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March 8, 1949.
A, 1', cAHlLL
2,463,597
ART on METHOD AND MEANS FOR GENERATING
IUSIC ELECTRICALLY
Fil?d Jan. 9, 1943
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March 8. 1949.
A, T, cAHlLL
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2,463,597
ART OR IETHOD AND MEANS FOR GENERATING
MUSIC ELECTRICALLY
Filed Jan. 9, 1943
16 Sheets~Sheet 2
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March 8, 1949.
A T cAHlLL
ART on METHOD 'ANI') MEANS FOR GENERATING
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2,463,597
MUSIC ELECTRICALLY
Filed Jan. 9, 1943
16 Sheets—Sheet 3
Attorneys.
March 8, 1949.
A. 'r. CAHILL
ART OR METHOD AND MEANS FOR GENERATING
MUSIC ELECTRICALLY
Filed Jan. 9, 1943
2,463,597
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2,463,597
March 8, 1949.
A. 'r. CAHILL
ART OR METHOD AND MEANS FOR GENERATING
MUSIC ELECTRICALLY
Filed Jan. 9, 1943
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March 8, 1949.
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A. T. CAHILL
ART 0R METHOD AND MEANS FOR GENERATING
MUSIC ELECTRIGALLY
16 Sheets-Sheet 7
Filed Jan. 9, 1943
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March 8, 1949.
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A_ T, CAI-{ILL
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March 8, 1949.
Filed Jan. 9, 1943
A. 1'. CAHILL
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ART OR IE'I‘HOD AND IEANS F0R GENERATING
MUSIC ELECTRICALLY
16 Sheets-Sheet 11
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ART OR METHOD AND MEANS FOR GENERATING
MUSIC ELECTRICALLY
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March 8, 1949.
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2,463,597
Patented Mar. 8, 1949
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,463,597
ART OR METHOD AND MEANS FOR GEN
ERATING MUSIC ELECTRICALLY
Arthur T. Cahill, Weehawken, N. J.
Application January 9, 1943, Serial No. 471,845
28 Claims. (Cl. 84-1-01)
1
This invention relates to improvements in the
art or method of and means for generating music
by electrical waves, blending them and controlling
them with a delicacy and ?nish heretofore un
known, and then translating them into audible
music, of which the following is a. speci?cation.
The objects of my present inventions are to
create a more perfect and highly artistic musical
Cr
2
the highest quality, as well as great piano con
certos.
Incidental to these broad objects of my inven
tions are numerous other objects, the attainment
of which contributes materially to the achieve
ment of the primary object. These objects and
the results obtained appear more fully in the ac
companying speci?cation, and, brie?y stated, in
clude among other things the following:
instrument than any that is now on the market,
I initiate electrical waves of the frequencies
whose results will be much more artistic even 10
my patent above referred to, but it embodies nu
necessary to produce the musical scale, prefer
ably by alternators as 45, 45, though any other
method of producing electrical musical waves
satisfactorily, may be used.
I provide means which prevent all back leaks
merous new mechanisms and principles of opera
or interactions through other generators, or
tion, and thereby it can create many highly im
portant artistic musical results which the ap
sources of current as more and more tones are
paratus illustrated and describedin my previous
very injurious voltage drops which these leaks
application could not produce.
'
In order to make a disclosure so full that any
one skilled in the art can build an instrument
cause, by having a source of vibrations, as a gen
erator, etc., feed the grid of a vacuum tube, as a
than the results which can be produced by the
mechanism shown in my Patent No. 2,308,051,
January 12, 1943.
This application is similar in many respects to
from the same, I will now state at some length
the objects of my inventions, and the chain of
mechanisms I use to produce my results. Cer
tain fundamental or underlying features pertain~
ing to my invention, but over which my inven
tion constitutes improvements herein set forth,
are disclosed in the following patents to Dr.
Thaddeus Cahill: No. 580,035, dated Apr. 6, 1897;
vNo. 1,107,261, dated Aug. 18, 1914; No. 1,213,803,
dated Jan. 23, 1917; No. 1,213,804, dated Jan. 23,
1917, and No. 1,295,691, dated Feb. 25, 1919.
It is the primary object of my inventions to pro
vide an electrical musical instrument upon which
any desired musical composition may be played
with the ?nest musical ?nish, whether that com
position was written for the piano, or the organ,
or the instruments of the orchestra, or the
orchestra itself, or a piano concerto. It is a fur
ther object of my inventions to give to the
musicians power easily to create many new and
meritorious musical effects never produced in
the world before on any instrument, My instru
ment is capable of playing with the artistic ?n
ish of the piano, and has many new and very im
portant powers of expression no piano has ever
had. It can produce regular organ music, and
also many new and very beautiful musical effects
no pipe organ has ever produced. It also has ;
much more artistic ?nish than even the bowed
sounded. and so completely remove all of the
perfect one-way electrical valve. I thus compel
all of my voltage to go forward productively, and
Without any loss or robbing of the tones what
ever.
I also prevent, by the means mentioned above,
all the voltage drop which results from drawing
at one instant only one very soft tone, and the
next instant many different very loud tones on
different manuals, both as ground tones and as
harmonics; each one of which is drawing, from
the same source, thousands of times as much elec
trical energy as the soft tone, ?rst mentioned
above with the result of perfect addition.
I use a switch board of the type disclosed in the
said Thaddeus Cahill patents, but modi?ed
slightly for shielding purposes, and also to pre
vent their being affected by accumulation of .
dust.
I completely eliminate all diaphragm crack or
key thump, from any cause or of any kind what
ever. by, feeding through each switch at the
switchboards only the in?nitesimal amount of
voltage necessary to swing the grid of a small
vacuum tube. possibly only one microvolt. I have
thus removed and at tri?ing expense, the greatest
curses of previous electrical musical instruments,
robbing and diaphragm crack.
I provide means, aside from the above, for in
troducing my tones as softly as can be heard, and
instruments, brasses, Woodwinds, and percussion
for swelling them up to maximum power‘ with
instruments of the orchestra; and with several
manuals, and several musicians playing at the
same time, can produce full orchestral effects of
I also provide means, aside from the above, for
decreasing tones from maximum power to noth
perfect smoothness and beauty.
2,483,597
3
ing, with perfect smoothness and beauty and
without any diaphragm crack in either case.
Since the generator grid circuit is always
closed, and since under these circumstances no
grid leak is necessary, there cannot possibly be
any voltage drop in the generator grid circuit, no
matter how many tones are sounding.
I provide means which, even if I were using
current instead of voltage, would make it impos
sible for me to have any shocks to the circuits,
any transients, or any resulting diaphragm
cracks 01' even‘ the most microscopic amount,
when my circuits are made and tones are taken.
I also provide means which, even if I were using
4
I also provide means for terminating my tones
without any diaphragm crack whatever.
I provide means for introducing my tones with
widely different forms of attack.
I provide means for carrying my di?erent types
of movable condenser plates in the same carrier.
I provide means for producing the delicately
responsive individual tone touch control of the
piano.
I provide means for simulating the drop or de
cay of the tones of the piano.
I provide means for making the tones drop
very much faster than do the tones of the piano.
I provide means for holding the tones very
current instead of voltage, would make it impos
much longer than the piano can.
sible for me to have any shocks to the circuits, 15
I also provide means for easily altering the
any transients, or any resulting diaphragm cracks
when my switchesopen, and cut off what if any
thing is left of the tones.
I provide means for automatically opening the
envelopes of the waves which create the tones,
and therefore their types of endings.
I provide means by which the lengths of the
inlet valve of a tone-controlling cylinder just as 20 lives of the tones decrease as they go up the scale,
just as they do on the piano, and,
soon as its key starts upward, so that the mov
I also provide means by which the higher tones
able plates will snap out of the condenser very
can be maintained if desired as long as the low
rapidly and the tone sounding will drop or decay
tones, which the piano cannot do.
almost instantly, but very smoothly, and there
I provide means by which with twelve genera
fore only a minimum of current, if indeed any 25
tors and seventy-two tubes and tuned circuits,
at all, will be ?owing when the switchboard
I can produce a very simple, cheap and artistic
switches open.
musical instrument whose tuning will be and al
I provide means which insure that my loud
ways remain perfect.
pedal when released shall not break all the tones
I provide means by which a single movement
at the same instant, but successively and very 30
of the hand conditions my instrument to play
rapidly. I thus prevent any microscopic dia
like a piano or to play like the instruments of the
phragm disturbances I may possibly have from
orchestra, or the orchestra itself, or my pipe or
all combining into one. I thus make them occur
gan which has vastly greater powers than any
successively, in which case all of them, but the 35 pipe
organ.
last one, will be masked by. the other tones that
I provide means by which piano music can be
are still sounding.
played with all the delicacy and beauty of the
I provide means for automatically opening the
piano.
inlet valves of all my tone-controlling cylinders,
I provide means by which piano music can be
just as soon as the loud pedal starts upward, so 40
played
with all the delicacy and beauty of the
that the movable plates will snap out of the con
piano,
and
with many new and beautiful kinds of
densers very rapidly, and all tones sounding will
expression and variations.
drop or decay almost instantly, but very smooth
I provide means by which most if not all the
ly; therefore only a minimum of current, if indeed
instruments of the orchestra, and the full or
any at all, will be ?owing when the switchboard 45 chestra itself, can be played as well, and in most
switches open.
cases better, than the original instruments, and
By the use of one or as many as may be neces
the technique to be mastered is but a small frac
sary of the principles and mechanisms mentioned
tion of that required to play the original instru
in column 2, lines 15 to 25 and 35 to 55, column 3,
ments.
lines 5 to 45, above, I have forever removed every 50 I provide means by which a great piano c0n~
slightest trace of any diaphragm crack.
certo with orchestral accompaniment may be
By inserting vacuum tubes in the lines feeding
played with ?ne artistic ?nish.
my harmonic controls, I accomplish two very im
I provide means, While still preserving the deli—
portant things. First, I raise the voltage high
cate
individual tone touch control of the piano,
55
enough so that condensers of reasonable size can
for reversing the attack, therefore the tones will
be used in my harmonic controls, and second,
start very softly and gently and gradually grow
since the tubes areperiect one-way valves I ab~
to
a maximum, and then decline like piano tones.
solutely prevent any interactions between the
This is an entirely new result.
combining bus bars of the switchboard which
I provide means by which my una corda, or soft
would otherwise take place, with their resultant 60 pedal,
cuts the tone down through a thousand
muddying and weakening of the music.
imperceptible shadings, instead of by just one
I provide means by which any set of harmonies,
step.
or all my sets of harmonies, can be introduced
I provide means by which my sustaining or loud
easily and quickly to a fraction of a per cent of
pedal sustains all tones sounded while it is de
the desired amount. This makes perfect tone 65
pressed, and cuts them oif cleanly and without
building possible, and easy.
diaphragm crack when it is released.
I provide means by which any one of a large
I provide means to preserve the exact relation
number 01’ beautiful tone qualities may be ob
ship
between the vigor of the touch on the keys,
tained instantly merely by touching a tablet. '
70 and the power of the tones which a good grand
I provide means by which any preset com
piano has.
blnation of tone may be changed almost instantly
into a wide variety of beautiful tones.
I provide means for introducing all of my tones
without any diaphragm crack whatever.
I
I provide means by a sympathetic pressure
touch to preserve the exact relationship between
the vigor of the touch on the keys and the power
75 of the tones possessed by the bowed instruments,
2,463,597
5
port controlling slides, and main valve opening
‘Woodwinds, brasses, and percussion instruments
mechanism working in oil or other ?uid con
tained in a trough;
of the orchestra.
I also provide means which make it easier to
produce loud musical results on my instrument
than it is on the piano, or the instruments of the
Fig. 11 is a side elevation of a movable contact
spring carrying bar showing contact springs for
the upper keyboard in place, etc.;
orchestra.
Fig. 12 is a rear view of the same;
I provide means, while still preserving the rela
Fig. 13 is a section of one of the upper switch
tionship between the vigor of the touch on the
board operating springs;
keys and the power of the sounds to enable the
Fig. 14 is a top view of same;
musician to get loud sounds with less effort than 10
Fig. 15 is a side elevation, partly in section of
on the piano with the result that a woman with
the switchboard mechanism, for the lower key
weak hands and a musical soul can create as great
board showing shielding, and also shows my
results as a man with powerful forearms and
method of shielding the switchboards;
Fig. 16 is a rear elevation taken on the line
, hands.
I provide means by which an organist can play ’ 15 16-46 of Fig. 15, partly in section of a part of
the switchboard spring-clamping mechanism,
on my instrument the first time he sits down to
and also of some of the spring actuators, also il
it. In addition to organ tones he will also have
5 a wealth of beautiful tones which no organ has
lustrating my shielding between tones;
_ ever had before, gut string tones, steel string
Fig. 1'7 is an elevation partly in section, and
tones, woodwind and brass tones, etc., etc. He 20 is an enlarged view of a part of the switchboard
will. also have almost limitless powers of expres
spring-clamping mechanism;
sion which no organ and no other instrument
Fig. 18 is a detail partly in elevation, and
of any kind whatever has ever had before, and
partly in section, of the tension adjusting screw
i with a very little practice he will be'making music
and its slotted ferrule, which actuates a lower
_ of a kind which no organist has ever made before. 25
switchboard operating spring;
Fig. 19 is a section of the same on the line
I shield all necessary parts of my instrument,
whether sources of vibrations, or carriers of
l9-—l9 of Fig. 18;
vibrations, or controllers of vibrations, or com
Fig. 20 is an elevation partly in section of one
biners of vibrations, or breakers of the electrical
of the multiple plate harmonic voicing, combin
ing and controlling condensers;
Figs. 21, 22, 23, 24 and 25 together illustrate
two forms of mechanism for pre-setting different
qualities of tone, and also means for changing
35 any one of these qualities almost instantly, and
30
circuits, etc., etc., from interfering vibrations,
whether from their neighbors, or from outside
sources, according to the best modern practice.
Further objects will appear from the following
description, reference being had to the accom
panying drawings.
therein
In the drawings illustrating the selected em
Fig. 1 is a wiring diagram of one form of my
which both plates are movable;
electrical musical instrument;
Fig. 22 is an elevation partly in section on the
line 22-—22 of Fig. 21, of one of the stepped
40
Fig. 2 is an elevation, partly in section,'of most
of the working parts of my instrument, showing
F diagrammatically the electrical working parts
and the connections to them;
U-shaped movable harmonic-controlling frames;
.1 Fig. 23 is a top view of the stepped U-shaped
~harmonic controlling frames;
Figs. 24 and 25 are modi?ed or alternative
constructions for accomplishing the same results
as the mechanism illustrated in Figs. 21, 22 and
23, Fig. 24 being a side elevationpartly in section
Fig. 3 is a side elevation, partly in section, on
’ a’ larger scale than that of Fig. 2, and shows
. more clearly the rear ends of the keys of the
upper keyboard, with the mechanisms related
thereto;
_.
'
Fig. 21 is a side elevation partly in section of
one of the double acting harmonic controls in
bodiment of the mechanism of the invention:
illustrating means for controlling both the mov
I
Fig. 3A is a side elevation partly in cross sec
50
tion of the part of the fly levers where push
pieces pass through them, and it also‘ shows
able receiving plate and the quasi-stationary
transferring plate or plates, and Fig. 25 being
a side elevation partly in section, on the line
means for imparting motion to the variable con
25-—25 of Fig. 24, illustrating means for control
ling the movements of the stepped harmonic
denser plates, etc.;
Fig. 4 is a side elevation mostly in cross sec
55 controlling strips;
Fig. 26 is an end elevation, and Fig. 27 is a side
on a part of the line 4-—4 of Fig. 5 on an en
elevation of a part of a gang of revolving, smooth
larged scale, and also shows shielding between
ly acting, variable resistances, mounted on a com
the condensers;
mon shaft;
Fig. 5 is a horizontal section taken on the line 60
.Fig. 28 is a diagrammatic view of means for
tion of the variable condensers, and is taken
5--5 of Fig. 4, looking upward from below, and
in the right hand portion the upper- parts of
the movable condenser plates aréshown as en
tered into the condenser;
changing the power of each harmonic series
through various steps for tone building purposes;
Fig. 29 is a similar diagrammatic view re
‘
presenting ?xed condensers, whose capacities
Fig. 6 is a side elevation of three of the stamp 05 vary, instead of resistances;
ings for the movable condenser plates before
Fig. 30 is an elevation, mostly in vertical cross
being bent into tubular form;
section, similar in general to Fig. 4, but of a
Fig. 7 is a top view of a ribbon valve, so de
signed that a very slight suction will uncover a
large port;
4
Fig. 8 is a top view of the movable metal .key
board frame;
Fig. 9 is a front elevation of Fig. 8;
,
Fig. 10 is a side elevation, mostly in section,
on an enlarged scale, representing tone-control
3
lingicylinders with their exhaust ports, exhaust
modi?ed or alternative construction so far as the
movable plates are concerned, and also illustrates
1.0 my method for instantly shifting the current into
either set of movable plates 12,- i2 or I2", I2";
Fig. 31 is an elevation of the types of movable
condenser plates in Fig. 30, before they have been
formed into tubes, the same being intended for
76 producing tones with different forms of attack;
2,468,597
Fig. 32 is an elevation mostly in vertical cross
Fig. 45A shows the position of the parts when
the pedal is nearing the bottom;
section of a modification in which one of the
violin producing plates is much smaller and
shorter than the other, serving to introduce the
tons more gradually and smoothly. while the out
Fig. 453 shows the position of the parts when
the pedal has reached the bottom and the con
tact springs are compressed;
Fig. 45C shows the position of the parts with
side plate l2" brings the tone on suddenly;
Fig. 33 is a view largely similar to Fig. 31;
the magnet still maintaining contact when the
Fig. 34 is an elevation of a dial, the lower part
pedal has nearly reached the top. Just before
of which is broken away, it being numbered both
ways from zero. one way being plus and the other 10 the pedal reaches the top the contacts 228 and
way being minus;
22t will be broken and the parts will return to
their normal positions.
Fig. 35 is a diagrammatic view, partly in sec
Figs. 46, 46A and 46B are elevations partly in
section. and illustrate a somewhat similar cir
cuit arrangement. The circuit contains in series
Fig. 36 is a diagrammatic view somewhat simi
lar to Figs. 28 and 29, but of an inductive har
monic control, or a voicing and harmonic control _
mechanism being connected in parallel;
Fig. 37 is a side elevation, on a larger scale,
mostly in section, of one of my tone-controlling
cylinders working in oil. the ports being disposed
spirally, so as to shorten the cylinder as much
as possible;
Fig. 38 is a side elevation of one of such cylin~
two breaks and two magnets, one a working mag
net for opening the inlet valve no of a ton-con
trolling cylinder, and the other a holding magnet
for holding the circuit closed while the key is
rising. There is one such mechanism for every
key.
In Fig. 46 I have shown the parts in their nor
mal positions, both circuit breaks being open.
In Fig. 46A the parts are shown with the key
depressed to the bottom; and in this position the
contacts under the front of the key are closed
but those at the rear of the key are open.
Fig. 46B shows the key part-way up when all
contacts are closed and the working magnet has
opened the main inlet valve of the tone control
different number, and differing spacing of ports;
ling cylinder which lets the movable plates drop
Fig. 39 is a side elevation partly in section, it 30
out of the condenser instantly. The holding mag
being a detail which shows that the front bar of
net is holding its contacts closed and will con
the frame is not horizontal, but is at an angle
to the horizontal;
tinue to do so until the key has returned almost
to the top and broken the rear circuit.
Fig. 40 is a similar view, but showing a number
Fig. 47 is an elevation partly in section. It
f the bell crank latches in the positions they
illustrates an alternative method, a resistance for
assume when the pedal is in its normal position,
controlling the tone, which may be used instead
due to the fact that the front bar of the frame
of my variable condenser.
is at an angle to the horizontal;
Fig. 48 is an elevation of a modi?ed form of my
Fig. 41 is a diagrammatic wiring drawing cor
switchboard.
responding to Figs. 27 and 27a of Patent No.
Fig. 49 is a wiring diagram of a very cheap,
ders which has been cut in two and straightened
out, showing rows of exhaust ports, each with a
simple and meritorious form of instrument. It
omits all voicing coils, all switchboards, all the
tubes V’, V’, and all the harmonic controls 30
and 3|. 30 and 3|. The appropriate harmonic
wires are led to the proper plates of my multi
plate condenser where they are both voiced as in
dividual tones in a harmonic set, and also the
Fig. 42 is a top view partly in section of a part
power of the set controlled at the same time.
of
my
lower
switchboard,
showing
the
notches
50
out into
'
They are all then combined Without loss on inter
actions on the common pick-up whose movements
well beyond the contact points;
at all times control perfectly the power and ex
pression of the tone. The wires from the pick-up
Fig. 43 is an elevation partly in section in gen
eral, similar to the lower rear part of Fig. 3, and 65 plates of all the octaves of a tone are then com
bined on a common conductor, and are then com
showing a detail of construction by which the
bined again in any appropriate way and led to
inlet valves are all opened electrically and held
the
amplifier and loud speaker.
open while the loud pedal is rising, thus per
Fig. 50 is a wiring diagram of a still simpler
mitting the movable plates to drop out of the
condensers practically instantly, so eliminating
diaphragm crack;
create a complex and rich tone.
each generator is led directly to its key controlled
Fig. 44 is an elevation partly in section. and is
the pick-up plate
lead for all the octaves of
from the various
manner desired and are then led to the ampli?er
and loud speaker.
Fig. 51 is a'diagrammatic view of a system where
70
there are only twelve generators, one for each
tact while the loud pedal is rising.
Fig. 45 shows the parts in their normal posi
tions when the loud pedal is up;
75
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