I Feb. 1, 1949. 2 Filed Oct. 7, 1942'» F. J. DOUGLASS‘ APPARATUS FOR‘ FLAME ‘CUTTING ' 2,460,412 VIE-‘SheMS-Sheet l Feb- 1, 1949M _ Filed ‘Oct. 7, 1942-‘ ' ' r-. J_. Do‘uGLAss" . I APPARATUS FOR FLAME CUTTING I _-' 3 VIII/I111» // ' 2,460,412 s Sheets-Sheet 2 Feb. 1,‘ 1949. ‘ _' ‘Filed Oct. 7, i942 ' ' v F‘. J. DOUGLASS 2,460,412 APPARATUS FOR FLAME CUTTING ' 3Sheets-Sheet'5 Patented Feb. 1, 1949 2,460,412 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,460,412 APPARATUS FOR FLAME CUTTING Frank J. Douglass, Pasadena, Calif. Application October 7, 1942,. Serial No. 461,174 4 Claims. (01. 33-21) I This invention relates to a method and ap paratus for ?ame cutting, and more particularly to a method and apparatus for cutting tubing utilizing. a ?ame of the type produced through the combustion of oXy-acetylene gas or other similar gas mixtures. The art of flame cutting has heretofore been considerably developed.v vThe. utilization of ?ame cutting in‘ the fabrication of welded structures has been long employed in. the welding art. However, whenfabrication of structures employ~ ing relative thin-wall, small-diameter tubing be came widespread, the problem was immediately presented in cutting off such tubing to different shapes and sections required for subsequent Welding. . The di?icul-ty encountered in. the flame cutting of relatively thin-walled, small-diameter tubing utilizing the methods of ?ame cutting is that the 2 Figure 3 is an elevation of a ?ame cutting ap paratus embodying my invention. Figure 4 is a-top plan view of the structure illustrated in Figure 3. Figure 5 is a fragmental sectional view taken substantially on the line 5-5 of Figure 3. Figure 8 is a fragmental sectional. view taken substantially .on the line 6-6‘ of Figure 3. Figure 7 is a View illustrating the development 10 of a 90° T template. ~ Figure 8 is a view of the one-revolution cam embodied in my invention for making ‘the cut incident to the. production of the 90° welded T. Figure 9 is a view of a two-revolution cam de 15 veloped for the production». of a 90° T. Figure. 11) is a view illustrating the develop ment of a Y branch template. Figure 11 is a View of the two-revolution ca-m developed for the cutting of a pipe for the Y heat incident to such ?ame cutting is usually 20 branch connection. Figure 12 is a view illustrating the development ing the formation of a sharp cut, or cuts. as are su?icient to burn material of the tubing, prevent required for the subsequent welding‘ of such cut I a tube 1 It is ‘therefore an. object of this invention to provide a method and apparatus for the ?ame cutting. of tubular structures, particularly those ‘of. small diameters and having relatively thin walls. of a miter template. Figure 13 is a View of a one-revolution cam sections. ~ 7 Another object of this invention is to» provide a method of ?ame cutting applicable for the developed to produce a miter cut. ' Many attempts‘ have been made to develop a method’ for the ?ame cutting of relatively thin? walled, small-diameter steel or like metal tubing and as far as I have been able to ascertain, these developments have followed the line, or have at tempted- to utilize the method, illustrated in Fig ure- 2, that is, of making the 1cut at an angle’ of 9G", 01‘ substantially vertical to the surface to. be cut. In thick-walled pipe, for example, of tub complex cut-offs may be formed utilizing a ing with the wall‘ thickness of approximately 1%" . simple guide cam subject. to multiple operation’ 35 or greater, this method maybe carried out satis in order to carry out the complete cut-out of factorily as neither side of the cut formed will the required section. continuous cutting of predetermined sections in a cutting off operation of a tube or rod ‘wherein Other objects and advantages of this inven tion- it is, believed will be- apparent from the fol lowing detailed description of a preferred em bodiment thereof as illustrated in‘ the accom panying drawings. In the drawings: Figure 1 is a diagrammatic illustration of the method embodied in my invention. illustrating the method or transferring the heat at the point of cut-off. to the waste material cut away en abling the formation of a cut-oi? to- a prede termined pattern without burning the material. Figure 2 is a diagrammatic illustration illus trating the sheet of attempting a cut-off in a sheet material where. the burning eiTect and the heat produced by the ?ame is not transmit ted to the waste, material of the cut. show appreciable burning. When thin walled tubing of %” or less, however, is attempted to be out by this method, the edge of the cut on both. sides. will be burned, as illustrated at A, and B in Figure 2, ard the result. will be that it is impossible to- follow a pattern in producing a cut off satisfactory for welding because the edges of the pipe at such cut-off will be burned and 45 pitted to suchv an extent that satisfactory weld ing cannot be performed without a prohibitive amount of ?ling or grinding of the edge to re produce the desired pattern. With my inven tion as illustrated in Figure 1 with respect to such thin-walled pipes as by utilization of this method. I am able to transfer the burning e?’ect created by the ?ame C‘ to the portion of the thin walled pipe I which is to be out off and to which the burning e?ect may be transferred while still permitting me to follow a pattern desired for 2,460,412 4 journals ‘I and 8 within which the tube 3 to be cut off is supported. The journal 8 is provided such cut as indicated, for example, by the line 2 of the desired ?nished section of pipe 3. I have found that the entire burning effect may be transferred to the waste or cut oif por tion 1 of the pipe by proper inclination of the with gear teeth 9 and a chuck lil enabling the tube 3 to be held from relative rotation with reference to the gear 9, Means are provided for rotating the tube 3 ?ame C with respect to the longitudinal axis of which, as herein illustrated, include means for the pipe i so that the heat and burning effect created by the ?ame C is all, as far as deleterious driving the tube in either direction of rotation and at more than one speed. This drive means effects are concerned, transferred to the said as herein illustrated includes a driving shaft H 10 waste portion of the pipe. In order to determine the correct angle at which may be driven from any suitable type‘ of motor (not shown). The driving shaft. 4 l is sup which the ?ame C is to be set in order to ac ported in suitable bearings l2 and has secured complish this result, I have found that it is only thereto a worm l3 adapted to mesh with the worm wheel it secured to the transmission shaft necessary to set up the apparatus to set the ?ame to approximately the desired angle bylinclining 15 the torch or ?ame nozzle é making a test burning and if it is observed that the burning occurs on l5. ,_ Splined on the transmission shaft l5 are the transmission gears l5, ll, i8 and i9. Shifter means 20 and 24 are provided for shifting the both sides of the, cut, to further incline the torch position of these gears which are mounted in to the point where all visible burning occurs on pairs, i. e., the gears 16 and II in one pair, the one side of the cut, this side being the side oc 20 gears l8 and iBin’ the other pair.' The gears the pipe to be cut off or ' cupied by the portion of 56 and II are of one diameter and are adapted away from the pattern line 2. ‘ to selectively drive the pinion '22 at one speed There are many variables which determine the as, for example, at the ratio of two to one, while the gears i8 and H) are adapted to be selectively correct angle for such a ?ame C among which are the adjustment of the ?ame itself so that meshed with a pinion 23 to provide a diiferent the correctv ?ame tip 5 is produced to effect the ratio as, for example, one to one. maximum efficiency of burn-off. Another var The gears l6 and H are supported upon a com iable which prevents an exact statement of the mon sleeve with the shifter 20 and are of the correct degree of angle is the composition of the internal beveled type, either one of which is 30 adapted to mesh with the pinion 22, thus pro steel of which the pipe is constructed. Another variable is the thickness of the steel viding for a forward and reverse drive of the wall of the pipe and as this thickness diminishes, pinion 22. The same structure is utilized in con the angle of inclination of the ?ame C toward nection with the internal bevel gears I8 and ill the axis of the pipe must decrease. in their association with the pinion 23. Another variable is the diameter of the pipe Mounted in the frame 6 is, a plate 24 in which because the angle at which the flame C is set must be such as to avoid any possibility of the ?ame C burning through the pip-e to burn the journaled. The shafts carry at their opposite opposite wall thereof. cam gear 21. 7 Other variables are the type of gas used to pro duce the ?ame as different gases produce differ ent ?ame temperatures as well as other different pressures of gas and oxygen produce different effects of heat splash and consequent burning. The cutting speed is also determinative of the angle at which the ?ame C must be set. The higher the cutting speed, the more nearly the vertical may be approached. V _ In the experiments which I have conducted, only satisfactory , however, I have found that the criterion for determining the correct angle for the flame C is by making a test out with the ?ame set? at an angle and then increasing or de creasing the angle of inclination of the ?ame at just that point where all visible burning of the-Y, steel or metal of the pipe is transferred to the the shafts carrying the pinions 22 and 23 are end gears 25 and 2B which are in mesh with the The cam gear 2'! is likewise sup ported on the plate 24. The cam gear 21 is adapted to removably receive the cam plates or templates 28. ' Mounted in the frame ii so as to be movable relative thereto is a slide bar 29 which carries at one end the torch ii. The slide bar 29 is 'sup ported on'rollers 30 in the frame 6 so as to be freely movable and is held in position where the cam pin 3| is urged against the cam or template 28 by means of a spring 3'2. The torch s is held at the end of the slide bar 29 on a bracket 33 which provides for the pivotal movement or adjustment of the position of the torch so that it may be accurately aligned in a vertical plane passing through the axis of the pipe 3 and may also have its angle of inclination with reference to the axis adjusted. ' side of the cut, away from the side at which the The bracket 33 is also adjustably supported on ?nished cut is desired, and when this condition the slide bar 25‘ by means of the thumb screw 3-‘; is reached, I have found that I am enabled to cut so that its position along the slide bar 29 may be a very thin-walled, small-diameter tube to pro 00 adjusted. A thumb screw 35 is provided for duce a finished cut-off which will follow accu adjustment of the angularity of the torch ll while rately a preconceived pattern for such a cut-off. the position of the torch 4 with reference to the I have found, however, that it is practically im plane of the axis may be determined by moving possible to control the position of the ?ame C the torch bracket in and out on the rod upon and to regulate with a sufficient degree of accu which it is supported on the bracket 33. racy the speed of such cut manually and I have The cams or templates 28 are formed in ac therefore developed a machine which enables me cordance with the type of cut-off desired at the to perform this ?ame cutting operation with the end of the tube 3 and several such types I have ?ame set to the desired angle at a uniform rate illustrated in Figures 7 to 13, inclusive. In these of speed and which will enable me to follow ?gures I have ‘illustrated the single rotational any predetermined pattern of cut as may be re template or cam as well as the reversing or double quired for the making of any type of welded rotation cams. In Figure 7 I have illustrated connection between pipe sections. the development of the cam or template 23a for The apparatus which I have developed for this the formation on the end of the pipe of a connec purpose may be as herein illustrated. This ap tion to form a T at right angles with the pipe ‘paratus includes a frame 5 supporting a pair of v75 2,460,412 and have illustrated in Figures 8 and 9 this template or cam of two forms. At 283 I have il lustrated a one-revolution form of cam generated as illustrated in Figure 7. In Figure '9. at 28b I have illustrated a cam for a double rotation wherein with the gears 15 and 22 in mesh the cam is rotated twice for each rotation of the pipe 3. This enables me to form a simple cam which is positioned upon the cam holder eccentrically as maintain the pin in contact with the pattern pe riphery of the template whereby the carriage is reciprocated in accordance with the contour of the pattern periphery of the template as the work is revolved, and means within the drive connec tion from the work revolving means to the tem plate for reversing the direction of rotation of the template. , is determined by the holes 36 and where the 10 3. In a device of the class described, the combi nation of a frame, means on the frame for ro distance X (i. e. of eccentricity) is equal to half tatably supporting a work piece, drive means in the distance Y-(Figure 7). cluding a transmission shaft for revolving the In Figure 10 I have illustrated the development work piece, a tool support, a carriage for the tool support mounted to reciprocate on the frame in a direction parallel to the axis of rotation of the work piece, a pattern template, means driven of a reversing cam or template 28° for the cutting oiT of the pipe 3 for the formation of a Y branch. In the use of this cam the same is mounted on the cam holder and the gears 16 and I‘! are shifted from said transmission shaft for ‘rotating the tem with relation to the pinion 22 so that when the plate, said means including a dual transmission ' cam has completed one complete revolution, the means selectively operable having different speed gears l6 and i’! are shifted to reverse the direc ratios, a follower element mounted on the car tion of rotation, thereby completing the move riage adapted to cooperate with the template, and means for, rotating the transmission shaft where by the carriage is reciprocated in accordance with ment of the torch 4 during a single rotation of the tube 3. The use of this type of cam or template and this method of operation permits the template periphery as the work piece is re me to use relatively simple forms of cams or templates to form complex cut-offs in the pipe or 25 volved. 4. In a device of the class described, the com tube which operations could not be performed bination of means for rotatably supporting a Work automatically in a continuous operation without piece, means including a transmission shaft for a similar method of operation. I rotating the Work piece, a frame, a carriage In Figures 12 and 13 I have illustrated the for mation of a simple one-revolution cam for the 30 mounted to reciprocate on the frame in a direc tion parallel tothe axis of rotation of the work formation of a miter out at the end of the tube piece, a tool support on the carriage, a pattern 3, such a cam being illustrated at 289. template rotatably mounted on the frame, a pri Having fully described my invention, it is to be mary drive means driven from the transmission understood that I do not wish to be limited to the details herein set forth, but my invention is of the 35 shaft for rotating the template at one speed, sec full scope of the appended claims. I claim: 7 ' V 1. In the apparatus of the class described, the combination of a frame, a work supporting means carried by the frame, means for revolving the work support to rotate the work, a tool support, a reciprocating carriage for the tool support mounted to reciprocate on the frame in a direc— ondary drive means driven from the transmission shaft for rotating the template at another speed, clutch means selectively operable for engaging either the primary or secondary drive means, a 40 follower element on the carriage adapted to co operate with the template, and means to rotate the transmission shaft whereby the carriage is reciprocated in apcordance with the template pe riphery as the work piece is revolved. ' tion parallel to the axis of rotation of the work, a pattern template, means driven by the work ro tating means for rotating the template, a pin car ried by the carriage to engage the pattern tem plate, spring means for yieldably urging the car riage to maintain the pin in contact with the. pattern periphery of the template whereby the carriage is reciprocated in accordance with the contour of the pattern periphery of the template ‘ a reciprocating carriage for mounted to reciprocate on the tion parallel to the axis of rotation of the work, a. pattern template, means driven by the work ro hating means for rotating the template, a pin car ried by the carriage to engage the pattern tem plate, means for yieldably urging the carriage t0 45 FRANK J. DOUGLASS. 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