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Aug. 16, 1949.
Filed March 29., 1946
3 Sheets-Sheet 1
[email protected] [email protected]
Aug. 16, 1949.
Filed March 29, 1946
5 Sheets-Sheet 2
Hen/y J Rapaanqpec'd. ,
BY £53/ Dofus H Rvajnwar/àgmx
Aug. 16, 1949.
Filed <March 29, 1946
3 Sheets-Sheet 3
Patented Àug. 16,V>` 1949
New Haven, VGolm-Qn*_assigner gta ‘United Aircraft _ `
golfporation, East, Hartford, “G_onrl., a-- corpora
v __ ‘non off DelawareV
.Marcha-9, 194s, .seña-irre. 653,259? V‘ i
__“ffiiséinreeliißn relates ißòri'angleeear drives andy
' erally «stofimnrovestlie oon-structiclm-_zrandropera’tiom
particularly; `to ,.rightf-angled; ‘gea-r drives ¿ for fair
_ Iitgáìwlfçra'fi? igt-¿Which
‘l Other objects fandfadvantages fof-»thea'twentieth;`>
plurality _of` foie; and` vatt i
will »be..-pointed\out hereinaftei'îòrswillibeiapparenti
directed `pre1» ller ¿shafts? ¿areVl -in-terconnectedçby.
trims ,e
from fthe ~follovvirag;_~de_tai-ll=idi dësc?ption _rotfftm‘ee
abetting-it lis rnecessaryl.
_ _
embodiment :of ' thefìinventionzsshown- by» waaier-E
toitrfansmit ¿high torqtiefgfçrom the engines tofth'e
shafting angl #iront »fthegqshaffting to» the Apropeller
example/in the accompanying-drawings: ’
In theseìdrawi-ngsgï
Shafts, ‘through right-_angled gearing. _ _The prob
" l
Fig». 1- _is apersnective viewxofß îan'fairplaznefhave1~
ingl right-angledï-dnive Pmean‘s.îembódyingithegina;
Eig, '2 :is a somewhat fdîagramìnaticfviewfíonbmì
limitation present inA ¿th Á»field ‘in which _ it is fes-_
Se, ' mltbet-thepower
nsmissionl _elements lin
cludíxlaêthefshaftingf [email protected] ndvhousing'pbe _kept
nent» A
enlargeclf-scale of ¿theeimpnoved drivelmeans; '. " ‘
_ Eig, ~--3. Vis :a diagrammatic _fitlnstratíon fritta «fans»V r
15 ventional right-angled bevel gear tltiveìlfuver'i
which :this-inventioniîonstitutes` a‘n: improvement ;
_ Fer
Ägívenfrnaterialsfa given ‘service’ìílife
is a _dennite
limit to the‘amonnt offpowerpthat-Banßbeîtranse'
l?iiftìzeqlli vÍt'li'roi‘vig-li Vthe-_ conventienal,I fright-angled.
Eig. Y‘4Q-is -asectional vieyveonfaneenlarged
through agrightëang-led- ge ait ¿boit-f
gear dr‘iYQ- a Irl; »azcvnventinnal 1ispirati; lbevel _geen
tbèiëeîäeliioeds, and Separating-»loads _atsthe _Spiral ’
geargteethfprodnce unbalanced thrust loads which _
cause` ‘bending1 @moments «luft-he ïgears land- »shaft
{ang‘unbalaneed Vnonradial_«loads -in~th`e bear
ings.¿¿ These _ein tarn »setgup bendin'g~moment fine
¿¿casinglgin»fthefwebsfof-ethesgears *and 'in-_ y
the se
arrowya» force=represented-âby `„the vectorfuJ-issgene »
thefshattiíngfvall of whicheparts ìfrnust b'e increased;
thezspiral »loadqon v4the fgear teeth,. «and :a AtorceVî
erated--at »the'fcon-tacting f_acesco'fxsthe-:gears *due to;v
in strength to :successfully TeSiStithese forces‘withî
a¿jes„uitingI marked uincrease fin fvveight.:A
It is an objectîotfthisßinvention toí‘providesam
impiggedwangle --gearrfdrìve capable 'o‘f ¿transmit
ting‘À substantially ldeuble fthe «îamount _fof-V power i
represented by the vector,bsis._-:generatedsas Stlfref;
result »of _the `separating load ïonsthévëteeth.: 'The
resultant fR‘of these‘ftwoë'forces
that can be transmitted-throughaa (conventional.
auslegen-:drive _
exerted» again-s.tithelagear` «t8 Tat îtheffpitch cîrnlel':
'I-‘his ¿_force»v not :onlyv «sets» `upl severe xfbendirigl>-`
moments lin the web of-_rtheagear :wzïbuazibeinïgv-fanv
eccentric loactïit 'sets-»np bendingßmoments ini-ashesv
shaft 20 »as `zweites unbalanced ¿non-‘radial floads:
in ,thev bearings;l 22 Fandk
> These; nnbaïlaìrcedff
loadsfrequirfeçthat ¿the Webfof fgear > I-‘8- befvery
-Atfîr'no‘ifeîsneci-fìc yobjectgof theninvention iis to;
heëwt’, ‘that :fthe :shaft: »520 A:be »large `„andi ztha‘t the -_
neiitralizeì; the Aioaçls :onythe bearings vare -’radial
unbalanced -ioads `to 'the ‘housing_*whichfeneloses.;
prgvige »ai frignteengied geen fdnve [email protected] 40 bear-îngsfh and 2_4 also=be§largef ¿Fluitl'rernmre‘it;l
tht-list; loads¿¿generated4v by >the ugear teeth -are
will-„bejevident _that ìthe `Ãbearings transmit''-fth‘esen
and-- bending »moments ¿in the »gear vcasing :are
the îb'evel“gearfdrivelsettingiup :bending moments ‘f
in rthis ¿housing which lirefluire-:that the,` housing->
145 be of heavy construction. Even if the .resultantä
vide an improved right-angl1ed„-gearzdrive'system _
in¿¿whicn¿ fthe jdriving» power `is Ktransmitted fon
thatl _the ¿poweijf and-torque qisfequally “divided-»'be- "
tweenihe two _Sha-ttseoifeach pair.
AA further. -objecty_offthe` invention AVisy to îprovide _:
all., îallgle :gear @rive »having »improvedl me'an's ‘fozy
adjusting the :clearance '-between.<_tlie dnterinesh- .l
HA; still further-:object oflithe Áìinven-t'ion.fis »'gß‘n‘f. §65
aircraft drive, 'there fis: a «de’ñnite-ïlimit ¿to îthe'
horsepower which .can be :transmitted~ .throi-igh-'jJ
such a :conventional angle gearfdrlve. '
spiral bevel gears 82, 84 and 86, 88 at their op
posite ends which mesh respectively with the
fixed maximum ratio between the diameter of
the gear and the face length of the teeth of the
meshing gear and pinion for a given ratio of gear
and pinion diameter. If it is attempted to in
crease the torque transmitted through the gear
double bevel gears 51 and 18 in gear boxes 52, 54.
Referring again to the right hand angle drive,
it will be noted (Fig. 2) that torque loaded shafts
66 and 68 are of like diameter and material and
have a like'amount of flexibility and that, since
drive by increasing the Adiameter of the gear and
pinion, the permissible speed in feet per» minute
at the gear face is exceeded. Thus there exists _ w the bevel gears 62 and 64 are of equal diameter
and are driven by like bevel gear faces 58 and 60
for a, given spiral bevel gear drive of this type
of the same gear 51, they are always equally torque
a definite limit to the power which can be trans
loaded. Also, since gears 10, 12 on the outboard
mitted, and this limit is well below thehorse
vends .of shafts 66 and` 68 are of equal diameter,
power output of the larger 'aircraft engines now
in use. The gear drive of the present invention _Y the combinedtorque and power loading of these
provides means for transmitting these higher -` shafts transferred to gear 11 and propeller drive
shaft 40 is equally divided between these parallel
horsepowers through a right-angled gear drive.
shafts. It will be apparent that in conventional
For purposes of illustration the gear drive of the
rigid shafting, inaccuracies of manufacture or
present invention has been shown as applied to a
lack of manufacture of the gears to extremely
low aspect ratio, all wing airplane 26 (Fig. 1)
close tolerances would tend to cause one or the
having two engines 21 and 28 driving two inter
connected oppositely rotating propellers 29 and
30. The two engines-are preferably-opposite ro
tating engines; however two like rotating engines
can be used by inserting al simple reversing gear
other of the shafts to carry more than its pro
portionate share of Vthe load,` whereas in the
present invention the flexibility of the shafting
will have the inherent tendency to correct any
minor inaccuracies of manufacture of the drive
mechanism in the drive system, preferably on one
engine drive shaftY between the engine and the
system components with the result that'V theÁ
transverse shafting.` :The propellers 29, 316 are
torque and power loading under all conditions
will be equally divided between the parallel trans
carried by forwardly projecting nacelles 32, 34
located at the opposite lateral extremities of the
leading edge of the wing which house the usual
verse shafts with their attached gears.
reduction gearing 36,» 88A and propeller drive shafts I
40, 42 which have their aft ends terminated in
anglegear boxes 44,'46,-respectively. The reduc
tion` gearing 36, 38‘ areY identical providing op
extends outside the casings carries a sleeve 88
which has a splined connection at 90 to a flanged
posite rotation ofthe propeller 29 relative to the
propeller 30.
drive member S2 which is connected by bolts> 84
Engines.21,r28. drive shafts 48, 50 which are
suitably supported at their forward ends in gear
boxes 52., 54; respectively 'and are interconnected
with each other and with the propeller'driveshafts
40, 42 by shafting` generally indicated at 56 which
Preferably the bevel gears 10, 12 are forged
The gear 10 .includes an integral web"
80 and a hollow axial hub 82 which is journalled
in anti-friction bearings 84 and 86 carried bythe
angle gear box 44. The part of hub 82 which
with a similar flange 96 on the outboard endof
shaft ‘66. The gear 12 is provided with a similar>
integral web 98 and hollow hub I 00. >The hub
|00 is journalled in anti-friction bearings |0| and
I0 Ia in the casing 44. Hub |80 carries a Sleeve |02
having a splined connection |04 to a flanged drive
extends transversely- between the several gear
boxes v44, 52, 54 and 46. The drive system is
symmetrical on opposite sides of the longitudinal
center line of the airplane and accordingly the
drive means associated with the right hand side
of the wingzhas been shownron a larger scale in
member |06 which is connected by'bolts |08‘to’v
the flange I I0 on the outboard end of the shaft 68. _Í
It will be noted that the bearings 86 andV |0|`a
are supported in a casing wall ||2 which is
disposed at right angles to the axes of shafts 66
and 68 while bearings 84 and |0| are similarly
disposed in casing walls ||4 and ||6 of casing
Fig. 2 to which reference is made for a more de
tailed description of the drive improvements con
stituting the invention.
The forward end of engine driven shaft 48 which 50 44 which are parallel with wall |I2V and arel thus f
at right angles to shafts 66 and 68.
is disposed within gear box 52 carries a gear 51
The gear 11 is also of very light construction>
having double spiral bevel gear faces 58 and ‘66
having a thin web I I8 integral with a hollowhub
meshing respectively with a pair of equal diameter
|28 which is journalled in' the casing 44 in anti
spiral bevel gears 62, ‘64.ñxed to the inboardl ends v
of two transverse hollow drive shafts 66 and 68, 55 friction bearings |22 and |24. Here again it will
preferably of aluminum alloy, which extend out
board in- parallelrelation and at right angles
be noted that these bearings are carried by
parallel casing walls |26 and |28 which are at`
to- shaft 48 and carry at their outboard ends a
right angles to the axis of the hub |20. The
portion of the hub |20 which extends forwardly
pair of equal Vdiameter -spiral bevel gears 10 and
12. disposed inthe angle gear box 44. The spiral 60 throughI wall |28 carries a drive sleeve '|30 which 'Y
has a splined connection’ |32 with a flange mem
bevel faces of the gears 10, 12 mesh with the op
ber |34 which is connected by peripherally-arf
posed bevel gear faces 14, 16 of a double spiral
ranged bolts |36 with flange |38 on the aft end
bevel gear 11 fixed on the aft end of propeller drive
of propeller drive shaft 48, the drive sleeve |30
shaft 40 and located to rotate in the same plane
as gear 51.
. The‘drive shaft 58 of engine 28 is similarly con
being secured axially onv hub |20 by suitable
means such as a nut |40.
The forged double bevelY gear 11 has its annu- ’
nected to propeller drive shaft 42.` In order that
either engine may drive both propellers in the
lar gear face 14 formed integral with the web ||8
event of failure of the other engine, means are
thereof and the other annular gear face 16 formed
provided for interconnecting the double bevel gear 70 as a separate member |42 having an annular web '
51 in the gear box 52 with the corresponding
flange |44 which is secured to the web ||8 of
double bevel gear 18 >in the gear box 54. To this
gear 11 by a series of peripherally spaced bolts
|46. Clamped between the web flange |44 and
endtwo parallel hollow drive shafts 19, 818 are
provided »which extend transversely between gear'`
web I I8 are a plurality of annular shims |48 boxes 52 and 54;. These’ Vshafts carry pairs of 75 which maybe of various thicknesses by the re
moval of which the clearance between the annu
lar gear faces 14, 'I6 of gear 11 and the mesh
ing gears 10, 12 can be varied.
Since the forces exerted on gear 'l1 by pinion
'l0 are exactly neutralized by like forces exerted
thereon by pinion 12, it will be clear that no
bending moments are set up in the web I| 8 or
the gear hub |20. Thus the bearings |22 and
|24 receive only purely radial loads and, since
the casing walls |26 and |28 in which the hub is
journalled are disposed at right angles to the axis
of the hub, these casing walls have no bending
moments set up therein, all loads being exerted
ing three casing sections one of which is dis
posed at substantially right angles to two of said
sections, each of said two sections having plate
like walls disposed at right angles to each other,
in a direction to stress these casing walls either
in tension or compression. Accordingly, the web
||8 and the hub |20 can be very thin light sec
tions and the casing walls can also be corre
tions between said hubs and said shafts.
2. In an airplane drive having a fore and aft
extended propeller shaft and [email protected] parallel trans
verse driving shafts, a T-shaped gear casing at
spondingly light as compared with constructions
required in conventional right-angled gearing.
the intersection of said shafts, the horizontal leg
Preferably the transverse shafting 56 is made
of tubular light-metal alloy, while shafts 40 and
two pairs of parallel plate-like walls, a hub jour
42 are made of a stronger metal tubing. It is not
only possible to make the shafts and the gears
lighter than is possible with conventional right
angled gearing but since the bending moments
previously set up in the casing are eliminated
and all unbalanced thrusts are eliminated in the
bearing the casing itself is also freed from bend
ing moments and accordingly can be very much
lighter than in conventional gearing.
It will be evident that as a result of this in
vention it has been made possible to transmit
substantially twice the amount of power that can
be transmitted through a conventional angle gear
drive. It will also be evident that as a result
of this invention a right-angled gear drive has
been provided by which conventional horsepower
for such drives can be transmitted with marked
savings in the weight of the drive system, thus
making these improvements of vital concern in _
aircraft construction.
While one specific embodiment of the inven
tion has been described herein and shown in the
accompanying drawings for purposes of illustra
tion, it will be understood that the embodiment
shown is for purposes of illustration only and
that various changes in the construction and
arrangement of the parts may be made without
departing from the scope of the invention as
’defined in the appended claims.
What it is desired to secure by Letters Patent
1. In an airplane drive having a fore and aft
extended propeller shaft and two parallel trans
verse driving shafts, right angled gears at the 55
intersection òf said shafts including a double faced
one of said walls in one of said two sections co
operating with one of said walls in the other of
said two Sections for carrying said double faced
gear therein, a plate-like wall in said one section
cooperating with the other of said Walls in said
two sections for carrying said pinion gears, said
gears having integral webs and hubs journalled
in their respective walls, and means external of
said casing sections providing driving connec
of the T including a first casing section having
nalled in each of said pairs of walls and carrying
integral driving bevel pinion gears, each of said
hubs having splines thereon external of said cas
ing meshing with cooperating splines on each of
said driving shafts, a second casing section hav
ing two spaced parallel plate-like walls each per
pendicular to and merging with one wall of said
pairs of walls in said ñrst section, a hollow hub
journalled in said spaced parallel walls and hav
ing an integral web, a driven -bevel gear carried
by said web, said bevel gear meshing with one
of said pinion gears, a ring gear connected to said
web having a bevel opposite to said driven gear
for meshing with the other of said pinion gears,
and splines on said hollow hub external of said
second case section for operatively connecting said
propeller shaft to said hub.
Administratriœ of Estate of Henry J. Rapuano,
The following references are of record in the
file of this patent:
bevel gear on the aft end of said propeller shaft
and bevel pinion gears on the ends of said driving
shafts, a casing enclosing said bevel gears includ
Penrod __________ __ July 12,
Devener _________ __ Aug. 13,
Schmitter ________ __ Dec. 7,
Sanford ________ __ Sept. 20,
Chilton __________ __ Aug. 18,
Friedrich ________ __ Sept. 29,
Fredden _________ __ Mar. 20,
Kiniiucan ________ __ Feb. 29,
Great Britain ____ __ May 31, 1918
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