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Nov. 8,_ 1949
Filed March 26, 1945
3 Sheets-Sheet l
.Nov. 8, 1949
Filed March 26, 1945
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
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Nov. 8, 1949
Filed l‘dsabrch 26, 1945
3 Sheets~Sheet 5
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um'rso "s'rarss PATENT emu;
' Oscar F. Arthur, Belle Vernon. Pa., and Ralph A.
Fletcher, Westford, Masai; said Arthur assignor
to Tri-State Engineering Company,
ton, Pa., a corporation of Maryland,
Application March 28, 1945, Serial No. 584,904
5 Claims.
(01. 248-120)
This inventionrelates‘ to supporting structures
utilized in handling shipping cases, containers
and the like, and particularly in stacking the
the invention,v in which specific structures have
been employed. It should be understood, how
ever, that the invention is not limited to these
cases upon one another in a compact and e?g'lcient
specific structures, and may be embodied in other
manner. Such structures are commonly referred
forms in the case of either the base, the support
to as “pallets” and are designed for use with
ing structure, or the means for providing ‘a deck
"chisel" trucks especially equipped ‘with a lifting
or platform on the structure.
bar or tongue arranged at the front thereof, to
In the preferred embodiment noted, the base
gether with means for raising and lowering the
tongue as desired. Pallets are, customarily made 10 of the pallet is formed of a group of metal strips
arranged crosswise and secured in spaced-apart
of wooden planking to provide a base portion and
relation in the form of a lattice-work. Another
a raised platform on which packing cases may
group of metal strips, arranged in the formof a
be arranged. Openings are formed in the sides of
second lattice-work, is mounted on upright sup
the pallet through which the lifting bar may be .
inserted. In this way, pallets carrying containers 15 ports and secured in spaced relation above the
base to constitute the supporting structure above
may be conveniently picked up, moved about and
referred to. Fixed to the second lattice-work of
arranged in stacked relation at any desired point.
strips is a plurality of wire elements laid upon
An object of the invention is to improve pallets
one another in crosswise manner to form a grat
and to provide a light, durable and eilicient sup
ing, which serves as a deck on which articles
porting structure which may be easily and cheap 20 may
be disposed (Figs. 1 and 2). .
‘ly constructed. Another object of the invention
In fabricating the pallet, we first construct the
is to provide a fabricated metal pallet which in
base lattice-work. A plurality of strips, 2, 4 and
cludes structural means adapting the pallet for
use as a supporting member for projectiles such
as shells and the like. Other objects of the in 25
vention are set forth in the description of the
invention. 1
In the accompanying drawings:
Fig. 1 is a perspective view of the pallet of the
Fig. 2 is another perspective view of the pallet
6, of suitable metal, such as spring steel, are
arranged in spaced-apart parallel relation as
shown in Fig. 2. Increased rigidity is imparted
to the strips by forming corrugations ‘l which ex
tend longitudinally of the strips. Each of the
strips is also pressed to form transversely extend
ing grooves 8 (Fig. 4), at the central portion of
the strips, and at points near their ends as shown.
Three other strips of metal, l0, l2 and I4, cor
to strips '2, 4 and 6, are then arranged
Fig. 3 is a plan view broken away to show both
in parallel spaced-apart relation at right angles
the top side of the pallet and underlying support
to strips 2, 4 and 6, and fitted within the grooves
ing structure;
Fig. 4 is a view in side elevation and partial 35 8 in the manner indicated in Fig. 2. The strips
2, l and 8 are then secured to strips l0, l2 and
cross section taken on line 4-4 of Fig. 3;
H by some convenient means as spot welding,
Fig. 5 is a detail cross-sectional view;
at the points of contact in the grooves 8.
Fig. 6 is a view in side elevation illustrating a
Similarly, a second lattice-work is formed of
modi?cation of the invention;
a plurality of parallelly arranged strips I6, I8,
Fig. '7 is another fragmentary elevatlonal view
20 (Fig. 2), formed with corrugations 2| and
of the modification;
pressed to form grooves 22 (Fig. 4), in which
Fig. 8 is a fragmentary plan view;
strips 24, 2G, 28 are fitted and secured by welding.
Fig. 9 is a plan view of a cover member partly
broken away to indicate a lower section of the 45 The second lattice-work is then secured in spaced
relation above the base lattice-work by means of
cylindrical supports 30 which vare attached, as
Fig. 10 is an elevational view of the cover; and
by welding, adjacent the points of intersection of
Fig. 11 is a perspective fragmentary view of the
the two sets of strips in each lattice-work. The
cylindrical supports may consist of a section of
The pallet of the invention is made up of a 50 piping or other suitable material and should be
base, a supporting structure arranged in spaced
of a height such that they provide space su?icient
relation above the base, and means mounted on
to permit insertion of a lifting bar of the char
the supporting structure to provide a deck or
acter above described. A spacing of three and
platform on which articles may be disposed. The
inches between the two lattice-works
drawings illustrate a preferred embodiment of
may for example provide sufficient clearance in
as viewed from the under side;
much lighter-andmore durable support in which
verticalinches" between‘
and ..the
opcu’spacesare provided on all sides and yet the
‘ overallheight of the pallet is maintained very
has ‘been‘fiound "satisfactory. ’ Other'dimensions
may be employed.
. small by reason of the thinness of the strips
utilized in the lattice-works, and by fabricating
It wilibefnoted" that the extremities of the
strips of-"each 1attlce¢work project outwardly be
yond' the cylindrical supports 80 and therefore
a grating from rod members to take the place of
and also to respective upper and lower strip ex
tremities. We may also desire to bend the ends
of the strips around the outer edges of the bases
to form smooth, rounded corners, as illustrated
supports and this presents a convenient means
by which slings can be used on all four sides of
heavier wooden planking heretofore employed
in forming the platform of the pallet. Increase
may, be vbene?ted by'iurther stiffening means.
in strength, coupled with low cost, is obtained
This‘is provided by means of U-shaped metal
braces-32 which are located between the project 10' from the used the metal elements described
and manufacturing is greatly facilitated. The
ing ends of the two lattice-works at each of the
wide strips used in the base lattice-work pro
four corners and at points intermediate the cor
vide ?rm supportwell adapted to holding con
ners on each of the four sides. The braces are
trainers and to stacking operations. The strips
preferably secured to the outer peripheral sur
faces of the cylindrical supports as by welding, 15 are arranged to project beyond the cylindrical
in Fig. 2.
the pallet. The two spacedLapart lattice-works
provide four open areas extending from the grat
20 ing downwardly thus providing operating space
The second lattice-work of strips, together
with the cylindrical supports and braces, forms
for the retractable wheels of chisel trucks.
In Figs. 6—1l- inclusive we have indicated a
modi?cation of the invention, comprising means
for receiving and supporting projectiles such as
apart relation and secured as by welding to the 25 shells on the pallet. The shell-carrying means
includes a rack formed of wire and extending a
raised lattice-work. A second group of rods II
short distance above the grating of the pallet to
is disposed above the rods 34, also in spaced
receive the heads of the shells, and a cover mem
apart relation, and secured to them in some way
ber consisting of a wire framework adapted to be
as by welding, to form a grating on which co tainers may be received. The rod members 3‘ 30 ?tted over the tapered ends of the shells. (Fig.
6.) The cover member in all cases constitutes a
. and 38 may conveniently consist of steel wire
separate shell-supporting element. The rack,
of. a suitable gauge to provide sti?ness.
however, may be constructed as an integral part
Numeral 38 refers to a frame member for the
of the grating or deck, or it may be made as a
grating and consists of a steel wire which is
welded to the strips in the upper lattice-work 35 separate element.
The rack is preferably constructed of spring
along the outer ends of these members. The
steel wire elements which are arranged in the
extremities of the rods 34 are in turn welded to
manner illustrated in Figs. 6-8 inclusive, laid
the frame 38, being beveled at their tips in the
crosswise to provide a series of enclosures within
manner indicated in Figs. 1 and 4. The ends of
the rods 36 are bent downwardly into a position 40 which heads of projectiles, such as shells 40, may
be supported. ‘As viewed in Fig. 8, these wire
in which they contact the frame and are then
elements include horizontally extending mem
welded thereto. The corners of the frame may
bers 42, which are arranged in pairs at uniformly
be squared by bending the irame member in '
a supporting structure upon which is mounted a
group of rods 34, which are arranged in spaced
themanner indicated, and this eliminates the
presence of sharp projections such as might in .45
terfere with the use of the pallet.
Numeral 39 denotes upright bars interposedv
between the ends of strips overlying one another
in the two lattice-works. These bars may be
desired to be inserted to provide a means for
carrying fastening members which are sometimes
required where a sling is passed around the ends
of the pallet. The fastening means are passed
disposed intervals, and formed with bends 4|.
Numeral it refers to horizontally extending wire
elements also arranged in pairs and located un
derneath the horizontally extending elements, as
shown in Figs. 6 and 7. These wire elements
are secured together by welding at points of
crossing or by weaving, and there is thus ob
tained a plurality of enclosures which provide a
rack for receiving the heads of shells. The height
of the rack may be of any suitable dimension and
good results have been obtained from a height
The bars may also be useful in other connections. 55 of three-quarters of an inch. The wires forming
the rack may be bent over alongtheir outer ends
It may also be desired to use the upper lattice
and secured to a grating as shown. The grating
work with other types of bases as wooden plat
member may consist of the grating already de
forms. Also, the base lattice-work may be modi
scribed in connection with the pallet illustrated
?ed in various ways as by adding diagonally ar
ranged strips around the upright supports .to 60 in Figs. l-5 inclusive, or a separate grating may
be fabricated as a part of the rack and then se
sti?en the base and increase its bearing surface.
cured to the upper lattice-work of a pallet, such
The wire members forming the grating may be
as that shown in Figs. 1-5 inclusive, or various
secured in other ways than by welding and in
other arrangements may be resorted to. Spacing
particular by weaving the wires through one an
other in some desired manner such as a basket 65 members of ring form may also be inserted in
the rack to tightly grip the shell heads.
weave or other arrangement. The woven wire
In conjunction with the rack we have also pro
deck thus obtained is characterized by greater
vided a cover member as illustrated in Figs. 6,
strength and makes possible lighter weight con
9, 10 and 11. The cover member includes a lower
struction. Various metals such as aluminum,
magnesium and others may be employed through 70 frame portion which is adapted to encircle the
tapered tips of shells, and an upper grating por
out the pallet and othermaterials such as wood,
tion which provides a deck extending well above
plastic, and the like, combined with metal in
aroundthe sling to prevent its being displaced.
assembling the pallet.
In comparison with wooden pallets, the fabri
cated metal pallet of the invention providesa
the tips of the shells. A wire frame 50, prefer
ably of rectangular shape, supports wires 52 and
wires 54 which are arranged crosswise in spaced
apart relation and secured in the position illus
trated in Figs. 9 and 11. The ends of the wires
are bent over to provide an upstanding grating
in which are de?ned a. plurality of square areas.
Below this grating are arranged wires 56 which
are reversely bent upon themselves in the man
ner indicated in Figs. 10 and 11, to form shoul
ders on which the wires 54 bear (Fig. 9). {Sup
ported across the lowermost portions of e re
?at lateral surfaces which facilitate packing ar
rangements oi’ the type referred to above.
The combined features of a double lattice
work of metal strips on which is supported a
grating and a rack which may also include a
separately applied cover member, a?'ord an ex
ceedingly eiIicient means of handling shells. The
shells are maintained in spaced-apart relation,
mounted on a substantially resilient body which
versely bent'wires 58 is still another group oi.’
wires“ 58 arranged as shown in the lower half 10 tends to eliminate shock, and permits stacking
operations to a very considerable extent. The
of Fig. 9, and in Figs. 10 and 11, to present square
enclosures adapted to be ?tted over the tapered
shape of the shells and their construction are
ends of shells 40 as indicated in Fig. 6. 1
Secured at one side of these wire enclosures
made use of and so combined with the cover
member that a desirable column-strengthening
are ring members 80 which are preferably 15 effect is obtained in a stacked arrangement of
formed with a diameter corresponding to the
loaded shell pallets. Resistance to deformation
length of any one side of the square enclosures
of the fabricated wire structure is provided for
referred to Just above. An arrangement in which
by both the shape and form of the fabricated
three rings on each side of the pallet and two
parts and by the use of stiifening elements in~
more through the central portion of the pallet 20 serted at those points where greatest stress oc»
constitutes one desirable assembly. The ring
curs. - The advantages of ligthness, strength,
members are designed to ?t around the tapered
cheapness, ease of handling, saving of space, and
ends of the shells and together with the wire
others, are all obtained by the fabricated con
struction described.
enclosures provide for maintaining the shells in
properly spaced relation.
In connection with handling projectiles such
A further important function of the rings is
as are supported by the pallet construction de
to permit a plurality of pallets carrying shells
scribed, it may be required to provide electrical
to be arranged in stacked relation with weight
ground wiring means, leading from each oi’ the
of the various units being more e?iciently dis
shell units. It is pointed out that the all metal
tributed throughout the entire fabricated struc 30 fabricated pallet structure of the invention may
ture, and especially with the development of a
be electrically grounded by one ground wire in»
supporting column e?’ect derived from the load
stead of a plurality of wires, as may be required
being directed against the shells, in which case
in other types of pellets. lit should also be ob~
these members are utilized to furnish strength
served that the fabricated pallet structure is par
and rigidity to the entire structure. Since the 35 ticularly desirable from the point of long life and
rings and wire enclosures are engaged against
semi-permanent storage purposes. Various sizes
the shell tips at predetermined points, the up
of shell noses can be accommodated by the pallet
per grating portion of the cover member is po~
cover member, and ?nally, the structure is fire“
sitioned in spaced relation to the extremities of
the shells and constitute a, satisfactory and con 40
We claim:
venient deck or platform on which other pal
1. An improved fabricated pallet comprising a
lets may be stacked.
base, a lattice-work. of metal strips arranged in
It is pointed out that the bent ends of the
spaced relation above the base on cylindrical sup
wires 52 and 54 are pressed inwardly at an angle
45 porting members, a grating secured above the
of 45° or some other suitable angle, so that the
extreme upper edge of the cover presents an
outer overhanging rail. This arrangement is ,
particularly desirable in providing resistance in
lattice-work, said grating consisting of a plurality
of steel wires arranged crosswise in spaced~apart
2. A pallet for receiving and transporting con
tainers comprising a plurality of strips of metal
in horizontal directions. In handling pallets 50 arranged crosswise to form a base lattice-work,
loaded with shells, it frequently happens that
a second lattice-work of strips mounted on cylin~
pallets are moved by means of slings which are
drical supporting members in. spaced relation to
passed around the projecting corners of the up
the said base lattice-work, a plurality of rod
per lattice~work and extend upwardly around the
cover, thus exerting a considerable force in 55 members secured above the second latticenworlr
the cover to forces tending to collapse the cover
wardly of the cover.
The formation of the am
gularly bent ends of wires 52 and 54 is especially
effective in resisting such forces.
It may be desired to further strengthen the
and arranged to form a grating and a frame
member attached to the extremities of
rod members.
3. Improved pallet means for receiving and
supporting shell cases comprising in combination
a fabricated pallet base, a grating member
cover member against the pressure of tie straps,
used to fasten the covers to the pallet-base, and
also to provide fiat lateral bearing surfaces for
thereon, aonrack
the base
for to
the grating
the and
tell pre~
adjacent shell pallets when tiers of these mem
bers are stacked adjacent to One another, as for 65
larger ends of the shell cases, a cover member for
example in the boxcar or a ship. For these pur
engaging over the tapered ends of the said shell
poses, we have provided corner boxing elements
cases, said cover including a plurality of wire
62 consisting of right angularly bent pieces of
members laid crosswise and secured to one am
metal which may be arranged on two sides of
other in spaced-apart relation, said wires being .
the cover, for example, in groups of four. These
boxing elements may also be located so that they 70 reversely bent to provide enclosures adapted to
be ?tted around the tapered ends of the shell
fall directly under points of contact of the tie
cases, a plurality of rings attached to the wires
straps. By this arrangement the boxing ele
adjacent the enclosures, said wires being formed
ments offer a stiffening e?ect to the collapsing
action of the tie straps, and in addition present 76 to provide an upper grating extending above the
extremities of the said shell cases when the rings
' 9,487,087
its said deck other stacking units, and to provide
are ?rmly engaged against the tapered ends of
for distribution of weight from other stacking
units throughout the bearing members, the en
the shell cases.
4. A cover member for use in supporting shell
cases on a pallet, said cover comprising a plu
rality of wire elements laid crosswise of one an
closed shell cases and the base. .
other, and secured in spaced-apart relation to
form a grating, a group of reversely bent wires
located below the said grating, a third group of
references are of record in the
wires extending crosswise of the lower portions
of the said reversely bent wires to form enclosures 10 ?le of this patent:
lying substantially below the said grating, a plu
rality of ring members ?xed at the under side of
said enclosures, said rings and square wire en
closures adapted to engage the tapered ends'ot
shell cases.
5. Means for supporting shell cases in stacked
relationship comprising a base, rack means
mounted on the base and formed with'enclosures
Rivierre ___________ _- Apr. 7,
Belloi! et al _______ _- Mar. 13,
Johnson __________ __ July 15,
Hayward __________ __ Feb. 5,
Thierry ___________ __ Dec. 8,
Mossberg et al. ____.__ Aug. 30, 1932
Bruce ____________ __ Feb. 20, 1935
Gri?ln ___________ _. Feb. 13, 1940
bearing members, said bearing members adapted
Donnell etal. _______ Oct. 15, 1940
to engage over the tapered ends of shell cases, a
Cruickshank ____ .._ Sept. 29, 1942
deck located above the enclosures and base, said
base, rack, frame and deck being secured together 25 2,322,917
Quayle _______ __‘_..__ Feb. 16, 1943
Cruickshank _____ __ Mar. 20, 1945
for supporting the shell cases spaced apart from
one another, an upper frame member present 20
ing a plurality of enclosures in which are located
about a group of shell cases to form a. stacking
unit, said stacking unit adapted to receive on
Bitney ___-_., _____ .. June 29, 1943
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