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June 21, 1949.
D. l. BOHN.
2,474,029
TRIPPING DEVICE
Filed Oct. 11, 1944
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IN VEN TOR.
DONALD I. BORN.
BY
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ATTORNEX
June 21, 1949.
2,474,029
D. I. BOHN
TRIPPING DEVICE
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
Filed Oct. 11, 1944
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INVENTOR.
DONALD /. BOHN
BY
ATTORNEY
June 21, 1949.
D. l. BOHN
1
TRIPPING DEVICE
Filed Oct. 11. 1944
2,474,029
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IN VEN TOR.
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DONALD J. BG'IN
BY
ATTORNEY
Patented June 21, 1949
2,474,029
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,474,029
TRIPPING DEVICE
Donald I. Bohn, Pittsburgh, Pa., assignor to
I. T. E. Circuit Breaker Company, Philadelphia,
Pa., a corporation of Pennsylvania
Application October 11, 1944, Serial No. 558,268
5 Claims.
1
This invention relates to circuit breakers and
more particularly relates to circuit breakers re
sponsive both to rising reverse currents and ex
cessive forward currents.
~
In many circuits, protection‘ from a reverse
current requires that the circuit breaker be more
(Cl. 175-294)
erable in response to the rate of rise in current
in the opposite direction.
Still another object of my invention is to pro
vide a novel electro-magnet having a by-pass
magnetic path around the armature.
'
Still a further object of my invention is to pro
vide a novel cathode circuit breaker for a recti-v
quickly responsive to such reverse currents than
to rising forward currents. This is particularly
?er system.
.
true in recti?er circuits where the cathode
There are other objects of my invention which
breaker is subject to reverse current conditions 10 together with the foregoing will appear in the
due to a fault in the recti?er. The resulting
detailed description which is to follow in connec
short circuit condition from such a fault in the
tion with the drawings, in which
recti?er produces a high rate of rise of reverse
Figure 1 is a schematic illustration of my novel
short circuit current and may result in consider
electro-magnet structure.
able damage if permitted to persist. Where the
Figure 2 illustrates a modi?ed schematic form
holding magnet type of circuit breaker is em
of my novel electro-magnet.
played as shown in application Serial No. 524,540,
Figure 3 is a detailed view of one form of my
the reverse current may build up before the over
novel electro-magnet.
load magnet has an opportunity to trip the cir
Figure 4 illustrates one form of rectifier system
cuit breaker and thus lock the breaker in against 20 in which my novel breaker may be applied.
a fault.
Referring now to Figure 1, I have shown sche
In accordance with my invention, I provide a
matically a source of power I, and a circuit fed
circuit breaker which, while being quickly re
therefrom which is protected by a circuit breaker
sponsive to a direct or forward rise to overload
schematically shown at 2. .The circuit breaker
or short circuit values, is more quickly respon 25 2 is provided with the usual latch mechanism 3.
sive to the rate of rise or a reverse current.
Latch 3 holds the circuit breaker in closed posi
In general, my invention contemplates a trip
tion against the action of the'tension spring 4
ping magnet provided with two electromagnetic
which, on release of the latch, operates the circuit
paths; one, the usual magnetic circuit including
breaker to open position.
the armature and air gap to the pole face, and 30
A load 5 is illustrated schematically as fed with I
another magnetic path around the air gap por
energy supplied by generator I. Connected in
tion of the ?rst magnetic circuit.
series in the load circuit 5 is the winding 6 of an
The latter or second magnetic path provides a
electro-magnet 'l for controlling the circuit
by-pass for some of the magnetic ?ux around the
breaker 2. '
.
armature air gap during rising forward current
The electro-magnet 1 which embodies my novel
values. When this by-pass becomes saturated
construction comprises a ?rst usual magnetic
(which occurs at predetermined short circuit cur
path 8 which may be traced from one pole face‘ 9
rent values) the magnetic flux across the arma
to the electro-magnetic path about which the
ture air gap will be such as to e?ect an operation
winding 6 is mounted to the armature Ill.
of the armature to effect a tripping of the circuit 40
The armature I0 is normally biased to its low
breaker.
‘
ermost position by a spring ll toward the by
When a reverse current results, the by-pass
pass electro-magnetic path I! which by-passes
magnetic path around the armature becomes in
the gap between the armature l0 and the pole
veiTective as a by-pass and all of the flux in the
face 9 over the magnetic circuit completed along
main magnetic path ?ows through the armature 45 path l3.
to eifect a quicker tripping of the armature; the
A winding M is mounted on the core of this
blocking of the by-pass being a direct function of
magnetic circuit l2 and is connected'to the oppo
the rate of rise of such reverse current.
site terminals of a recti?er I5 which may be of
Accordingly, an object of my invention is to
any suitable construction for permitting current
provide a novel circuit breaker which is respon 50 to flow only in one direction for the current values
sive to forward current values and is responsive
here involved.
to the rate of rise of reverse current value.
When normal currents ?ow in the main circuit,
A further object of my invention is to provide
the flux generated by the current flowing in the
a novel electro-magnet operable in response to
series winding 6 will extend over the electro-mag
predetermined currents in one direction and op 55 netic path 8 and over armature l0 and around
anemone
3
the by-pass magnetic path I! and It. By a suit
able construction of the magnetic by-‘pass i2 and
by a control of its cross-sectional area, the flux
in the by-pass will become saturated at a pre
determined current value ?owing through the
winding 5.
-
For purposes of illustration it will be assumed
that this ?ux has a clockwise direction as shown
by the arrows. As a result of increases in the
4
a lower current value of the reverse current,
than in the case of current rise in the forward
direction, and will therefore effect a more rapid
tripping of the circuit breaker at a relatively low
reverse current.
A. further condition that must be considered is
a falling forward current, from a current value
just below the tripping value. The ?ux induced
in the by-pass by the forward current has already
current ?ow through winding 8 causing corre 10 been described as having a counterclockwise di
sponding increases in the ?ux, the flux will take
rection which on upward change sets up currents
the path of least reluctance at armature III
in the direction shown by the arrow which can
which on saturation of the by-pass, is across the
gap to the pole face 8. Accordingly when the
not pass the recti?er.
The ?ux set up in the
by-pass around the armature by the decreasing
current has reached a predetermined excess 15 forward current will induce currents in coil ll
value, the armature It will be attracted to the
having the reverse direction from that shown by
pole face 8 against the action of the spring ii.
the arrow or the same direction as a rising re
The armature It as it moves towards its pole
verse current. This induced current ?owing in
piece 9- operates a tripper bar I‘, which in turn
winding I4 is short-circuited by the rectifier and
will rock the latch mechanism 8 from its normal 20 will generate a clockwise flux in the by-pass as
position about its pivot II for disengaging the
aready described in connection with the rising
circuit breaker arm to permit the circuit breaker
reverse current ,case. This ?ux being in the
to operate to its open position under the action
same dfirection as the flux induced by the fall
of spring 4, in the usual manner now well known
ing forward current in the main magnetic circuit
in the art, and here merely shown schematically. 25 will therefore tend to maintain the ?ux set up
In the operations thus far described, the clock
by the falling forward current. Accordingly a
wise direction ?ux rising in value in the magnetic
falling forward current will not effect a tripping
operation.
.
path l2, as a result of rising forward currents,
will induce a voltage which would cause a cur
In Figure 2 I have shown a modified form of
rent ?ow in the windings H which would be in 30 my invention in which the series coil 2| connected
such a direction (assumed for illustration to be
in the circuit 22 is mounted on one leg of a
as shown by the arrow) that the recti?er l5 pre
magnetic path in which there is a solenoid trip
vents any current ?ow, and accordingy an open
member 28. Member 23 operates on the latch
circuit condition exists and no current ?ows in
mechanism 24 of the circluit breaker 28 in the
the winding I‘. As aready explained, ?ux pro 35 usual manner. A second winding 28 on a by
duced by forward rising current takes the lower
pass core 28 of the magnetic path is connected
reluctance path around the armature air gap
across a rectifier 21. With current ?owing in
until predetermined overload values are reached.
a forward direction over the circuit 22, the ?uxes
When such currents ?ow in winding 8, the re
induced in the magnetic path are such that the
sulting ?ux in the main magnetic circuit 1 is 40 current generated by the ?ux over the by-pass
such that the by-pass is saturated and the ?ux
core 28 is blocked by the recti?er 21, and there
therefore jumps the air gap and operates arma
fore the coil is open-circuited; therefore some
of the ?ux generated by the main winding 2|
ture Hi.
It will now be assumed that because of a par
will flow over the by-pass until the by-pass is
ticular short circuit condition, current in the
saturated. However, when a reverse current con
main circuit is ?owing through the series wind
dition exists as described above, the current in
ing 6 in the reverse direction from that shown
duced in coil 28 is short-circuited by the recti
by the arrow. The ?ux in the magnetic path
fier 21 due to the fact that the current ?owing
8, as a result of this reverse current ?owing in
in this coil is now in the opposite direction. The
the winding 6, will'have a counterclockwise di 50 plunger 23 will therefore operate at lower cur
rection or reverse to that previously assumed with
rent values to effect the tripping of the breaker
as in the case of Figure 1.
current ?owing in the normal direction. The
flux in the by-pass |2 will therefore have a coun—
The operation of the device shown in Figure 2
may be further explained by assuming that the
terclockwlse direction or reverse to that previ
ously assumed. Accordingly, the voltage induced 55 coil 2| when-energized in a normal direction,
and resulting current generated by this ?ux in
causes the ?ux to ?ow upward in the central core
the winding It for rising reverse current will be
2'. At the top it divides and flows outward in the
in the reverse direction from that shown by the
two top sections and downward in the outside
arrow and that previously obtained. The recti
legs. At the mid-point, the ?ux divides, accord
?er it permits this reverse current to ?ow.
ing to the reluctance of the magnetic circuits,
".0
The current value in the winding ll, for this
some going inwardly to the center core and up
reverse direction of ?ux, will of course be a
ward through the coil 2| to complete the circuit,
function of the rate of rise of the ?ux in the
the remainder going downward in the bottom of
magnetic path i2, which in turn is a function,
the outside legs and then inwardly to the center
of the rate of rise, of the reverse current through
core 28 in the coil 28 and upward through the
the winding 6.
center core to complete the circuit.
The ?ux set up in the magnetic path II, by
That ?ux which passes through the core 28
this current ?owing through the winding ll, will
tends to hold the tripping armature 23 down.
be clockwise and buck the counterclockwise ?ux
The ?ux that passes to the center core 2; at the
set up by ‘current through i, thus making the 70 mid-point above the core 28 has no downward pull
by-pass a high reluctance path. The ?ux in the
on the tripping armature 28. As the core 28 ap
main magnetic path 8, induced by the current in
proaches saturation more and more of the flux
winding 8, will thereore take the path across the
crosses the central core at the mid-point above
armature l0 and pole piece 8. The armature
the core 28 and tripping occurs at a high rate of
therefore will be attracted to its poe piece 8 at 76 current change in the forward direction, since the
2,474,099
5
recti?er 2! does not pass current and is effectively
-
open-circuited.
-
With an increase in current in the reverse
direction, current is circulated in coil 26 and rec
ti?er 21 which chokes out the ?ux in core 28
causing all the ?ux to circulate around the up
per half of the magnet 23 and all of the flux is
available to trip the circuit breaker.
In Figure 3 I have illustrated one practical
upon the reversal of current that the circuit
breaker be quick tripping.
In accordance with my ‘invention the cathode
breaker 88 is provided with a magnetic structure
as shown in Figure 1 or 2 will effect a tripping
of the breaker 38 immediately upon the reversal
of current.
'
As already stated, my novel control may be
applied to a circuit breaker such as shown in the
embodiment of my novel electro-magnet having
a winding 40 and adapted to be mounted on the
frame of a circuit breaker such as disclosed in
Jensen application Serial No. 374,414, but it will
be obvious that it may be employed for controlling
the application of Otto Jensen, ?led January 15,
1941, Serial No. 374,414, assigned to the present
asslgnee, now Patent No. 2,355,075, issued August
Although in describing my novel electro-mag
net and the associated circuit breaker, I have
shown one form of electro-magnet construction,
it will be understood that the circuit breaker may
take other forms, and that the electro-magnet
8, 1944.
‘
In this ?gure a main magnetic circuit or me- '
tallic, path of relatively high permeability is
generally rectangular in shape and has a rectan
gular cross-section, and comprises the sides 3|,
32, 33 and 34 secured to the frame of the circuit
breaker in any suitable manner as by way of
?anges 35 and 38 and the bolts 31. Included
in this magnetic path is an armature 38 pivotally
mounted on the pin 39, and biased to its lowermost
position by the spring 4|, one end of which is
any circuit breaker.
may take other forms so long as it is so polarized
as to provide a by-pass around the gap of the
armature which is effective if a current flows in
one direction and is an ineffective by-pass for
:urrent ?owing in the opposite direction.
Although I have illustrated my invention in
connection with a particular system for the pro
duction of aluminum, and in a recti?er circuit, it
will be understood that it is also applicable to
other systems, and also to other forms of circuit
breakers than is here shown by way of illustra
tion, and I intend to be limited only by the claims
secured to the main structure at 43 and the other
end to the pin 45 extending from armature 38.
Armature 38 extends through a suitable open
ing between 38' and 52 provided between lamina 30 herewith.
tions 3| and 5,3 and is normally held against back
I claim:
stop 52 by spring 41. Back stop 52 is made ad
1. An electromagnet for controlling the opera
Justable by the set screw 5|.
tion of a circuit breaker, said electromagnet hav
A by-pass magnetic path for the main magnetic
ing an armature having ‘an energized and de
path around the armature air gap comprises legs 35 energized position, a pole face adjacent to and
53, 54 and 55. A core 56 through which the bolts
forming an air gap with said armature, (a ?rst
magnetic path including said armature air gap
51 extend carries a coil 58, the core 56 and the
bolt 51 being secured between the sections 53 and
and pole face, a second ‘closed iron magentic
54 by nuts 58. The winding or bucking bar 58 is
path including said armature and by-passing the
connected over the leads 6| to a recti?er 62. It 40 air gap between said armature and pole face of
will be understood that the bucking bar is
mounted on a main magnetic circuit as previously
schematically described, and that the magnetic
said magnetic path when said armature is in its
tie-energized position, a ?rst winding connected
in series in the circuit to be protected by the
paths all are of a laminated construction in the
circuit breaker, said winding being on the core
usual manner well known in the art. Armature 45 of said ?rst magnetic path, a second winding 0n
38, when operated against the upper pole face
the core of said by-pass magnetic path, and cir
acts against the tripper member 83 in the man
cuit connections for said second winding such
that for currents of a predetermined amplitude
ner well known in the art for tripping a circuit
breaker as schematically illustrated in Figure 1.
in a predetermined direction in said ?rst wind
In Figure 4 I have schematically illustrated a 50 ing, said by-pass has a predetermined reluctance
circuit diagram in which my invention may be
at a predetermined value of said current so that
employed. In this circuit diagram, a source of
the flux induced by said current ?nds a path of
power which may be a three-phase source of al
lower reluctance across said air gap and for cur
ternating current is fed over the'conductors ‘II,
rents of a lower than said predetermined ampli
12 and 13 to the delta conductive primary 14 of 55 tude in a direction opposite to said predetermined
direction in said ?rst winding, said by-pass has
the transformer ‘I5. Secondary 18 of this trans
former is star-connected and comprises the wind
said predetermined reluctance at said different
than said predetermined value of said current
ings 11 to 82 connected respectively over the con
so that ?ux induced by said current ?nds a path
ductors 83 to 88 to the anode circuit breakers 89.
The anode circuit breakers are in turn connected 60 of lower reluctance across said air gap at said
different than said predetermined current value.
over their respective leads to the anodes of a
2. An electromagnet for controlling the opera
recti?er 95. The cathode of this recti?er 95
tion of a circuit breaker, said electromagnet hav
is connected over the circuit breaker 96 to the load
ing an armature having an energized and de
81 which may be an electrolytic pot in an alumi
65 energized position, a pole face adjacent to and
num manufacturing system. ' The other ter
forming an air gap with said armature, a ?rst
minal of this load extends over the conductor 98
magnetic path including said armature air gap
to the common terminal of the star-connected
and pole face, a second closed iron mgnetic path
secondary of the transformer 16.
by-passing the air gap extending from said arma
In practice it has been found that when a. 70 ture to said pole face of said magnetic path and
short circuit occurs within the recti?er 95, as
including said armature when said armature is
for example between any pair of anodes, that
in its de-energized position, a ?rst winding con
this short circuit also results in a reverse cur
nected in series in the circuit to be protected by
the circuit breaker, said winding being on the
cases, it is of great importance that immediately 76 core of said ?rst magnetic path, a second wind
rent ?owr over the circuit breaker 96. In such
7
2,474,029
ing on the core of said by-pass magnetic path,
and circuit connections for said second winding
such that for currents of a predetermined ampli
tude in a predetermined direction in said ?rst
winding, said by-pass has a predetermined reluc
tance at a predetermined value of said current
so that the ?ux induced by said current ?nds a
path of lower reluctance across said air gap and
for currents of a lower than said predetermined
amplitude in a direction opposite to said prede
termined direction in said first winding, said by
pass becomes saturated at said different than
said predetermined value of said current so that ‘
flux induced by said current ?nds a path of
lower reluctance across said air gap at said dif
ing an armature having an energized and de
energized position, a pole face adjacent to and
forming an air gap with said armature, a ?rst
magnetic path including said armature air gap
and pole face,'a second closed iron magnetic path
by-passing the air gap between said armature and
pole face of said magnetic path and including said
armature when said armature is in its de-ener
'gized position, a ?rst winding connected in series
in the circuit to be protected by the circuit
breaker, said winding being on the core of said
?rst magnetic path, a second winding connected
on the core of said by-pass magnetic path, and
a recti?er connected across said second winding,
the reluctance of said by-pass in relation to the
ferent than said predetermined current value.
air gap being such that at a predetermined flux
3. An electromagnet for controlling the opera
intensity caused by current in a predetermined
tion of a circuit breaker, said electromagnet hav
amplitude in a predetermined direction in said
ing an armature movable to an energized position
?rst winding, the by-pass provides a path of
and a de-energized position, a pole face adja 20 lower reluctance for said flux exists across said
cent to and forming an air gap with said arma
air gap, current in said second winding inducing
ture, a ?rst magnetic path including said arma
a ?ux to provide said lower reluctance across said
ture air gap and pole face, said magnetic path
air gap at a diiferent value of current in the
forming a closing metallic path including said
opposite from said predetermined direction in
pole face and armature when said armature is 25 said ?rst winding.
in its energized position, a second magnetic path
5. An electromagnet for controlling the opera
including said armature and by-passing the air
tion of a circuit breaker, said electromagnet hav
gap between said armature and pole face and
ing an armature having an energized and de
forming a closed metallic magnetic path with a
energized position, a pole face adjacent to and
part of said ?rst mentioned magnetic path when 30 forming an air gap with said armature, a ?rst
said armature is in its de-energized position, a
magnetic path including said armature air gap
?rst winding connected in series in the circuit
and pole face, a second closed iron magnetic path
to be protected by the circuit‘ breaker, said wind
by-passing the air gap between said armature and
ing being on the core of said ?rst magnetic path,
pole face of said magnetic path and including
a second winding on the core of said- by-pass .
said armature when said armature is in its de
magnetic path, a recti?er connected across said
energized position, a winding connected in series
second winding, the direction of the turns of said
in the circuit to be protected by the circuit
second winding and the connection of the recti
breaker, said winding being on the core of said
?er being such that when rising current of a pre
?rst magnetic path, a second winding connected
determined amplitude ?ows in a predetermined 40 on the core of'said by-pass magnetic path, and
direction in the ?rst winding in the protected
circuit inducing a ?ux having a corresponding
direction, the voltage induced in said second
winding thereby generates current in a direction
blocked by said recti?er, said second magnetic
path having a cross-section which at a predeter
mined current value in said ?rst winding has
a predetermined reluctance
luctance across said air gap
a path of less reluctance
than around said by-pass
a recti?er connected across said second winding.
DONALD I. BOHN.
REFERENCES CITED
The following referenlces are of record in the
?le of this patent:
greater than the re
UNITED STATES PATENTS
so that the ?ux ?nds
Number
Name
Date
across said air gap 50
751,442
Andrews __________ __ Feb. 9, 1904
at a said predeter
mined current value, the flux induced by rising
current of a lower than said predetermined am
plitude in said ?rst winding in the reverse from
said above predetermined direction inducing a 56
voltage in said second winding which generates
a current therein in a direction which is passed
by said recti?er to in turn induce a ?ux which
produces said predetermined reluctance in said
by-pass at said different predetermined current 60
value in said ?rst winding than in the ?rst above
1,427,368
1,545,754
1,742,367
1,760,542
1,761,006
1,813,535
1,920,745
1,979,127
1,994,921
2,001,897
2,046,748
condition to cause the ?ux to ?nd a lower reluc
2,435,001
tance path across said armature air gap at said
lower rising current value of said reverse direc
tion current than in the case of said ?rst pre- as Number
determined current direction.
4. An electromagnet for controlling the opera
tion of a circuit breaker, said electromagnet hav
Fortescue et a1 ____ __ Aug. 29,
Golladay _________ __ July 14,
Nettleton _________ __ Jan, 7,
Cohn ____________ __ May 27,
Butcher __________ __ June 3,
Gaudenzi _________ __ July 7,
Grunholz _________ __ Aug. 1,
Warrick _________ __ Oct. 30,
Rose ____________ __ Mar. 19,
West et a1 ________ __ May 21,
Hudson ___________ _._ July 7,
1922
1925
1930
1930
1930
1931
1933‘
1934
1935
1935
1936
Field ______ _______ __ Jan. 27, 1948
, FOREIGN PATENTS
Country
Date
123,220
278,650
Switzerland _______ __ Nov. 8, 1927
Great Britain _____ __ Dec. 15, 1937
475,640
Great Britain ____ __ Nov. 23, 1937
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