;
A further object is the provision of a record
Fig. 8 is a vertical longitudinal fragmentary
ing bed adapted to reduce the drag on the ?lm
section, similar to Fig. 5 and showing a modi?ed
moving thereover, to afford a minimum resistance
form of the sound bed;
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to the recording motions of the stylus point; to
Fig. 9 is a magni?ed cross sectional view of
permit movement of the stylus to any position
the ?lm showing one of the sound grooves or
between the opposite edges of the ?lm, so that a
tracks embossed therein by the sound stylus.
plurality of sound tracks may be made on a
The sound head as illustrated in Fig. 1 includes
single ?lm; to provide a space on the underside
a sound translating device iii of known construc- ,
of the ?lm for displacedportions of the ?lm
tion adjustably carried on a. transverse microm
caused by actions of the stylus thereon at any
eter-thread spindle H, there being a travelling
position across the width of the ?lm band; to
nut l2 between yoke arms iBa. threadably engag
reduce noise and background effects by main;
ing the spindle, and adapted, when manually
taining the ?lm in a relatively ?rm position be
rotated, to e?ect transverse shifting of the head
neath the stylus for normal movements of, the
I0 in the directions of the arrows at the ‘left of
?lm, While permitting the ?lm to yield in a direc
Fig. 2, for purposes hereinafter alluded to.
tion away from the stylus for clearance of patches 40 Beneath the recording unit In is a ?lm bed
or irregularities in ?lm thickness, all without in
(Fig. 1) consisting of a casting 13 including a
troducing objectionable drag on the ?lm.
vertical
plate portion It and an arcuate horizon
Viewed from another aspect, it is an object
tal ?lm track portion 15 (Fig. 4), and along the
of the invention to provide a recording bed for
a sound head in which anti-friction members 45 opposite marginal sides of the track 15 extend
?anges l6 between which the ?lm l’! travels,
support the ?lm ?rmly beneath the stylus in a
as in Figs. 2, 3, and 4, with the stylus ll! of the
relationship to engage the underside of the ?lm
recording unit resting on the upper surface of
closely on opposite sides of the stylus with re
said ?lm.
spect to the direction of travel of the ?lm, and
V in such proximity as to aiford a trough on the
As shown more particularly in Fig. '7, the bota
underside of the ?lm remote from the point of
tom of the ?lm bed is provided with a number
the stylus and into which the ?lm body-is not
depressed, but which leaves the ?lm substantially
unsupported at this point for purposes herein
above set forth.
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of spaced ribs or tracks 19 adapted to underlie
the'?lm and afford substantial support therefor
whil-eyat the same time reducing the overall sul‘_~
55 face-contact area between ?lm and bed soas
2,460,411
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to impede the feeding movement of the ?lm as
little as possible.
Carried on the casting i3 is a bracket 2:’! to
the stylus, so that the ?lm is supported ?rmly
?lm just behind the stylus point for the purpose
of holding the ?lm in the bed.
the length of the rollers, it will appear that the
stylus may be positioned at any point across the
at opposite sides of the stylus point, with regard
to the direction of movement of the ?lm, but is in
effect unsupported in the region just beneath
which is secured by screw means 2! a spring
presser arm 22 (Figs. 3., 3, 5) which presses lightly C21 the stylus point; and since the said space or
trough 3i extends transversely of the film for
but positively down upon the upper face of the
width of the ?lm, it being preferred usually, how—
Recording means, such as the unit it, are well
understood in the art, and of several varieties, 10 ever, to leave a margin at the opposite sides of
so that detailed speci?cation of the construction
the ?lm where the feeding perforations appear,
thereof is deemed unnecessary.
In one form of recorder iii well known. in. the
art and considered suitable for use with the
present invention, the stylus i8 is caused to vi
brate laterally, in the direction of the. arrows in
Fig. 4, to the direction of travel of the ?lm there
beneath, so as to form a sound groove 23' of the
wavy pattern shown to greatly exaggerated scale
at which no sound track will be formed, such
marginal portions of the ?lm being supported by
the ribs or tracks l9.
Very satisfactory results are obtained in the
embodiment shown when the point of the stylus
is set slightly in advance (with regard to the di
rection of movement of the ?lm, that is from left
to right. in Fig. 5, for example) of a tangent as
on the ?lm fragment ll’ of Fig. 3. The pressure 20 sumed common to both rollers and extending up
of the stylus point forms what is herein termed
wardly toward the stylus; and further, if the
an embossed groove as (Fig. 9) lengthwise of
stylus is set to enter the film to a depth of some~
the. ?lm, in addition to the lateral sound patterns
thing less than one-half the thickness thereof; it
exempli?ed at 23, and it is pointed out that this
being further recommended. for best results that
groove'2fl is the result of downward displace 25 the stylus point be adapted not to cut into, or
ment of the ?lm material at the point of contact
scratch the ?lm, but rather to form a polished
of the stylus, and is to be distinguished from a
groove therein, to eliminate noises and drag.
groove such as would, be formed by a cutting
In applications of the invention where con
action of the stylus.
siderable patching of the ?lm may be expected,
Any cutting or rupturing of the ?lm surface 30 thereby giving rise to bumps or irregularities in
by the stylus is considered objectionable, mainly
?lm thickness, or where different makes or types
because the resulting cut gives rise to scraping
of ?lm will be used, involving similar variations
noises on the play-back, and tends to weaken
in thickness, it is preferred to employ the modi
the film, in addition. to increasing the resistance
?cation illustrated in Fig. 8, wherein a sound bed
to ?lm travel beneath the stylus, and while the
identical to the roller means. 25, 2t, 28 of Fig. 5,
invention is also useful in conjunction with the
is yieldably mounted; in the film bed. To this
cutting type of recorder, it is considered pref
end, the roller mounting 28a: is provided with a
erable to adjust the stylus point to press into
somewhat deeper cross. slot 32 in the casting than
the film without scratching, cutting, or ruptur
is the case in the embodiment of Fig. 5; and a
ing its surface.
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spring member 33, secured to the underside of
It will appear therefore that in the preferred
he horizontal'par't 15st of the casting, as at as,
method of cutting the sound track according to
bears. upwardly against a pin 35 engaging the
the present invention, no actual cutting of the
bottom of the mounting block for the rollers,
?lm occurs, the term being used in the general
whereby the latter are urged toward the under
sense familiar in the art to denote the formation A; side of the ?lm, but may yield downwardly
of any sound track by means of a stylus or the
should a patch or other thickness irregularity
like; and it will further appear that the recording
pass beneath the stylus.
according to the present means and method re
The embodiment of Fig; 8 provides a ?oating
sults in a displacement of portionsof the ?lm
roller means which, in addition to the‘ functions
substance on the underside of the ?lm, as in
heretofore described; also affords advantages in
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recording reaction with the stylus where for any
Means providing a recording bed for the ?lm
reason the lateral recording vibrations of the
beneath the stylus comprises a pair of rollers
stylus may tend to be. slightly arcuate with a
25 and 26 (Fig. 6), each provided with small
tendency to lift the stylus away from the film,
pin shafts ‘25a and 260., respectively, and jour- iv in effect. ,
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naled in opposite end blocks 21 of a mounting
The closely proximity of the roller means 25, 26
member 23', formed of brass or other suitable
provides ?rm support for the ?lm, adequate to
bearing material, and cut away in its central
prevent downward buckling thereof, notwith
standing that'space is left beneath the point of
portions to- receive the rollers, as at 29, the
mounting ‘member being ?tted into a slot formed 60 the stylus for the downward displacement of ?lm
transversely in the horizontal section l5 of the
in the formation of the running track or groove,
Fig. '9.
casting l3, and being secured in position by
as illustrated in the sectional View of ?lm shown
means such as the screw 33, Figs. 4, 5, and 6.
in Fig. 9; and in addition, there is less impedance
to the ‘lateral recording motions of the stylus,
resulting in recordings of higher ?delity and
clarity,,with less noise and less drag on the ?lm,
than ‘is the. case with certain prior recording
Preferably, the rollers 25 and 26 should not
exceed one-eighth of an inch in diameter, and
they should be glass-hardened and provided with
a high polish. The rollers are set in the mount
ing member 28 to rotate freely and in close prox
imity, with their respective shafts or rotational
axes disposed approximately in a plane which is
nearly parallel with that of the section of ?lm
passing thereover.
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Such a disposition of the rollers 25 and 25
provides a space or trough 3|, Fig. 5, particu
larly, which is situated just below the point of 75
means of this general class.
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It is to be understood that the foregoing con
structionv is entirely suitable for use in tran
scribing, in- which case, aconventional pick-up or
transcribing unit would replace the recording unit
f0, or the latter may be a dual recorder and tran
scriber of known construction.
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It is not intended that the foregoing speci?ca
2,460,411
6
tions be construed as limitations upon the inven
tion, excepting as may be expressely provided by
the appended claims, namely:
1. Sound apparatus including means providing
unit transversely of said ?lm whereby to selec
tively position said stylus at points along said
trough.
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4. Sound apparatus including a ‘?lm bed, a
a ?rm support over which ?lm is adapted to move,
mounting member removably seated in said bed
rotatable members movably mounted on said sup
port extending laterally of the movement 01' said
beneath the travel of ?lm thereo?said mounting
?lm and over which said ?lm is adapted to move,
member being movable in said bed toward and
away from the plane of the ?lm, means yieldably
urging said mounting member toward said ?lm,
a pair of rollers seated for free rotation in close
said members being movable toward and away
from the plane of the ?lm, and a sound stylus,
parallelism in said mounting member which ex
positionable upon said ?lm at points across its‘
tend transversely of said ?lm and over which said
width and between said rotatable members on a
?lm is adapted'yto travel, and a sound actuated
side of the ?lm opposite from the latter.
stylus engageable with said ?lm above said rollers
2. Sound recording apparatus including a sup-v
port over which a recording medium of thin. r and along a line across the ?lm beneath which
there is no peripheral contact between said rollers
deformable character is adapted to be passed,'a,
and ?lm, said 111m further lying inwardly of the
sound stylus position-able upon said medium on
axes of said rollers so as to be between said axes.
said support, and a unit resiliently mounted on
SUMTER CALVERT.
said support including a plurality of revoluble '
members for engaging a side of said medium con 20'
fronting said support, said revoluble members a
being spaced apart in the direction of movement
of the medium over the support at points closely
REFERENCES CITED
The following references are of record in the
file of this patent:
adjacent the point of engagement of said stylus
UNITED STATES PATENTS
with the medium but on opposite sides of the 25
stylus in said direction.
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Number
Name
Date
3. In a sound head, in combination, a pair of
1,853,966
Eckert ___________ __ Apr. 12, 1932
elongated revoluble members extending in close
1,947,290
Fonda __________ __ Feb. 13, 1934
parallelism forming an elongated trough there
2,188,687
Lohn ____________ __ Jan. 30, 1940
between and over which ?lm is adapted to be 30 2,205,058
Calvert __________ __ June 18, 1940
moved, a sound unit including a stylus position
2,255,232
Stern ____________ __~ Sept. 9, 1941
able upon said ?lm to engage said ?lm above said
FOREIGN PATENTS
trough, means for mounting said revoluble mem
Number
Country
Date
bers for movement as a unit toward and awayv
134,006
Austria __________ __ July 10, 1933
from the plane of said ?lm, means yieldably urg 35
ing said mounting means in a direction toward
said stylus, and means for shifting said sound
156,216
Great Britain ______ __ Apr. 3. 1922
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