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March 1, 1949;
M, NEWMAN
2,462,890
ELECTROSTATI G PRECIPITATOR SYSTEM
Filed Oct. 30, 1943
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M02215 NEWMAN
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Patented Mar. 1, 1949'
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,462,890
ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR SYSTEM
Morris Newman, Minneapolis, Minn.
Application October 30, 1943, Serial No. 508,336
14 Claims. (01. 183-7)
1
This invention relates to electrostatic precipi
tator systems and particularly to systems wherein
ionization is produced under different potentials
than that employed for precipitation of the ion
ized particles. It has been discovered that ioniza
tion may be produced by an alternating current
having a frequency in the range from high audio
frequencies to slightly below the low radio fre
2
modi?ed forms of the precipitating system, each
showing a fragmentary part of' the wiring dia
gram of the power supply; and
Figure 10 is an enlarged view, partly in section,
illustrating an optional form of one adjunct of
the apparatus.
Throughout the drawings corresponding nu- _
merals refer to the same parts.
Referring to Figure 1, there is illustrated a cross
quencies and having a unidirectional voltage com
ponent and that the degree of ionization may be 10 section through a. precipitating apparatus where
in the outer framework of container i0 is a rec
conveniently and readily controlled automatical
tangular cross section and may conveniently be
ly in such a system.
composed of sheet metal. Upon the side walls H
It is accordingly an object of the invention to
and I2 of the container are mounted oppositely
provide an improved electrostatic precipitating
3 spaced pairs of insulators l3 and I4 and I5 and
apparatus and system wherein dust and micro
Hi. The pair of insulators i3 and it serve to sup
‘biological particles in the air and gas stream are
port a rod l8 and similarly insulators i5 and I6
charged by a high voltage alternating potential
support a rod i9. Extending in parallel relation
having a frequency in the range extending from
to rods l8 and i9, and mounted upon the side
high audio frequencies to a frequency slightly
walls II and I! there are positioned a pair of
lower than the low r-adio frequencies, and a high
rods 20 and 2!. Within the container there are
voltage unidirectional component. It is also an
positioned a plurality of uniformly spaced plates
object of the invention to provide an improved
electrostatic precipitating system including a.
power source therefor, and more particularly to
provide a system wherein the degree of ionization
is automatically and conveniently regulated so as
to prevent excessive ionization with resultant
ozoneand nitrous oxide formation‘.
23, 24, 25, 26, 21, 28, 29, 30, 3|, 32, 33, 34, 35. The
evenly numbered plates are mounted upon rods
20 and 2i, and hence are mechanically supported
by and electrically connected to container [0.
The odd numbered plates extend somewhat be
yond either end of the even numbered plates
It is also a purpose of the invention to provide 0 and are mechanically supported by and electri
safe electrostatic precipitator systems which are 8 cally connected to the rods I8 and 19, but by vir
tue of insulators I3-—-l8 the odd numbered plates
free from dangerous capacitators which have
are electrically insulated from the container ID.
heretofore been used, and to provide safe elec~
The odd numbered plates are electrically charged
trostatic precipitator systems wherein the pre
cipitator plates have -a dual function. It is also
by a conductor 36 which passes through an in
Other and further objects are those inherent
in the apparatus illustrated, described and
plates.
an object to provide in such systems a safe high 3 sulating bushing 31 in the side wall of container
i0, and is electrically connected to the rod l8, and
v frequency energization obviating danger.
hence to the odd numbered plates. The opposite
It is also an object of the invention to provide
side of the electrical circuit is represented by con
an electrostatic precipitating apparatus and sys
ductor 38 which is electrically connected to the
tem-o'fportable nature, including a convenient,
4 0 container Ill, and hence to the evenly numbered
low-weight power pack for the apparatus.
claimed.
The invention is illustrated with reference to
the drawings in which
Figure 1 is a sectional view through an elec
The series of plates 23-35 constitute surfaces
on whichcharged dust and other particles are
precipitated in the apparatus, and hence may be
designated the precipitating zone of the appara
tus as indicated by the so marked bracket of Fig
trostatic precipitating apparatus;
ure 1.
Figures 2, 3, 4 and 5 are wiring diagrams of
varying forms of electrical circuit arrangements
for supplying electrical power as a portion of the
in Figure 1 there is an ionizing zone indicated
electrostatic precipitating apparatus and system
of the invention;
Figures 6 and 7 are graphs illustrating the op
eration of the invention;
Figures 8 and 9 are schematic illustrations of
Beneath the precipitating plates as illustrated
by the bracket shown at the right in Figure 1.
The ionizing zone in this instance is composed of
a plurality of wires 40 which are spaced between
a plurality of short plates 4|, which may be solid
or open construction such as a screen, or per
f) 5 forated material, or a grid of wires held in a
2,462, 890
3
plane by an appropriate frame. The screen, or
other open construction, is preferred, for ions
emitted from the wires 40 may thus pass through
the screen to the next zone between the next
"plates” (open construction). The ions are thus
not neutralized as they would be by hitting‘ on
solid plates. The wires 40 are carried by a rod
or spaced rods 42, one of which is shown in the
sectional view in Figure 1. The wires 40 are ac
cordingly mechanically supported by and electri- ‘
cally connected to the container l0, which is
preferably grounded.
.
_
I
The plates 4| are mounted upon rod or rods
43 which in turn support upon spaced insulators
44 attached to the container I0. The plates 4|
are accordingly mechanically supported by, but
, are electrically insulated from the container l0
4
tial of the supply lines, when there is no load.
and is slightly less than this when loaded by
the load of oscillator tube 15. The potential
across junctions 6| and 69 serves as the direct
current supply for the remainder of the appa
ratus.
An oscillator tube is illustrated at 15 and in
cludes cathode 16, which is indirectly heated by
?lament 11, a control grid 18, screen grid 19,
grid 80'and anode 8|. Line 82 extends from junc
tion 69 to junction 83 on the cathode connection
84 of tube 15. The cathode 16 is connected to
grid 80 by an internal connection 85 of the tube,
and the screen grid is connected to junction 65
by means of line 86. The screen grid is accord
ingly maintained at an intermediate direct cur
rent potential which is half the potential exist
and also electrically insulated from the even
ing between junctions 6| and 69.
numbered plates of the precipitating zone.
90 there is illustrated a transformer having
Electrical potential is applied to the plates 4| :10 a ‘At
primary‘ winding 9|, a high voltage second
by means of a conductor 45 which passes through
ary winding 92, a low voltage oscillator feed back
an insulating bushing 46 in the side wall H, the
secondary 93_which may be air coupled, but pref
conductor being attached to the rod 43.
erably has a complete or nearly complete iron
A source of alternating current having a fre
circuit 94. The core 94 is preferably composed
quency in the range from high audio frequen
of high grade transformer steel of .003 inch or
cies to slightly lower than the low radio frequen
less in thickness and may be either an open or
cies and having a unidirectional component is
closed iron core. One terminal of the primary
applied between conductor 38, which is attached
winding 9| is connected by wire 96 to junction
to the container (and hence electrically con
6|, the opposite end of the primary winding be
nected to Wires 40) and conductor 45 extending 30 ing connected by wire 91 to the anode 8| of the
to the ionizing plates 4|. The apparatus for
oscillator tube 15. Junction 83, which is connect
generating and applying said potential to the
ed to the cathode of the oscillator tube is electri
common wire 38, the precipitating plate conduc
cally connected through line 98 and through re
tor 36 and, the ionizing zone conductor 45 may
sistance 99 and capacitance H10 (in parallel) to
be any one of those illustrated in Figures 3, 4
and 5, with or without variations such as illus
trated in Figures 8 or 9.
junction I02, which serves as one of the termi
nals from which direct current at high voltage
is supplied by the apparatus through the com
Referring to Figure 2, there is illustrated one
mon line 38 (see Figure 1). The oscillator feed
form of power pack constituting a portion of the
back secondary 93 may be connected directly
electrostatic apparatus and system of the pres 40 to junction I02, or, alternatively. may be con
ent invention. In Figure 2 low voltage commer
nected through line 93’ to line H4, in which case
cial frequency alternating current is supplied to
the connection to junction I02 is broken. The
feeders L1 and L2, feeder L1 being grounded as
opposite terminal of the feed back winding I03
illustrated at 50. The apparatus includes a full
is
connected through line I03 and through the
wave recti?er generally designated 5|, having
grid bias resistor I04, and grid bias condenser
cathodes 52 and 54 and anodes 53 and 55. The
I05 (in parallel) to the control vgrid 18 of the
cathodes 52 and 54 are indirectly heated by ?la
oscillator tube 15. It is sometimes desirable to
ments' 56 and 51 which are connected in series
connect a variable condenser “16 across the pri
as illustrated. Feeder L2 is connected by con
mary 9| of the transformer so as to allow tuning
ductor 58 to anode 53 and by conductor 60 of the circuits for achieving the most desirable
59 to the cathode 54. ' Cathode 52 is con
frequency of oscillation of tube 15, although in
nected by conductor 60 through junction 6|
instances the inherent capacitance of the trans
and line 62 to one terminal of condenser 63 and
former 90 and related connections is su?icient
thence through the condenser, line 64, junction
to
establish the necessary oscillatory relation
65 and line 66 through condenser 61, line 68 to 55 ship in the circuit, and condenser l06‘may there
junction 69 and through line 10 to the anode 55.
fore be considered as'optional.
Junction 65 is connected by line 1| to junction
The net effect of oscillator tube 15 is therefore
12 on feeder L1. It will thus be observed that
to impress upon primary winding 9| and oscil
when’ the alternating current potential is such
lating current of a frequency in the range from
that L2 is positive in respect to L1, current will
60 the high audio frequencies to slightly below the
?ow from L2 through line 58, anode 53, cathode
low radio frequencies, viz. from about 5,000 to
52, line 60, junction 6|, line 62, through con
about 30,000 cycles per second or somewhat
denser 63, line 64 to junction 65 and thence
higher, and this causes voltages to be induced
through line 1| to junction 12 on L1. During the
in secondary windings 92 and 93.
I
next half cycle when L1 is positive with respect 65
An energizing potential of the frequency range
to Le, current will ?ow from L1 to junction 12
stated has the attributes such that when the ion
and thence through line 1| to junction 65, line
izing potential is applied to the ionizing zone
86, condenser 61, junction 69, line 10 through
(Figure 1) or to other appropriate precipitating
tube 5| via anode 55 and cathode 54 through
apparatus, no dust particle may move through
line 59 to L2. Condensers 63 and 61 are accord 70
,the length of the ionizing zone without having
ingly charged in the same direction by alternate
impressed thereon at least one cycle crest of ion
half cycles of the alternating potential applied
izing
potential. At the same time, the frequency
to feeders Li and L2 and therefore the potential
is su?iciently low so as not to be in the radio
existing between junctions 6| and 69 reaches
twice the crest value of the alternating poten 75 frequency range so as not to cause disturbance
therein. The frequency range stated also permits
21,203,081:
5
the " apparatus 'to operate successfully without
added dangerous high voltage condensers, as have
of the precipitating apparatus, for example as
shown in Figure 1, leading to the ionizing zone
of the apparatus.
Referring to Figure 6, there is shown a graph
heretofore been used in electrostatic precipitat- _
ing apparatus.
illustrating the voltage on the precipitating plates
of the electrostatic precipitator and the voltage
The secondary winding 93 serves as the feed
back circuit for controlling the oscillation of tube
18 through the voltage applied upon control grid
existing between the ionizing wires 40 and the
plates M of the ionizing zone. In Figure 6 the
line I28--I24 represents the unidirectional volt
18. The grid bias resistor I04 and condenser
I05 operate in the usual manner to establish a
10 age applied between the precipitating plates
grid bias upon the grid 18.
The number of turns in secondary winding 92
23-85 of the apparatus shown in Figure 1, the
is large as compared to the number of turns in
voltage E being preferably in the range of 3,000
winding 9|, and a high voltage is therefore in
to 50,000 volts, depending upon the spacing of
duced between terminal 38 and the opposite end
the plates and other factors. The voltage exist
of the winding. The winding is preferably pro
ing between the ionizing wires 40 and the plates
vided with an intermediate variable tap I01 which
4| includes the unidirectional component E and
is connected by line I08 to the anode Ill of the
upon this there is superimposed an alternating
recti?er tube generally designated I I0. The rec
current voltage having a crest value of E’, which
ti?er tube is provided with a cathode III which
is preferably greater than the voltage E with the
is connected by line I I4 to junction 88, and hence 20 result that as the voltage E’ becomes negative,
through line 98, and through resistor 99 and ca
a negative voltage E'--E occurs at each half cycle
pacitor I00 (in parallel) to Junction I02 and thus.
between the wires 40 and plates 4|. If the volt
_
to the common line 38.
ages E and E’ are adjusted to appropriate values,
in relation to the size of wire used for the wires
40, ionization will not occur until the total volt
age between the wires 40 and plates“ reaches
another value Ec (voltage at which ionization
Cathode III is indi
rectly heated by ?lament I I2.
'
' For convenience ?laments 58 and 51 of the full
wave recti?er tube 5|, ‘?lament 11 of the-oscil
lator tube 15 and ?lament II2 of the recti?er
occurs). Where the precipitating apparatus is
utilized for the puri?cation of air used for res
piratory purposes, it is undesirable that any ex
tensive ionization should occur in the apparatus,
tube I I0 are connected in series through a circuit
extending from junction II5 on L2 through line
II8, resistor II1, line II8, through ?laments 58
and 81in series, thence through line H9, ?la
ment 11, line I20, ?lament II2 to L1. The re
7 in as much as ionization causes the formation of
sistor H1 is provided so as to limit the current
ozone and oxides of nitrogen.
through the ?laments-of the tubes thereby per
mitting the use of tubes of standard design. In
the event specially designed tubes are utilized, the‘
?laments 58, 51, 11 and H2 may be designed so
as to utilize entire voltage between feeders L1
and La, and the resistance II1 may thereby be
40
eliminated.
In order that the ionization phenomena may
be limited despite the variations in line voltage
occurring between lines L1 and L2, the power
pack includes a regulator apparatus which, in
the illustrated embodiment, consists of _resist—
' As a result of the voltage induced in the wind
ing 92, between terminal 38 and tap I01, there
is provided across lines 88 and 38 a unidirectional
high voltage through a circuit as follows: From
the common line '38, terminal I02, through re
sistor 99 and condenser I00 (in parallel), line 98,
junction 83, line [I4 to cathode III of‘ the recti
?er‘ I I0, thence to‘ anode H3, through line I08
to tap I01 and through the winding 92 to ter
rhinal 88. This unidirectional high voltage is ap
plied between the corresponding terminals 38 and
88 of -a precipitating apparatus, for example that
illustrated in Figure 1.
I
‘ The transformer winding 92 is also provided
with another variable tap I 2| to which line 45 ‘
is attached.’ The voltage at tap I2I may be less
than, equal to or greater than the voltage at
vtap I01, according to'the mode of operation of
the electrostatic ‘precipitator, but it is preferably
made greater than the voltage at tap I01 for a
purpose hereinafter to be described. As a result
of this mode of- connection, a voltage is produced
between lines 38 and 45 having a frequency in
the range from high audio frequencies to slightly
lower than the low radio frequencies and having
a high voltage unidirectional component. The
circuit producing this complex potential extends
from the common-line 38, tap I02, thence through
resistor 99 and condenser I00 (in parallel)
through line 98 to junction 83, and thence
ance 99 and condenser I00 (in parallel) in coop
eraiion with the remaining portions of the appa
ratus. The operation of the apparatus is such
that when ionization begins to occur, the in
creased current, due to the corona formation,
causes the amplitude of the oscillating currents
through tube 15 to be decreased thereby decreas
ing the voltage to a point su?icient that the ioni
zation is held at a pre-adjusted small but suf
?cient value.‘
'
Figure. '7 is a graph illustrating the corona cur
rent for a wire of given size plotted against the
potential applied to the wire.
In Figure '7 the
curve I25-—I28 illustrates the corona loss for
ionizing wires '40 which are of given size, for ex
ample, as in Patent 1,343,285. When the voltage
applied to wires40 is below the amount E1, no
corona occurs and the current I is accordingly
zero;
As the voltage reaches'the amount E1,
corona begins. As the rate of increase of corona
current increases for each added increment of
voltage, curve I25, I26, I21, I28 has an increas
ingly rising slope. By suitable adjustment (or
selection of the circuit constants) of the appa
ratus illustrated in Figure 3, the magnitude of
the voltage supplied between lines 38 and 45 can
be caused to be at or slightly above the voltage
E1 on the curve shown in Figure 7 or at any
selected point on the curve. If, due to an in
tween taps I01 and I2I to line 45. The line 45
crease in line voltage applied between lines L1
and L2, there is a reflected-increase in the voltage
between the ionizing wires 40 and plates M, the
current drawn through resistor 99 and the con
‘denser I00 (in parallel) increases as shown by
the curve I25—I28, and this produces an in.
creased potential drop ‘across resistor 99 and the
is connected to the corresponding numbered line
condenser I00. As aresult the tube 15 oscillates
through line II4 to cathode III of recti?er tube
I I0, and to the anode H3 through line I08 to tap
I01( through the portions ‘of the winding 92 be
2,462,890
7
at nearly the same or at only a negligibly in
creased value, and consequently the voltage across
the ionizing wires 40 and plates M (and also
an increase occurred in the voltage across lines
a second cathode I35 indirectly heated by ?la
ment I36. Cathode I33 cooperates with anode
I31, and cathode I35 cooperates with a similar
anode I38. The full wave recti?er I32 is pref
erably identical with the recti?er I3I and includes
a cathode I40 which is indirectly heated by ?la
Li and L2.
ment MI, and a cathode I42 indirectly heated
across the precipitating plates) is held at a value
closely approximating the values existing before
In this manner the ionization on the
wires 40'may be closely controlled to a regulated
amount such that deleterious formation of ozone
by ?lament I43. Cathode I40 cooperates with
an anode I44, and cathode I42 cooperates with
- and nitrogen oxides does not occur in the air or 10 an anode I45.
other gas circulated through the puri?cation
apparatus.
It will readily be observed that the oscillator
The recti?ers I3I and I32 and
the condensers I29, I34, I35 and I36 are con
nected as follows: Feeder L1 is connected directly
to one terminal of condenser I29, the other ter
tube 15 may be adjusted so as to permit an op
minal of the condenser being connected through
eration at any point along the curve I25_l28, 15 line I41 to one terminal of condenser I35. The
and thus any degree of corona current, consistent
opposite terminal of condenser I35 is connected
with acceptable operation of the precipitator,
through line I48 to anode I45 of recti?er tube
may be permitted.
I32. From junction I49 on line I41 there ex
The secondary 93 may optionally be connected
tends a line I50 leading to anode I38, cathode
directly to line II4, as shown by line 93', rather 20 I33 being connected to junction I5I on line I50.
than to junction I02 (which is in such case dis
Cathode I40 is similarly connected to junction
connected), and grid 19 is then connected
I53 on line I40. Feeder L2 is connected directly
through line 86' to junction I02 rather than. to
to anode I31 of tube I 3I and to one terminal of
junction 65. These variations in the connections.
condenser I33, the opposite terminal of condenser
are illustrated in lines at 93' and 86' in Figure 3.
I33 being connected by line I55 to one terminal
If connections 86’ and 93' are not used, Winding
of condenser I34, the opposite terminal of which
33 is simply connected directly to junction I02,
with favorable results as aforestated. Or, a tube
having four grids may be used and the ‘fourth
grid connected to junction I02, the remaining
grids being as illustrated. A four-grid tube is il
is connected by line I56 to junction I51, which
constitutes one of the output voltage terminals
of the voltage multiplier'portion of the appara
tus. Junction I51 is connected directly to cath
ode I42 of the recti?er tube I32. Junction. I51
lustrated in Figure 3, hereinafter discussed. By
is connected to line 96 of the oscillator in a man
this manner of connecting secondary 93 directly
ner analogous to the connection of line 96 to
to line II4 (rather than through the resistor 99
junction 6| in Figure 2. Line 82 of the oscillator
and condenser I00), the feed back voltages con
(Figure 3) is connected to junction I58 0n feeder
trolling oscillation of the tube are isolated from
L1, which constitutes another output terminal of
the control voltage bias across resistor 93-con
the voltage multiplier. From junction I59 on
denser I 00, which serve to maintain the output
line I55 a circuit I60 extends directly to cathode
voltage at a closely regulated value.
I35 of tube I3I and from junction I 6| on line
In the apparatus of Figure 2, the full wave 40 I60 there extends circuit I62 leading to junction
recti?er tube 5i, together with the condensers
I63, which is connected to anode I44 and is also
63 and 61 serves as a voltage doubler circuit so
connected by line 86 to grid 19 of the oscillator
that the apparatus may conveniently be powered
tube 15. All of the ?laments of full wave recti
from low voltage alternating current circuits such
?er tubes I3I and I32, oscillator tube 15 and
as 110-volt circuits. Ordinary oscillator tubes, 45 recti?er tube IIO are connected in series directly
such as the tube 15, have a working internal
across feeders L1 and L2. Thus a circuit extends
voltage drop such that the input voltage of the
from junction I65 on feeder L2 (which corre
tube, for most e?icient operation; must be in ex
sponds to the similar junction II5 on line L2 in
cess of ordinary 110-volt supply line voltages.
Figure 2), through line I66, ?laments I34 and
By utilizing the recti?er tube 5| and condensers 50 I36 of the tube I3I, thence through line I61 and
63 and 61, there is provided an exceptionally low
?laments I 4| and I43 of tube I 32, through line
weight apparatus for supplying the relatively
II9, ?lament 11, oscillator tube 15, line I20, ?la
high voltage between lines 82 and 96, which con
ment II2 of the half wave recti?er H0, through
stitute the input of the oscillator tube.
line I68, to junction I69 and thence through line
The apparatus in Figure 2 is illustrated as 55 82 to junction I 58 on feeder L1.
utilizing an oscillator tube 15 of the pentode type,
When alternating current is applied to feeders
but there may likewise be utilized an ordinary
L1 and Li, a unidirectional voltage will appear
triodev by dispensing with grids 19 and 80 and
upon lines 82 and 96, the magnitude of the volt
connections 85 and 86.
age being four times the crest value of the al
‘Referring to Figure 3, there is illustrated a 60 ternating current applied to feeders Ll and L2,
somewhat modi?ed form of power pack in which
when the oscillator tube 15 is disconnected and
the oscillator and recti?er portions of the appa
slightly less when the oscillator is‘ connected. As
ratus illustrated under the bracket I30 are the
a consequence tube 15 operates ei?ciently. At
same as the corresponding portion of the appa
the same time it .will be observed that the appa
ratus illustrated in Figure 2. However, in the 65 ratus for accomplishing the multiplication of the
apparatus of Figure 3 two full Wave recti?ers
line voltage consists only of the full wave recti?er
generally designated I3I and I32 are illustrated,
and four condensers, together with the necessary
and these cooperate with a series of four con—
connections and these are extremely light in
densers I33, I34, I35 and I36 to produce across
weight as compared with ordinary transformer
lines 82 and 96 a voltage equal to four times the
recti?er construction.
crest value of the alternating voltage on feeders
The oscillator tube 15 of Figure 3 and recti?er
L1 and L2, when the oscillator tube 15 is discon
tube H0, together with the transformer 90
nected.
shown under bracket I30 of Figure 3, operate in
The full wave recti?er I3I includes a cathode
exactly the same manner as that described above
I33 which is indirectly heated by ?lament I34 and 75 with reference to Figure 2 (and shown under the
2,462,890
bracket I29). Therefore these parts of the ap
paratus of Figure 3 need not be further described
in detail.
In the apparatus of Figure 3, as in that of
Figure 2, the feed back and voltage regulation
control voltages supplied to grid 18 may be sepa
rated and each applied separately to grids of tube
15. To accomplish this end, winding 93 is dis
winding I80 oi the transformer I8I. As a result
a much higher voltage is induced in the sec
ondary winding I88.
Mid-point I90 of the secondary winding I89
is connected by line I88 to junction I99 on the
low voltage power supply line I86, and the end
terminals of winding I89 are connected by lines
I9I and I92 to the anodes I93 and I94, respec
connected from junction I02 and is connected to
tively, of the full wave recti?er generally desig—
line I88 as illustrated by the line 93", and a fourth 10 nated I95. The full wave recti?er tube I85 is
grid 81 which is then used in such alternative
provided with a cathode I96 which is indirectly
form is connected to Junction I02 as shown by
heated by the ?lament I91, the latter being di
the line 86'. Also grid 19 may beedisconnected
rectly connected across the low ‘voltage leads of
from junction I83 and reconnected to junction
supply lines I81 and I86. The vibrator I1I,
I02, where it is desired to use a three-grid os 15 transformer I8I and recti?er tube I95, which are
cillator tube, as shown, rather than a four-grid
indicated generally under the bracket I98 serve
tube. In this way the rise in output current in
as a high voltage direct current supply for the
line 38 produces a biasing voltage which is ap
input of the oscillator 15, this supply being ap
plied to achieve regulation via grid 81 (or grid
plied across conductors 86 and 96. A condenser
19), whereas the feed back voltage maintaining
201 connected between junction 208 on line 96
oscillation is applied via grid 18. It will be under
and junction 209 on line I86 serves to smooth out
stood that in Figure 3, ‘when the changed con
ripples in the direct current supply of tube 15.
nections illustrated by the lines 86' and 93' are
The high frequency oscillator 15, transformer
not used, winding 93 is then connected directly to
94 and recti?er IIO of the apparatus, shown gen
junction I02, and the feed back oscillation con
erally under the bracket 200, are similar to those
trol voltage and also the output voltage regula
shown in Figures 2 and 3, suitable changes in
tion control voltages are accordingly combined
the wiring being made to accommodate the low
and applied on the one grid, viz. grid 18.
voltage supply source. Thus, the oscillator 15 is
The devices of Figures 2 and 3 are of excep
provided with an indirectly heated cathode 16
tional utility wherein low weight and‘ low cost
which is connected to one terminal of the heating
are of importance in as much as su?iciently high
?lament 11, the filament being connected directly
voltage for e?icient operation of electrostatic pre
across the low voltage supply leads I86 and I81.
cipitators, viz. 3,000 to 50,000 volts, is conven
The grid 80 is connected externally or internally
iently supplied, and suillcient current is available
of the tube by line 85' to the terminal of ?lament
without the use of the cumbersome apparatus ll 11 which is in turn connected to line i86. One
customarily used. The transformer 80'is of low
terminal of the transformer primary winding BI
weight and indeed the entire apparatus of Fig
is connected by line 91 directly to the anode 8|
ures 2 and 3 weighs only a few pounds and may
of the oscillator tube, the other terminal of the
be housed in a space from 2-3 inches wide, 4-6
primary 9i being connected to line 96. The feed
inches long and 3-4 inches high. The apparatus. a back secondary winding of the transformer is
is accordingly admirably suited for portable elec
shown at 93, one terminal of such winding being
trostatic precipitator installations, and where low
connected through a grid bias resistor I04 and
cost is a factor.
condenser I03 (in parallel) to the grid 18. The
In Figure 4 there is illustrated an apparatus
other terminal of the feed back winding is con
suitable for use where the power source is a low 45 nected to junction I02 to which the common
voltage direct current, for example an automobile
output line 38 is also connected. To the junction
battery of 6-12 volts. In the apparatus of Fig
I02 there is connected (in parallel) the voltage
ure 4 there is utilized a vibrator, generally desig
regulator resistor 99 and condenser I00, the op
nated "I, of conventional ‘design customarily
posite terminals of these elements being con
used in automobile radio apparatus and includes
nected by line 85’ to the cathode 16 and to the
vibrator magnet I13 and contacts I14 and I15
low voltage power supply line I86. If desired,
together with the main vibrator reed I12 and its
the winding 93 may be connected directly to line
cooperating contacts I16 and I11. Contacts I16
I86 and a connection run from terminal I02 to
and I11 are connected by lines I18 and I19 re
spectively to the opposite terminals of a primary 55 grid 19, or a fourth grid, as explained with ref
erence to Figures 2 and 3.
transformer winding I80 of transformer gen
The half wave recti?er tube is shown at N0,
erally designated I8I. To a mid-point tap I82
the cathode II I being connected to one terminal
on the transformer winding there is connected a
of the indirect heater ?lament II2, the latter
condenser I83, the opposite terminal of which is
connected to junction I84 and thence to the vi 60 being in turn connected directly to the low volt
age supply lines I86 and I81. The anode II3 of
brator reed I12. Junction I84 is connected by
the
half wave rectifier is connected to tap I01 on
line I85, namely, to the negative low voltage sup—
the transformer secondary winding 92. Output
ply line I86 and the mid-point tap I82 of wind
line 36 constitutes one of the terminals of the
ing I80 is connected to positive line I 81. The
positive voltage supply line I81 is connected by 65 unidirectional high voltage supply. From varia
ble tap I2I‘ on the winding 92 there extends line
line I88 to one terminal of the vvibrator magnet
45 which supplies the ionizing potential, namely
I13 of the vibrator assembly. Contacts I14 and
a high voltage alternating potential having a
I15 are in engagement when the vibrator I1I is
frequency in the range from high audio frequen
deenergized, and when energized, the magnet
I18 draws the magnetic reed I12 downwardly as 70 cies, slightly below the low radio frequencies, and
a unidirectional high voltage component.
illustrated in Figure 4, thus breaking contacts
Grid 19 of the oscillator tube is connected by
I14-I15. Reed I12 vibrates and alternately en
line 86 to junction 202 which is in turn connected
gages contacts I16 and I11 and as a result a pul
through a resistor v203 to junction 20I on line 88.
sating direct current is applied alternately in op
posite directions to the two halves of the primary 75 A condenser 204 is connected between junction
2,462,890
11
,202 on line 86 and junction 205 on low voltage
supplyline I86.
I
"
Assuming that low voltage direct current is
supplied to lines I86 and I81, the ?laments of
,all of the thermionic tubes I95, ‘I5 and H0 are
,iliuminated andthe tubes are in condition for
operation. At the same time, the operation of
.the automotive type radio vibrator I'II supplies
.a pulsating direct current to the winding I80 and
i2
corona is emitted, in this instance the round‘ ions
ization wires 40, and by the characteristics of
the surrounding atmosphere, viz. atmospheric
pressure, temperature, and humidity.
At this juncture it may be noted that corona
varies very appreciably with respect to atmos
pheric pressure, a ten percent fall in the barom
eter reading being roughly equal in corona-pro
ducing effect to a ten percent increase in voltage
transformer I8I, and there is accordingly in :10 on the corona-producing surface. As the corona
duced in winding I89 a relatively high voltage
increases roughly as the square of the applied
alternating current which is recti?ed by tube I95.
voltage, very serious corona increase may accom
Under such conditions of operation the oscillator
pany a fall in atmospheric pressure or rise in line
tube ‘I5 will oscillate through a circuit as follows:
voltage in any unregulated precipitation system.
Likewise a 10% increase in voltage, whichis not
at all unusual in secondary distribution systems,
Beginning at low voltage supply line I86 current
,?ows from junction I99 to mid-point I90 on
transformer secondary I89 and thence \alter
nately through the upper and lower halves of the
winding I89 and alternately to the anodes I 93
and I94, thence through the full wave recti?er
tube I95 to cathode I96 and through line 96 to
transformer primary 9|, line 91, anode 8I of the
oscillator tube ‘I5, cathode ‘I6, through the lead
of ?lament ‘II to the low voltage supply line I86
and through the latter to junction I99. The "25
oscillator tube ‘I5 oscillates at a frequency from
5,000 to 30,000 cycles per second or somewhat
higher as determined by the inductance and in
herent capacitance of transformer 94 and the
circuits associated therewith (or due to optional,
condenser I06 when used), whereby an oscillat
ing current flows through the primary 9I.
Through transformer action a high voltage range
from 3,000 to 50,000 volts (according to the.de
.
occasions a 50% increase in corona in an unreg
ulated system. Where the apparatus is used for
the puri?cation of air for respiratory purposes,
such an increase in corona causes a disagreeable
and harmful increase in ozone and nitrogen
oxides.
In Figure 7 there is illustrated a second curve
2 I 3-2 I4 displaced from curve I25—i 28, illustrat
ing the corona current of corona control wire 40'
which is energized from the same supply source
as that corresponding to the curve I25—I 29. The
only variation between wire 90 and wire 40' is
that the latter is somewhat larger in diameter‘
and hence corona does not begin on wire 00' un
til voltage E2 is reached, and then it increases
with increased voltage as shown by curve 243-?
2I4.
As a result corona does not occur for the
wire 40' (curve 2I3-2I4) until the voltage has
sign of the dust precipitator apparatus) is in-. 35 risen to a value of E2, at which time corona, in
duced in winding 92. A relatively low voltage is
an amount corresponding to point I26, is present
induced in winding 93, and controls the oscillator
on wire 40 (corresponding to curve I25-I28)‘.
tube 15.
The voltage induced in winding 92 is
Precise regulation of the corona discharge of the
recti?ed by half wave recti?er III] as described
wire 40 may be achieved by utilizing an appara
with reference to Figure 3 and as a result, a high 40 tus such as that illustrated'in Figures 8 or 9 in
voltage direct current is supplied across leads
36 and 38, and a high'voltage direct current to
gether with an alternating current component is
supplied between leads 38 and 45. These leads
are connected to correspondingly numbered leads
which a second wire 40' is used for corona con
trol regulation.
Referring to Figure 8, there is illustrated a por
tion of the wiring diagram of the apparatus
' 445
shown in Figures 2, 3, 4 or 5, this portion being
of the precipitator apparatus illustrated in Fig
transformer 90 and the regulator portion of the
ure 1 or a similar precipitator.
circuits, namely resistor 99 and capacitor I00.
The voltage regulation of the high voltage out
In addition to Figure 8 there is schematically
put between lines 38 and 45 (and also between
illustrated the electrostatic precipitator appara
lines 38 and 36) is achieved by the action of re- ' 50 tus of Figure 1, wherein the precipitating plates
sistor 99 and condenser I00 as described with
23—35 are shown in uniformly spaced relation
reference to Figure 2. Therefore, a substantially
ship, alternate plates being connected respec
constant high voltage is applied to the ionizing
tively to the common conductor 38 and to the high
zone (wires 40 and plates 4|) and also on the
voltage direct current conductor 36. The pre
precipitating zone (plates 23—35) and is achieved .55 cipitating apparatus also includes the working
regardless of voltage variations of the low voltage
ionizing wire 40 together with its cooperating
supply on lines I86 and I81. _
plates 4 I, the wire 40 being connected to the com
In Figure 5 there is illustrated a modi?ed form
mon conductor 38, and the plates 4| to the high
of the invention which is similar to that illus
voltage conductor 45 whichvsupplies high voltage
trated in Figure 4, except that the primary I8I of
direct current having a high frequency alternat
the transformer generally designated I8I is en
ing component. In addition in Figure 8 there is ' '
ergized from a suitable source of alternating cur
provided a control ionizing wire 40' together with
rent illustrated by the alternating current lines
cooperating, spaced plates 4 I '.
L1 and L2, rather than being energized with pul
In the normal dust precipitating system such
sating direct current as illustrated in Figure 4. 65 as that illustrated in Patent 1,343,285, it is desired
In Figure 5 the ?lament current supply is pro
to operate the ionizing wire at a condition of
vided by transformer secondary 2I0, which is con
slight corona formation such that the corona, pro
nected across the low voltage supply lines I86
duces the ionization su?icient for dust precipi
and I8‘! which in this case are energized with al
tation, but not enough to render the dust-freed
ternating current rather than direct current. In 70 air objectionable for human respiration. Accord
all other respects the apparatus of Figure 5 is
ingly, wire 40 is operated as in Patent 1,343,285
similar to that shown in Figure 4.
at a voltage such as will produe a slight corona,
1 Referring again to Figure 7, the corona cur
the corona current begins, for example in the
rent curve I25-I28 is determined by the physi
region I 26-I 21 of the curve shown in Figure 7.
cal characteristics of the surface from which
Wire 40’ is of a size selected such that corona
9,462,890
13
14
»
will just begin to form on the wire 40' at voltage
E2, when corona is already developed in the lim
ited amount indicated by point I26'on the curve
I25-I28 of wire 00, and is located in any con
venient idle space in the precipitator unit, and
out of the stream of gas going therethrough.
,The ionizing current for the working ionizing
wire 40 and plates 4| and the control ionizing
wire and plates 40' and 4|’ are drawn in parallel
I20 (curve, Figure 7) due to the regulating action
of the control ionizing wire. The portion 99a of
resistor 99 may be very small, as compared with
the whole of resistor 99, since the regulating effect
is achieved by the ionizing current of wire 40'
which is drawn through the entire resistor 99
(and condenser I00). However, should a flash
over occur between the working ionizing wire 40
and its associated plates ll or between the alter
through resistor 99 and capacitor I00 (Figure 8), 10 nately charged precipitating plates 23--35, the
and the electrical constants of these elements of
?ash-over current is su?icient, when drawn
the circuit are appropriately selected so as to
through the relatively low value of resistor 99a
permit oscillator tube 15 (Figures 2-5) to oper
to cause the oscillator tube to be biased to cut
ate at a magnitude of oscillation suf?cient to off, thereby extinguishing the flash-over are. In
allow the voltage applied to wire 00 and plate 4| 15 this manner the large increase in current due to
to rise to the value E2 when the total corona cur
?ash-over is utilized, through the relatively small
rent drawn by wires 40 and 40' corresponds to
portion 99a of the regulator resistor, to achieve
an equal or greater regulatory effect than ordi
point I20 (Figure 7). However, any increase in
narily occurs during working due to small in
voltage occasioned by an increase in. voltage
across lines L1 and L2 will cause wire 40' to begin 20 creases of ionizing current for control wire 40',
drawn through the whole of resistor 99 and con
curve 2I3--2I4. Accordingly, any rise in voltage
denser I00. Thus resistor 99a may be chosen of
beyond E: (Figure 7) will effect the regulating
a size such that a current of ?ash-over propor
tions ?owing therethrough is sufficient completely
resistor 99 and capacitor I00, and will suppress
any corresponding increase in value of the oscil 25 to block oscillation of tube ‘I5, and thus simply
interrupt the high voltage supply.
lating current ?owing through oscillator tube ‘I5.
In the apparatus of Figures 8 and 9, the wind
Thus, by utilizing the control ionizing wire 40'
ing 93 may be alternatively, the connections to
and its associated plates 4 I ' in parallel with work
I02 may be broken and winding 93 connected to
ing wire it is possible very sharply to control the
> ionizing voltagerapplied to the working ionizing 30 junction I02, or connected by the circuit 93' to
wire 40, and by appropriate choice of size of the
the lead corresponding to line II4 of Figure 2,
to manifest corona at the zero point 2I3 on the
' wire 40’, it is thus possible to work at any estab
lished voltage E2 on both wires, In this way it is
possible to allow a controlled degree of ionization
on wire 40 without the hazard of undue ionization 35
which would otherwise be occasioned by a rise in
voltage on the supply lines L1 and L2.
Atmospheric changes such as variations in ba
rometer, humidity and temperature, or variations
I68 of Figure 3 or 85’ of Figures 4‘or 5. When so
connected junction I02 is connected as by line 88'
(Figure 3) to a fourth grid of the oscillator tube
‘I5, or grid ‘I9 may be utilized as the voltage regu
lation grid, rather than being connected to a
constant voltage point of the power supply.
In any of the circuits heretofore described, the
type of oscillator tube ‘I5 should be chosen so as
in latent ionization such as cause an increase in 40 to be capable of regulation by the ionizing cur
ionization, serve automatically to achieve self
regulation. Any corona-increasing atmospheric
disturbance in effect shifts both of the curves
rents ?owing in the apparatus. Alternatively,
the voltage regulating potential which is avail
able at junction I02 may be ampli?ed through
a simple single or multiple stage ampli?er before
I25—I28 and 2I3--2I4 to the left, parallel to
their illustrated positions.’ Assuming the power 45 being applied to the voltage regulating grid of
supply voltage conditions to be constant, such a
the oscillator tube. Thus, using the. potential at
leftward shift has the effect of an increase in the
junction I02 as the input to an ampli?er, the
applied voltage, and causes corona current to in-.
output thereof may be applied conveniently to
crease on wire 40 and to start on wire 40’, the
line 86'. Also'an adequately controlled small
voltage regulation bias voltage across resistor 99
power unit,.as described above, may be used to
and condenser I00. immediately effects tube ‘I5,
drive a large power oscillator where large output
and reduces the magnitude of the oscillations un
is desired.
til the corona is again decreased. This function
ing is characteristic not only of the apparatus of
Figures 8 and 9, but also is characteristic, to a
lesser degree, of the systems of Figures 2-5.
The control ionizing wire 40’ may conveniently »
be‘ housed in an air-?lled tube 205, such as that
shown in Figure 10, which is open to the atmos- .
phere or separated therefrom by a screen, porous
It will thus be observed that one may utilize
plate etc., as illustrated by the dotted line 290,
the manifested function (corona current) as the
for allowing ready change of pressure within the
direct agent for controlling the voltage of the
tube when the atmospheric pressure changes. Or
power supply feeding the corona producing sys Q the tube 265 may be sealed and provided with a
tem. This is one of several very useful features
sylphon bellows diaphragm 261 at an end or side
of the invention.
wall so as to allow the pressure of the air within
In Figure 9 there is illustrated a modi?ed form
the tube to equalize to atmospheric pressure by
of regulating apparatus utilizing a working ioniz
?exure of said bellows. For convenience, the tube
ing wire 00 and a control ionizing wire 40' of the ' 65 is provided with a’, socket 268 which serves to
type illustrated in Figure 8, except that the con
carry the plate 4|’ and wire 40' by means of a
trol ionizing wire is connected to a tap on resistor
squash 269. Wire 40’ and plate ll’ are thus pro
99 so that the current drawn by the control ion
tected and are removed from the ?ow of gases
izing wire 40' traverses the entire resistor '99
undergoing precipitation and yet are subjected
whereas the current drawn by the working ioniz
to the same atmospheric conditions as the air be
ing wire traverses only portion 99a. By suitable
choice of circuit constants of resistor 99 and con
denser I00 and wire diameter of the control ioniz
ing precipitated.
Other and further modi?cations will be ap
parent to those skilled in the art without depart
ing wire 40’ and working ionizing wire 40, the
ing from the spirit of the invention illustrated,
system may be caused to operate in the voltage 75 described and claimed.
15
2,462,890
What I claim is:
for limiting the voltage appiied to the precipitat
1. An electrostatic precipitator system com- ,
ing plates and working ionizing electrode.
prising spaced precipitating plates, spaced ioniz
ing electrodes adjacent the precipitating plates,
and electrical means, adapted to be energized
from a low voltage source for supplying a uni
directional high voltage to said precipitating
plates and ionizing electrodes, and means respon
sive to variations in the'?ow of ionizing current
7. The apparatus of claim 6 further charac
terized in that the control ionizing electrode is
housed in a separate chamber maintained under
atmospheric pressure.
8. An electrostatic precipitator system compris
ing spaced precipitating plates, a working ionizing
electrode capable of. emitting a corona discharge
to said ionizing electrodes occurring at-voltages 10 at a predetermined desired voltage, a control
below those at which momentary or transient
?ash-over occurs for maintaining the ionizing
current substantially constant.
2. An electrostatic precipitator system com
ionizing electrode incapable of emitting a corona
discharge at said predetermined voltage but
capable of emitting such discharge at an increased
voltage, means for supplying the same high
prising spaced precipitating plates’, an ionizing 15 voltage to said plates and ionizing electrodes, and
electrode adjacent the precipitating plates, and
means responsive to a flow of corona discharge
electrical means-including a low voltage oscil
lator, a step-up transformer and a recti?er for
supplying a unidirectional high voltage to said
current to the control ionizing surface for regu
lating the value of said high voltage.
9. An electrostatic precipitator system compris
precipitating plates and ionizing electrode, and 20 ing spaced precipitating plates, a working ioniz
means responsive to an increase in ionizing cur
ing wire and associated conductive surfaces con
stituting a working ionizing zone adjacent the
rent output of said electrical means occurring at
precipitating plates, a control ionizing wire of
voltages below those at which momentary or
slightly larger guage than the working ionizing
transient ?ash-over occurs for biasing the oscil
25 wire and associated conductive surfaces adja
lator to decrease the current output thereof.
cent thereto, means for supplying a high voltage
3. An electrostatic precipitator system com—
to the spaced precipitating plates and ionizing
prising spaced precipitating plates, an ionizing
electrode adjacent the precipitating plates, and
wires, and means responsive to the flow of corona
current to said control ionizing wire for regulat
trolled oscillator tube, a step-up transformer and 30 ing the voltage applied to both ionizing wires and
the precipitating plates.
a recti?er for supplying a high voltage having a
10. An electrostatic precipitator system com
unidirectional component to said precipitating
prising spaced precipitating plates, a working‘
plates and ionizing electrode, and means, includ
ionizing wire and associated conductive surfaces
ing a resistor connected in series with the circuit
to said ionizing electrode and connected to said 35 constituting a working ionizing zone adjacent
the precipitating plates, a control ionizing wire
oscillator tube for decreasing the voltage of oscil
of slightly'larger guage than the working ionizing
lator tube output when the current ?owing to
wire and associated conductive surfaces adjacent
said ionizing electrode increases beyond a pre
thereto, means for supplying a high voltage to
determined value.
4. The apparatus of claim 3 further character 40 the spaced precipitating plates and ionizing wires,
and means responsive to the ?ow of corona cur
ized in that an ampli?er is interposed between
rent
to said control ionizing wire for regulating
said resistor and the control grid of said oscil
the voltage applied to both ionizing wires, and
lator tube for amplifying the potential of said
responsive to the ?ow of arc-over current be
resistor for application in controlling relation to
tween said precipitating plates or between said
said control grid.
working
ionizing wire 'and its associated conduc
,5. An electrostatic precipitator system com
electrical means including a low voltage grid con‘
prising spaced precipitating plates, an ionizing
electrode adjacent the precipitating plates and
tive surface for substantially reducing said
voltage.
11. An electrostatic precipitator system com
electrical means adapted to be energized from a 50 prising spaced precipitating plates, a working
low voltage source for supplying a high voltage
ionizing surface capable of emitting a corona
having a unidirectional component to said pre
discharge at a predetermined desired voltage, a
cipitating plates and ionizing electrode, said elec
trical means including a low voltage oscillator
tube energized from the low voltage source and
control ionizing surface incapable of emitting a
corona discharge at said predetermined voltage
but capable of emitting such‘ discharge at an in
creased voltage, means for supplying a high
voltage to said plates and ionizing surfaces and
capable of oscillating at a frequency of 5,000 to
30,000 cycles per second, an iron core transformer
having a low voltage primary winding connected
resistor means in series with a conductor supply
to the oscillator tube and a high voltage second
ing current to said control ionizing surface and
ary winding, a recti?er tube, said recti?er tube 60 connected to said means for supplying high volt
being connected in series with said secondary
age for regulating the high voltage supplied to
winding and to the precipitatng plates and ioniz
said plates and surfaces, for maintaining sub
ing electrode, and a resistor also connected in
stantially constant said corona discharge from
series with the circuit to said ionizing electrode
the working ionizing surface.
and to the oscillator tube for maintaining the 65
12. An electrostatic precipitator system com
voltage output of said oscillator tube at a level prising spaced precipitating plates, a working
capable of supplying a substantially constant
ionizing wire and associated conductive surfaces
value of ionizing current to said ionizing. '
constituting a working ionizing zone adjacent the
6. An electrostatic precipitator system com—
precipitating plates, a control ionizing wire of
prising spaced precipitating plates, a working 70 slightly larger guage than the working ionizing
ionizing electrode adjacent the precipitating
wire and associated conductive surfaces adjacent
plates and a control ionizing electrode, means
thereto, means for supplying a high voltage to
for supplying a high voltage to said plates and
the spaced precipitating plates and ionizing wires,
electrode and means responsive to an increase of
resistor means connected in series relation with
current ?owing to the control ionizing electrode 75 said control ionizing wire and connected to said
2,462,890
17
18
means for supplying high voltage for regulating
the high voltage.
ionizing wires, a portion of said resistor means
being connected in series relation to said working
ionizing wire and precipitating plates for reduc~
ing the voltage output during ?ashover.
13. An electrostatic precipitator system com
prising spaced precipitating plates, a working
ionizing wire and associated conductive surfaces
constituting a working ionizing zone adjacent the
precipitating plates, a control ionizing wire of
slightly larger guage than the working ionizing
wire and associated conductive surfaces adjacent
thereto, means for supplying high voltage to the
spaced precipitating plates and ionizing wires
comprising a relatively low voltage oscillator tube,
a transformer having a low voltage primary and
a high voltage secondary, a recti?er tube, the
output of said oscillator tube being connected to
said primary and the secondary being connected
through said recti?er to the spaced precipitating
plates and ionizing wires, and resistor means in
series connection with said control ionizing wire
and connected to said oscillating tube for regulat 20
ing the voltage applied to the plates and ionizing
wires.
'
14. An electrostatic precipitator system com
prising spaced precipitating plates, a working
ionizing wire and associated conductive surfaces
constituting a working ionizing zone adjacent the
precipitating plates, a control ionizing wire of
slightly larger guage than the working ionizing
wire and associated conductive surfaces adjacent
thereto, means for supplying high voltage to the
MORRIS NEWMAN.
REFERENCES CITED
The following references are of record in the
?le ofthis patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS
Number
Name
Date
1,558,991
1,878,024
1,946,563
1,979,422
2,000,654
2,010,600
2,042,181
2,086,063
2,101,168
2,114,682
2,129,783
2,233,639
2,251,451
2,297,740
2,297,841
2,336,625
plates and ionizing wires, and resistor means in
series connection with said control ionizing wire
1925
1932
1934
1934
1935
1935
1936
1937
1937
1938
1938
1941
1941
1942
1942
1946
FOREIGN PATENTS
spaced precipitating plates and ionizing wires
comprising a relatively low voltage oscillator tube,
Number
a transformer having a low voltage primary and
523,690
a high voltage secondary, a recti?er tube, the
371,859
output of said oscillator tube being connected to 03 Cl
657,376
said primary and the secondary being connected
546,617
through said recti?er to the spaced precipitating
Lewers; __________ __ Oct. 27,
Strigel "_ _________ __ Sept. 20,
Barrett _________ -_ Feb. 13,
Tholstrup ________ __ Nov. 6,
Wintermute ______ __ May 7,
Levy ____________ __ Aug. 6,
Knowles ________ __ May 26,
Brion et al. ____ __-___ July 6,
Deutsch _________ __ Dec. 7,
Gumaer _________ __ Apr. 19,
Penney _________ _. Sept. 13,
Pegg ____________ __ Mar. 4,
Heinrich _________ __ Aug. 5,
Brown ___________ .... Oct. 6,
MacKenzie _______ __ Oct. 6,
Milton __________ __ Dec. 14,
Country
_
Date
Germany ________ -_ Apr. 25,
Great Britain _____ .. Apr. 2,
Germany _________ __ Mar. 3,
Great Britain ____ .. July 22,
1931
1932
1938
1942
OTHER REFERENCES
Publication: Electrical Precipitation—Theory
and connected to said oscillating tube for regulat-. -
of the Removal of Suspended Matter from Fluids,
ing the voltage output applied to the plates and
by W. W. Strong; A.I.E.E., Feb. 19, 1915.
Certi?cate of Correction
Patent No. 2,462,890.
March 1, 1949.
MORRIS NEWMAN
It is hereby certi?ed that errors appear in the printed speci?cation of the above
numbered patent requirmg correction as follows:
Column 14, line 29, after the numeral “93” strike out “connected to junction 102,
or” and insert the same before “alternatively” in line 28, same column;
and that the said Letters Patent should be read With these corrections therein that
the same may conform to the record of the case in the Patent Of‘?ce,
Signed and sealed this 6th day of December, A. D. 1949.
[M]
THOMAS F. MURPHY,
Assistant Commissioner of Patents.
Certi?cate of Correction
Patent No. 2,462,890.
‘“
'
March 1, 1949.
MORRIS
NEWMAN
>
It is hereby certi?ed that errors appear in the printed speci?cation of the above
numbered patent requirmg correction as follows:
Column 14, line 29, after the numeral “93” strike out “connected to junction 102,
or” and lnsert the same before “alternatively” 1n hne 28, same column;
and that the said Letters Patent should be read with these corrections therein that
the same may conform to the record of the case in the Patent Of?ce,
Signed and sealed this 6th day of December, A. D. 1949.
[m]
THOMAS F. MURPHY,
Assistant Gommz'ssioner of Patents.
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