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I Feb. 1, 1949. 2
Filed Oct. 7, 1942'»
VIE-‘SheMS-Sheet l
Feb- 1, 1949M
_ Filed ‘Oct. 7, 1942-‘
' '
r-. J_. Do‘uGLAss" . I
s Sheets-Sheet 2
Feb. 1,‘ 1949.
‘Filed Oct. 7, i942
Patented Feb. 1, 1949
Frank J. Douglass, Pasadena, Calif.
Application October 7, 1942,. Serial No. 461,174
4 Claims. (01. 33-21)
This invention relates to a method and ap
paratus for ?ame cutting, and more particularly
to a method and apparatus for cutting tubing
utilizing. a ?ame of the type produced through
the combustion of oXy-acetylene gas or other
similar gas mixtures.
The art of flame cutting has heretofore been
considerably developed.v vThe. utilization of ?ame
cutting in‘ the fabrication of welded structures
has been long employed in. the welding art.
However, whenfabrication of structures employ~
ing relative thin-wall, small-diameter tubing be
came widespread, the problem was immediately
presented in cutting off such tubing to different
shapes and sections required for subsequent
The di?icul-ty encountered in. the flame cutting
of relatively thin-walled, small-diameter tubing
utilizing the methods of ?ame cutting is that the
Figure 3 is an elevation of a ?ame cutting ap
paratus embodying my invention.
Figure 4 is a-top plan view of the structure
illustrated in Figure 3.
Figure 5 is a fragmental sectional view taken
substantially on the line 5-5 of Figure 3.
Figure 8 is a fragmental sectional. view taken
substantially .on the line 6-6‘ of Figure 3.
Figure 7 is a View illustrating the development
10 of a 90° T template.
Figure 8 is a view of the one-revolution cam
embodied in my invention for making ‘the cut
incident to the. production of the 90° welded T.
Figure 9 is a view of a two-revolution cam de
15 veloped for the production». of a 90° T.
Figure. 11) is a view illustrating the develop
ment of a Y branch template.
Figure 11 is a View of the two-revolution ca-m
developed for the cutting of a pipe for the Y
heat incident to such ?ame cutting is usually 20
branch connection.
Figure 12 is a view illustrating the development
ing the formation of a sharp cut, or cuts. as are
su?icient to burn material of the tubing, prevent
required for the subsequent welding‘ of such cut
a tube
1 It is ‘therefore an. object of this invention to
provide a method and apparatus for the ?ame
cutting. of tubular structures, particularly those
‘of. small diameters and having relatively thin
of a miter template.
Figure 13 is a View of a one-revolution cam
Another object of this invention is to» provide
a method of ?ame cutting applicable for the
developed to produce a miter cut.
' Many attempts‘ have been made to develop a
method’ for the ?ame cutting of relatively thin?
walled, small-diameter steel or like metal tubing
and as far as I have been able to ascertain, these
developments have followed the line, or have at
tempted- to utilize the method, illustrated in Fig
ure- 2, that is, of making the 1cut at an angle’ of
9G", 01‘ substantially vertical to the surface to. be
cut. In thick-walled pipe, for example, of tub
complex cut-offs may be formed utilizing a
ing with the wall‘ thickness of approximately 1%"
. simple guide cam subject. to multiple operation’
35 or greater, this method maybe carried out satis
in order to carry out the complete cut-out of
factorily as neither side of the cut formed will
the required section.
continuous cutting of predetermined sections in
a cutting off operation of a tube or rod ‘wherein
Other objects and advantages of this inven
tion- it is, believed will be- apparent from the fol
lowing detailed description of a preferred em
bodiment thereof as illustrated in‘ the accom
panying drawings.
In the drawings:
Figure 1 is a diagrammatic illustration of the
method embodied in my invention. illustrating
the method or transferring the heat at the point
of cut-off. to the waste material cut away en
abling the formation of a cut-oi? to- a prede
termined pattern without burning the material.
Figure 2 is a diagrammatic illustration illus
trating the sheet of attempting a cut-off in a
sheet material where. the burning eiTect and
the heat produced by the ?ame is not transmit
ted to the waste, material of the cut.
show appreciable burning. When thin walled
tubing of %” or less, however, is attempted to
be out by this method, the edge of the cut on
both. sides. will be burned, as illustrated at A, and
B in Figure 2, ard the result. will be that it is
impossible to- follow a pattern in producing a cut
off satisfactory for welding because the edges
of the pipe at such cut-off will be burned and
45 pitted to suchv an extent that satisfactory weld
ing cannot be performed without a prohibitive
amount of ?ling or grinding of the edge to re
produce the desired pattern. With my inven
tion as illustrated in Figure 1 with respect to such
thin-walled pipes as by utilization of this
method. I am able to transfer the burning e?’ect
created by the ?ame C‘ to the portion of the thin
walled pipe I which is to be out off and to which
the burning e?ect may be transferred while still
permitting me to follow a pattern desired for
journals ‘I and 8 within which the tube 3 to be
cut off is supported. The journal 8 is provided
such cut as indicated, for example, by the line
2 of the desired ?nished section of pipe 3.
I have found that the entire burning effect
may be transferred to the waste or cut oif por
tion 1 of the pipe by proper inclination of the
with gear teeth 9 and a chuck lil enabling the
tube 3 to be held from relative rotation with
reference to the gear 9,
Means are provided for rotating the tube 3
?ame C with respect to the longitudinal axis of
which, as herein illustrated, include means for
the pipe i so that the heat and burning effect
created by the ?ame C is all, as far as deleterious
driving the tube in either direction of rotation
and at more than one speed. This drive means
effects are concerned, transferred to the said
as herein illustrated includes a driving shaft H
waste portion of the pipe.
In order to determine the correct angle at
which may be driven from any suitable type‘ of
motor (not shown). The driving shaft. 4 l is sup
which the ?ame C is to be set in order to ac
ported in suitable bearings l2 and has secured
complish this result, I have found that it is only
thereto a worm l3 adapted to mesh with the
worm wheel it secured to the transmission shaft
necessary to set up the apparatus to set the ?ame
to approximately the desired angle bylinclining 15
the torch or ?ame nozzle é making a test burning
and if it is observed that the burning occurs on
l5. ,_ Splined on the transmission shaft l5 are
the transmission gears l5, ll, i8 and i9.
means 20 and 24 are provided for shifting the
both sides of the, cut, to further incline the torch
position of these gears which are mounted in
to the point where all visible burning occurs on
pairs, i. e., the gears 16 and II in one pair, the
one side of the cut, this side being the side oc 20 gears l8 and iBin’ the other pair.' The gears
' cupied by the portion of
56 and II are of one diameter and are adapted
away from the pattern line 2.
to selectively drive the pinion '22 at one speed
There are many variables which determine the
as, for example, at the ratio of two to one, while
the gears i8 and H) are adapted to be selectively
correct angle for such a ?ame C among which
are the adjustment of the ?ame itself so that
meshed with a pinion 23 to provide a diiferent
the correctv ?ame tip 5 is produced to effect the
ratio as, for example, one to one.
maximum efficiency of burn-off. Another var
The gears l6 and H are supported upon a com
iable which prevents an exact statement of the
mon sleeve with the shifter 20 and are of the
correct degree of angle is the composition of the
internal beveled type, either one of which is
30 adapted to mesh with the pinion 22, thus pro
steel of which the pipe is constructed.
Another variable is the thickness of the steel
viding for a forward and reverse drive of the
wall of the pipe and as this thickness diminishes,
pinion 22. The same structure is utilized in con
the angle of inclination of the ?ame C toward
nection with the internal bevel gears I8 and ill
the axis of the pipe must decrease.
in their association with the pinion 23.
Another variable is the diameter of the pipe
Mounted in the frame 6 is, a plate 24 in which
because the angle at which the flame C is set
must be such as to avoid any possibility of the
?ame C burning through the pip-e to burn the
journaled. The shafts carry at their opposite
opposite wall thereof.
cam gear 21.
Other variables are the type of gas used to pro
duce the ?ame as different gases produce differ
ent ?ame temperatures as well as other different
pressures of gas and oxygen produce different
effects of heat splash and consequent burning.
The cutting speed is also determinative of the
angle at which the ?ame C must be set. The
higher the cutting speed, the more nearly the
vertical may be approached.
In the experiments which I have conducted,
only satisfactory ,
however, I have found that the
criterion for determining the correct angle for
the flame C is by making a test out with the
?ame set? at an angle and then increasing or de
creasing the angle of inclination of the ?ame at
just that point where all visible burning of the-Y,
steel or metal of the pipe is transferred to the
the shafts carrying the pinions 22 and 23 are
end gears 25 and 2B which are in mesh with the
The cam gear 2'! is likewise sup
ported on the plate 24. The cam gear 21 is
adapted to removably receive the cam plates or
templates 28.
Mounted in the frame ii so as to be movable
relative thereto is a slide bar 29 which carries at
one end the torch ii. The slide bar 29 is 'sup
ported on'rollers 30 in the frame 6 so as to be
freely movable and is held in position where the
cam pin 3| is urged against the cam or template
28 by means of a spring 3'2.
The torch s is held at the end of the slide bar
29 on a bracket 33 which provides for the pivotal
movement or adjustment of the position of the
torch so that it may be accurately aligned in a
vertical plane passing through the axis of the
pipe 3 and may also have its angle of inclination
with reference to the axis adjusted. '
side of the cut, away from the side at which the
The bracket 33 is also adjustably supported on
?nished cut is desired, and when this condition
the slide bar 25‘ by means of the thumb screw 3-‘;
is reached, I have found that I am enabled to cut
so that its position along the slide bar 29 may be
a very thin-walled, small-diameter tube to pro 00 adjusted. A thumb screw 35 is provided for
duce a finished cut-off which will follow accu
adjustment of the angularity of the torch ll while
rately a preconceived pattern for such a cut-off.
the position of the torch 4 with reference to the
I have found, however, that it is practically im
plane of the axis may be determined by moving
possible to control the position of the ?ame C
the torch bracket in and out on the rod upon
and to regulate with a sufficient degree of accu
which it is supported on the bracket 33.
racy the speed of such cut manually and I have
The cams or templates 28 are formed in ac
therefore developed a machine which enables me
cordance with the type of cut-off desired at the
to perform this ?ame cutting operation with the
end of the tube 3 and several such types I have
?ame set to the desired angle at a uniform rate
illustrated in Figures 7 to 13, inclusive. In these
of speed and which will enable me to follow
?gures I have ‘illustrated the single rotational
any predetermined pattern of cut as may be re
template or cam as well as the reversing or double
quired for the making of any type of welded
rotation cams. In Figure 7 I have illustrated
connection between pipe sections.
the development of the cam or template 23a for
The apparatus which I have developed for this
the formation on the end of the pipe of a connec
purpose may be as herein illustrated. This ap
tion to form a T at right angles with the pipe
‘paratus includes a frame 5 supporting a pair of
and have illustrated in Figures 8 and 9 this
template or cam of two forms. At 283 I have il
lustrated a one-revolution form of cam generated
as illustrated in Figure 7. In Figure '9. at 28b I
have illustrated a cam for a double rotation
wherein with the gears 15 and 22 in mesh the
cam is rotated twice for each rotation of the pipe
3. This enables me to form a simple cam which
is positioned upon the cam holder eccentrically as
maintain the pin in contact with the pattern pe
riphery of the template whereby the carriage is
reciprocated in accordance with the contour of
the pattern periphery of the template as the work
is revolved, and means within the drive connec
tion from the work revolving means to the tem
plate for reversing the direction of rotation of
the template.
is determined by the holes 36 and where the 10 3. In a device of the class described, the combi
nation of a frame, means on the frame for ro
distance X (i. e. of eccentricity) is equal to half
tatably supporting a work piece, drive means in
the distance Y-(Figure 7).
cluding a transmission shaft for revolving the
In Figure 10 I have illustrated the development
work piece, a tool support, a carriage for the tool
support mounted to reciprocate on the frame in
a direction parallel to the axis of rotation of the
work piece, a pattern template, means driven
of a reversing cam or template 28° for the cutting
oiT of the pipe 3 for the formation of a Y branch.
In the use of this cam the same is mounted on the
cam holder and the gears 16 and I‘! are shifted
from said transmission shaft for ‘rotating the tem
with relation to the pinion 22 so that when the
plate, said means including a dual transmission
' cam has completed one complete revolution, the
means selectively operable having different speed
gears l6 and i’! are shifted to reverse the direc
ratios, a follower element mounted on the car
tion of rotation, thereby completing the move
riage adapted to cooperate with the template, and
means for, rotating the transmission shaft where
by the carriage is reciprocated in accordance with
ment of the torch 4 during a single rotation of
the tube 3.
The use of this type of cam or
template and this method of operation permits
the template periphery as the work piece is re
me to use relatively simple forms of cams or
templates to form complex cut-offs in the pipe or 25 volved.
4. In a device of the class described, the com
tube which operations could not be performed
bination of means for rotatably supporting a Work
automatically in a continuous operation without
piece, means including a transmission shaft for
a similar method of operation.
rotating the Work piece, a frame, a carriage
In Figures 12 and 13 I have illustrated the for
mation of a simple one-revolution cam for the 30 mounted to reciprocate on the frame in a direc
tion parallel tothe axis of rotation of the work
formation of a miter out at the end of the tube
piece, a tool support on the carriage, a pattern
3, such a cam being illustrated at 289.
template rotatably mounted on the frame, a pri
Having fully described my invention, it is to be
mary drive means driven from the transmission
understood that I do not wish to be limited to the
details herein set forth, but my invention is of the 35 shaft for rotating the template at one speed, sec
full scope of the appended claims.
I claim:
1. In the apparatus of the class described, the
combination of a frame, a work supporting means
carried by the frame, means for revolving the
work support to rotate the work, a tool support, a
reciprocating carriage for the tool support
mounted to reciprocate on the frame in a direc—
ondary drive means driven from the transmission
shaft for rotating the template at another speed,
clutch means selectively operable for engaging
either the primary or secondary drive means, a
40 follower element on the carriage adapted to co
operate with the template, and means to rotate
the transmission shaft whereby the carriage is
reciprocated in apcordance with the template pe
riphery as the work piece is revolved. '
tion parallel to the axis of rotation of the work,
a pattern template, means driven by the work ro
tating means for rotating the template, a pin car
ried by the carriage to engage the pattern tem
plate, spring means for yieldably urging the car
riage to maintain the pin in contact with the.
pattern periphery of the template whereby the
carriage is reciprocated in accordance with the
contour of the pattern periphery of the template ‘
a reciprocating carriage for
mounted to reciprocate on the
tion parallel to the axis of rotation of the work,
a. pattern template, means driven by the work ro
hating means for rotating the template, a pin car
ried by the carriage to engage the pattern tem
plate, means for yieldably urging the carriage t0
The following references are of record in the
?le of this patent:
' Number
Von-Hofe ________ __ Dec. 31, 1872
Rose _____________ __ Oct. 9, 1917
Maynard 1 _______ __ Nov. 27, 1917
Arnold _____ _'______ May 28, 1918
Coberly __________ __ Feb. 10, 1925
Irvin et a1. ______ __ June 23, 1925
Coberly __________ __ Apr.v7, 1931
Natlis ____________ __ May 2, 1933
Gerber ___________ __ May 9,
Day ______________ __ Aug. 15,
Douglass ________ __ Aug. 22,
Hull et al. ________ __ Nov. 29,
McGuire _________ __ Sept. 8, 1942
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