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Dec. 27, 1949
J. A. SPENCER ET AL.
2,492,503
REPERFORATOR
Filed Feb. 15, 1947-
2 Sheets-Sheet l
Dec. 27, 1949
J, A_ SPENCER ET AL
2,492,503
REPERFORATOR
File'd Feb. l5, 1947
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Patented Dec. 27, 1949
2,492,503
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,492,503
REPERFORATOR
James A. Spencer, Teaneck, N. J., and Thomas J.
Merson, Hollis, and Lewis A. Thomas, Brook
lyn, N. Y., assignors to Radio Corporation of
America, a corporation oi’v Delaware
Y
1
Application February 15, 1947, Serial No. 728,850
7 Claims.
(Cl. 178-92)
2
_
This invention relates to telegraph apparatus
bodiment of the invention for producing the con
and mechanisms and more particularly to an
trolled potentials for actuating the perforator,
improved method of recording received tele
graph code impulses on a perforated tape.
In modern telegraph practice it is frequently
advantageous to store received code signals in a
perforated paper tape in order that re-trans
Fig. 2 is a diagrammatic representation of one
form of perforator for use with the chosen em
ily for reception of Morse signals transmitted
or electronic source of keyed signals. Thus
when a keyed-tone signal is being received, a
bodiment of the invention, and
Fig. 3 represents the time occurrence of the
actuating pulses and the form of the tape pro
mission may be accomplished at a later time.
duced therefrom.
Devices of this kind are referred to as “reperfu
Referring to Fig. 1, means have been provided
rators.” This reperforator is designed primar 10 so that the device will operate from an electrical
approximately synchronously, but it will also re
produce
accurately non-synchronous signals
tone signal converter, not shown, is used and
transmitted at a rate lower than the regular~
its output is fed to the SIG terminal and switch
signalling speed, such as when l“breaks” are 16 I4 is thrown to the SIG position. When an ex
inserted by hand in an automatic transmission
ternal polar relay is provided, switch I4 is thrown
sequence.
to the EXT relay position.
In the present practice perforators of this
A polar relay A23, together with its associated
type require a complicated system of cams op
components, resistors 24, 25 and 26 and capaci
erated by a motor for differentiating between 20 tors 29, form an oscillating circuit known as the
dots and dashes. The Creed reperforator de
Gulstad relay. This is a circuit old in the art
scribed in Harrison’s “Printing Telegraph Sys
Whose frequency of oscillation can be controlled,
tems,” page 208, is an example of this type of
up to the speed capacity of the relay itself, by
reperforator.
varying the values of resistors 26 and capacitors
The perforator provided by this invention does 25 29. The coil of a second polar relay 21 is in
not require such cams or motor since it is re
serted in series with the oscillating circuit so
quired to recognize or perforate only the start
that this relay will oscillate in synchronism with
and end of a marking signal. The perforator
relay 23 and, as will appear, certain further
punches feed holes as well as code holes. Ac
functions can be performed Without affectingthe
cordingly, it requires no specially prepared tape, 30 oscillating circuit.
but will operate with a standard transmitting
Whenever the tongue of relay 21 is held to the
tape.
' '
right-hand terminal, capacitor 3| will charge to
It is an object of this invention to provide a
approximately full positive value through re
reperforator which will perforate a tape directly
sistor 28. When the tongue of relay 2'I swings
from received signals having mark and space 35 to the left, the energy stored in the capacitor
elements.
3| is discharged through the coil of relay 3, clos
It is a further object of this invention to pro
ing relay 3 momentarily. Thus relay 3 is closed
vide a reperforator of the type described in
which the mechanical parts have been reduced
to a minimum.
`
once for every oscillation of relay 23.
The signals applied to the SIG terminal are
40 fed through an electronic discharge device I2,
Briefly, in accordance with the invention, the
incoming signals are utilized to produce negative
and positive pulses during the transitions from
mark to space and space to mark, respectively.
the output of which is utilized to control a polar
relay I3. The polar relay I3 is phased so that
for every marking signal the tongue of relay I3
will be connected to the positive voltage through
A local source of oscillations synchronized with 45 resistor I5, and for every spacing signal the
the incoming signals is utilized to actuate the
tongue will be connected to the negative voltage
perforator and the pulses produced during the
transition periods are utilized to actuate the
proper mark or space punch of the perforator.
The above and other objects and advantages
of the invention will become apparent upon a
consideration of the following detailed descrip
tion taken in conjunction with the >accompany
in drawings, in which:
Fig. 1 represents schematically a preferred em 55
through resistor I6.
Whenever the tongue of relay I3 is positive,
a conductive path is formed through resistor I5,
capacitor I1, rectifier I8 and the coil of relay I
to ground. Capacitor I1 rapidly becomes
charged so that the current through relay I is
merely an impulse tending to close relay I mo
mentarily at the beginning of every marking
signal. It will be seen that the rectifier I8 con
2,492,503
3
sists of a pair of rectifying paths oppositely con
nected to the capacitor I'I. Thus, whenever the
tongue of relay I3 becomes negative, a conductive
path is formed through resistor I6, capacitor I'I,
rectifier I8 and relay 2 to ground. Capacitor I‘I
will thus be rapidly discharged and charged in
the opposite sense causing an impulse tending
4
by means of springs, not shown. A standard wheel
and pawl mechanism II advances the tape one
center hole. An additional mechanical linkage
on the armature or relay 2 is provided to disable
the tape advance mechanism I I whenever relay 2
is operated. This provision is made because of
the fact that the distance between the center holes
to close relay 2 momentarily at the end of every
of the tape is equal to one keying cycle or two
mark signal.
bauds. The end of the mark always occurs at an
When the tongue of relay I3 is positive, a par- `
allel path is set up through resistor I5, capacitor
I9 and rectifier 20 and a coil 22 of relay 2.3 to
ground. The rectifier 20 is so vconnected that
odd number of bauds later than the start of mark,
or ‘between times of tape advance, and each start
of mark occurs an even number of bauds after
the previous start of mark. Thus, by the proper
posiïtioningcfv the punch pins and the proper op
at the beginning of every marking signal »the
pulses produced across capacitor I9 will lbe sent _ r eration of the tape advance, standard Morse
Wheatstone tape is punched from the incoming
through coil 22. The coil 22 is magnetically
signal.
coupled to the relay 23 in the proper phase to
The operation of the device may best be under
tend to speed up the oscillating frequency of re
stood upon a consideration of Fig. 3; in which,
lay 23 by a slight amount. Since the relay 23 is
there is represented a line a, three letters RCA of
normally adjusted to have a speed of oscilla
a code group followed .by an interval representa
tion slightly less than the dot repetition rate
tive of the .spacing between code groups which in
of oscillation, the closure of 4relay 3 will occur
turn is followed by the -letter T. Line b represents
simultaneously or slightly after the closure of
the pulses, producedby the circuit shown in Fig. l,
relay I. The reason for this action will be seen
presently.
which operate relay I . As has been described,
these pulses will be produced .at the start of every
mark signal. Line c represents the pulses pro
ducedfrom the local oscillatorîcircuit which oper
atesrelay number 3. Line d represents the pulses
the application of correction, the frequency of 30 produced at the .end of the mark .signal which, as
oscillation is automatically -reduced a >slight
has been described, operate relay number 2.
-Switch 39 is varranged so that the oscillating
frequency of relay v23 can be set to> correspond
with the dot repetition rate of the incoming sig
nal, with no correction applied, and then, with
amount, this intentional diiîerence being taken
Thus, at the start of the >code »signal representa
care of by the correction. ’This feature allows
tive of the letter R, the local oscillator generates
for a certain amount of variation in the speed
a pulse which will energize relay number 3 and
of the incoming signal due to the use of non 35 at the >beginning of the mark signal a pulse will be
produced which will energize relay number I . The
synchronous motors in transmission.
The mechanical action of the reperforator will
energization of relays I and 3 results in the punch
be described in connection with Fig. 2. Relays I,
block perforating feed holes 33 and 34 and the
2 and 3 have contacts which are in eiiect '_par
mark hole `35. Upon the withdrawal of the punch
allel switches on the operating circuit of the 40 pins, the .tape will be advanced one space. At the
solenoid or punch magnet 9. Thus, solenoid 9 is
end of the mark signal, which in the assumed
energized with the closure of any of the relays I,
case was a dot and would occur one dot interval
2 or .3. Solenoid 9 swings punch block `III forward
later, relay 2 would be energized causing the cp
against the end of punch pins which are driven
eration of the center hole pin »3 and the space pin
through the tape 32. The center hole pins 8 are
andspace
1. This results
hole >3‘I.
in the
During
perforation
this-operation
of feedthe
hole
tape
arranged to be operated with every operation of
solenoid 9. The top or mark hole pin 6 is oper
advance mechanism will be deenergized and the
ated whenever the vane 4 is interposed between
tape will not be advanced. The remainder of the
the block I9 and the end of pin 6. Vane 4 is
code signals will be perforated in a similar
actuated by a mechanical linkage with the arma
sequence of operations with the dots, dashes and
ture of relay I. Thus the mark pin ’5 Will be .oper
intervals being represented by various spacings
ated whenever relay I is energized. In order that
produced by combinations of relays I and 3, 2 and
the punch block Il) not operate before vane 4 is
3 or only 3.
selected, the relay 3, as described above, is made
If a radical change
speed takes place in the
to operate slightly later than relay I.
.
' transmission, such as the insertion of "breaks” by
A similar linkage from the armature of relay
hand, the reperforator will faithfully reproduce
2 interposes vane 5 between the block IU and
the signal to the nearest center hole, since the
the end of the bottom hole or space pin 'I. A slight
punch of the center hole occurs at a constant
delay in the >sequence of operation of relays 2
rate or during long marking or spacing signals.
and 3 is provided for in the same manner `as that (Si) . Having described our invention, what we claim
between the operation of relays I and 3. In order
that the tape will be punched as standard Morse
Wheatstone tape, both the relative positions of
the four punch pins and the operation of the
tape advance are important. As is clearly shown
in Figure 2 by the arrangement of the guide holes,
38, .39, 40, for the punch pins in the tape guide 4 I,
the center hole pins 8 are arranged in horizontal
alignment; the mark pin 6 is disposed above and
in vertical alignment with one of said center hole
pins; and the space pin -I is disposed below and
in vertical alignment with the other of said center
1s:
l. A perforator comprising, in combination, a
feed hole punch, a mark punch, a space punch, a
punch block, holes in said punch block, said
'" holes being in alignment With said mark and space
punches whereby movement »of said punch block
causes operation of only said feed hole punch,
means interposable between said mark punch and
the corresponding hole in said punch block where
by movement of said punch block actuates both
said feed hole and mark punches, means inter
posable» between said space punch and the cor
responding hole in said punch block whereby
.
After each operation .of relay I or 3, extractionv vmovement of said punch block actuates said cen
of the punch pins from the tape is accomplished 75 ter hole and space punches, a tape arranged to be
hole pins.
2,492,503
5
perforated by said punches when said punches
during mark elements and a negative potential
are actuated, a tape advance mechanism normally
during spacing elementsl of said signals, a con
denser connected to said switching means, one
arranged to advance said tape uponeach actua
tion of said punch block and means arranged to
side of said condenser being arranged to be
disengage said tape advance mechanism when said
space punch is actuated.
charged by said potentials whereby pulses of
. .
current will flow across said condenser, said pulses
2. Electrical apparatus comprising, in combina
being positive at the start of a mark signal and
negative at the end of a mark signal, a first
tion, a source of code signals, a local source of
oscillations, means independent of said source of
oscillations for producing a positive pulse upon
the transition of said signals from space to mark
and a negative pulse during the transition ofjsaid
signals from mark to space,- a first relay actuated
relay actuated by said positive pulse, a second
relay actuated by said negative pulses, a third
relay actuated under the control of said local
source of oscillations, means for synchronizing
said local source of oscillations with said signals,
a perforator comprising, in combination, a feed
by said positive pulse, a second relay actuated
by said negative pulses, a third relay actuated
hole punch, a mark punch, a space punch, a
under the control of said local source of oscilla
tions, means for synchronizing said local source
of oscillations with said signals, a punch block
actuated upon the energization of any of said
relays, a first punch, a second punch, a third 20
punch, said punch block normally actuating only
said first punch, means actuated by said first relay
causing said punch block to actuate both said first
punch block actuated upon energization of any
of said relays, holes in said punch block, said holes
being in alignment with said mark and space
punches whereby movement of said punch block
causes operation of only said feed hole punch,
means actuated by said first relay interposable
between said mark punch and the corresponding
hole in said punch block whereby movement of
said punch block actuates both said feed hole
ond relay causing said punch block to actuate said 25 and mark punches, means actuated by said second
relay interposable between said space punch
first and third punches, a tape, said tape being
arranged to be perforated by said punches, a tape
and the corresponding hole in said punch block
whereby movement of said punch block actuates
advance mechanism normally arranged to ad
said center hole and space punches, a tape ar
vance said tape upon each actuation of said punch
block. and means controlled by said second relay 30 ranged to be perforated by said .punches when
said punches are actuated, a tape advance mech
for disengaging said tape advance when said first
anism normally arranged to advance said tape
and third punches are actuated.
' '
upon each actuation of said punch block and
3. Electrical apparatus comprising, in combi
means arranged to disengage said tape advance
nation, a source of code signals having mark and
mechanism when said space punch is actuated.
space elements, a local source of oscillations,
5. Electrical apparatus comprising, in com
switching means independent of said source of
oscillations for producing a positive potential dur
bination, a source of code signals having mark
and space elements, a first polar relay for pro
ing mark elements and a negative potential during
ducing local oscillations of adjustable frequency,
spacing elements of said signals, means for pro
ducing a positive pulse upon lthe transition of 40 the frequency of said oscillations being adjusted
to a period slightly below the dotfrequency of
said signals from space to mark and a negative
said signals, a second polar relay connected in
pulse during the transition of said signals from
series with the oscillating circuit of said first
mark to space, a first relay actuated by said
polar relay whereby said first and second relays
positive pulse, a second relay actuated by said
oscillate in synchronism, switching means includ
negative pulse, a third relay actuated under the
ing a third switching means independent of said
control of said local source of oscillations, means
first polar relay for producing a positive potential
for synchronizing said local source of oscilla
during mark elements and a negative potential
tions with said signals, a perforator comprising in
during spacing elements of said signals, means for
combination a feed hole punch, a mark punch, a
producing a positive ipulse upon the transition of
space punch, a punch block actuated upon ener
said signals from space to mark and a negative
gization of any of said relays, holes in said punch
pulse upon the transition of said signals from
block, said holes being in alignment with said
mark to space, a first relay actuated by said
mark and space punches whereby movement of
positive pulse, a second relay actuated by said
said punch block causes Voperation of only said
negative pulses, an oscillating tongue actuated
feed hole punch, means actuated by said first
by said second polar relay, a second condenser
relay interposable between said mark punch and
connected between said oscillating tongue and
the corresponding hole in said punch block where
ground, a source of operating potential, a solenoid
by movement of said punch block actuates both
actuating relay, said oscillating tongue being
said feed hole and mark punches, means actuated
arranged to connect said second condenser al
by said second relay interposable between said
ternately to said potential and to said solenoid
space punch and the corresponding hole in said
actuating relay, means for synchronizing said
punch block whereby movement of said punch
local source of oscillations with said signals, a
block actuates said center hole and space
punches, a tape arranged to be perforated by
perforator comprising, in combination, a feed
said punches when said punches are actuated, a 65 hole punch, a mark punch, a space punch, a
tape advance mechanism'normally arranged to
.punch block actuated upon energization of any
advance said tape upon each actuation of said
of said first, second or solenoid relays, holes in
punch block and means arranged to disengage
said punch block, said holes being in alignment
said tape advance mechanism when said space
with said mark and space punches whereby move
punch is actuated.
70 ment of said punch block causes operation of only
4. Electrical apparatus comprising in combi
said feed hole punch, means actuated by said
nation a source of code signals having mark and
first relay interposable between said mark punch
and second punches, means actuated by said sec
space elements, a local source of oscillations,
and the corresponding hole in said punch block
switching means independent of said source of
whereby movement of said punch block actuates
oscillations for producing a positive potential 75 both said feed hole and mark punches, means
2,499,503
7
actuated by said second relayinterp'osable between
whereby upon actuatìonvof said space relay and
said space punch and the corresponding hole in
said punch block whereby movement of said
punch block actuates said center hole and space
punches, a tape arranged to be perforated by
ranged to be perforated by said punches when
said punches when said punches are actuated, a
tape advance mechanism normally arranged to
advance said tape upon each actuation of said
punch block and means arranged to disengage
said tape advance mechanism when said space
said solenoid both said feed hole and said space
punches are actuated, a tape, said tape being ar
said punches are actuated, a tape advance mech
anism normally arranged to advance said tape
upon each actuation of said punch block, and
a linkage between said space relay and said tape
advance arranged to disengage said tape advance
during actuation of said space punch, whereby
said tape is not advanced.
punch is actuated.
7. Electrical apparatus comprising in combi
6. Electrical apparatus comprising, in combi
nation
a source of code signals having mark
nation, a source of code- signals, having mark
and space elements, a polar relay for producing
and space elements, a first polar relay for pro
ducing local oscillations of adjustable frequency, 15 local oscillations of adjustable frequency, the
frequency of said oscillations being adjusted to
the frequency of said oscillations being adjusted
a period, slightly below the dot frequency of said
to a period slightly below the dot frequency
signals, switching means independent of said
of said signals, a second lpola-r relay connected in
polar relay for producing a positive potential
series with the oscillating circuit of said first
during mark elements .and a negative potential
polar relay whereby said first and second polar
during spacing elements of said signals, means
relays oscillate in synchronism, switching means
for producing a positive pulse upon the transi
including a third polar relay actuated by said
tion of said signals from space to mark and a
signals for producing a positive potential during
negative pulse during the transition of said sig
mark signals and a negative potential during
spacing signals, a first condenser connected to 25 nals from mark to space, a ñrst relay actuated
by said positive pulse, a second relay actuated
said switching means, one side of said condenser
by said negative pulse, a third relay actuated
being arranged to be charged by said potentials
under the control of said source of oscillations,
whereby pulses of current will now across said
means for synchronizing said localsource of os
condenser, said pulses being positive at the start
of a mark signal and negative at the end of a 30 cillations with said signals, a perforator compris
ing in combination a feed hole punch, a mark
punch, a space punch, a punch block actuated
upon energization of any of said relays, holes
mark signal, a mark relay, a first rectifier having
its anode connected to the other side of said con
denser and its cathode connected to said mark
relay, a space relay, a second rectifier having its
cathode connected to said other side of said con
in said punch block, said holes being in align
35 ment with said mark and space punches whereby
movement of said punch block causes operation of
only said feed hole punch, means actuated by
said first relay interposable between said mark
punch and the corresponding hole in said punch
nected between said oscillating tongue and
ground, a source of operating potential, a 40 block whereby movement of said punch block
actuates both said feed hole and mark punches,
solenoid actuating relay, said oscillating tongue
means actuated by said second relay interposable
being arranged to connect said second condenser
between said space punch and the corresponding
alternately to said potential and to said solenoid
hole in said punch block whereby movement of
actuating relay, a .phasing coil on said ñrst polar
relay, said coil being arranged to slightly increase 45 said punch block actuates said center hole and
space punches, a tape arranged to be perforated
the frequency of said first polar relay, a third
by said punches when said punches are actuated,
condenser connected between said switching
a tape advance mechanism normally arranged to
means and said phasing coil, a third rectifier
advance said tape upon each actuation of said
connected between said coil and ground whereby
«punch block and vmeans arranged to disengage
pulses are produced in said phasing coil at the
said tape advance mechanism when said space
start of a mark signal, a solenoid actuated by
punch is actuated.
said solenoid actuating relay, a feed hole punch,
enser and its anode connected to said space relay,
an oscillating tongue actuated by said sec
ond polar relay, a second condenser con
J‘AMES A. SPENCER.
THOMAS J. MERSON.
LEWIS A. THOMAS.
a mark punch, a space punch, a punch block
operated by said solenoid, holes in said punch
block, said holes being in alignment with said 55
mark and space punches whereby movement of
said punch block normally causes operation of
only said feed hole punch, a first vane operated
REFERENCES CITED
The following references are of record in the
by said mark relay arranged to be interposed
ñle of this patent:
between said mark punch and the corresponding 60
UNITED STATES PATENTS
hole in said punch block whereby upon the actua
Number
Name
Date
tion of said mark relay and said solenoid both
said mark and feed hole punches are actuated, a
second vane operated by said space relay ar
ranged to be interposed between said space punch
and the corresponding hole in said punch block
702,339
1,150,326
1,350,193
1,881,758
Brown ___________ __ June 10, 1902
Armand __________ __ Aug. 17, 1915
Whitney _________ __ Aug. 17, 1920
Longland _________ __ Oct. 11, 1932
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