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2,492,758
NE
Filed Nov. 14, 1947
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Patented Dec. 27, 1949 i
c UNITED 1STATES - - PATENT ~ ‘OFFICE’
nrívAMoELEc'rmc MACHINE
Frank W. Merrill, Fort Wayne, Ind., aslilnor to
General Electric Company, a corporation of
New York
Application November 14‘, 1947, Serial No. 785,849
s claims. (Cl. B22-92)
1
This invention relates to commutating type
dynamoelectric machines of the type in which
the armature reaction provides a major source
of excitation.
`
A dynamoelectric machine of the armature reï
action excited'variety normally comprises a rotor
or armature having awinding and a commutator
of the type used in conventional direct current
brush path, and a compensating winding for
neutralizing the secondary armature reaction.
Application Serialy No. 785,846, Patent No.
2,483,151, ñled November 14, 1947, of William A.
Pringle, and assigned to the assignee of the pres
ent application, discloses means for operating an
amplidyne motor from a source of alternating
current, or for causing an amplidyne generator to
machines. The major component of excitation
generate alternating current, when excited by al
in this type of machine is provided by the ,arma 10 ternating current, by providing appropriately se
ture reaction flux produced by current ñowing
lected means for tuning the inductive windings
in the armature winding. To facilitate the pro
of the machine. By tuning the control and
duction of this armature reaction, a plurality of
quadrature circuits of a machine, otherwise pri
mutually displaced brush sets is provided, at least
marily usable as a direct current excited ampli
one set being connected to a low resistance circuit 15 dyne type generator with direct current output,
amounting essentially to a short circuit.« An»
it is possible to operate the machine as an alter
nating current generator from an alternating cur
other set of brushes is connected to a load circuit
'when the machine is used as a generator or to a
rent excitation source. When thus excited, the
frequency of the output voltage depends solely
power supply circuit when it is used as a motor.
The stationary member of such a machine is 20 upon the frequency of the exciting power agency,
arranged to provide paths of low reluctance for
which may be a very low energy >source such as
the various magnetic fluxes set up by the armature
currents, and 'is provided with various windings
a vacuum tube oscillator, tuning fork, etc., and
is independent of the number of poles and speed
to improve or control the operation of the ma
of the machine. Accordingly, low energy alter
chine. These stator windings include an exciting 25 nating current can be greatly amplified without
or control winding for inducing the voltage in \
change of the original frequency and the alternat
ing current output can be regulated or controlled
the quadrature rotor circuit, which produces the
heavy flow of current in the low resistance path
by suitable low energy means acting on one or
provided, which in turn produces the desired main
more of the control fields.
ñeld, heavy armature reaction ñux. In the most 30
Another important result of the application of
the tuning principle to amplidyne type machines
effective constructions, a compensating winding
is provided to neutralize substantially the arma
ture reaction attributable to the current flowing
is the provision of an alternating current motor
which can be run at an off-synchronous speed,
to the load when the machine is used as a gen
the speed of the machine being independent of
erator or from the power supply source when the 35 the number of poles and frequency of the power
machine is used as a motor.
With such an ar
source and dependent only on the voltage applied,
rangement, this type of dynamoelectric machine,
the amount of quadrature (main field) flux, load,
windings, and temperature. Moreover, because of
made by appropriate design of the various circuits
rthe high amplilication inherent in an amplidyne
to provide a variable voltage or variable current 40 motor', a very low energy speed regulating device
output with rapid response to adjustment of the
can be used.
control field excitation and avery high amplifi
An object of this invention is to provide an
cation ratio between the change in output and the
improved alternating current dynamoelectric ma
change in input to the control field. When this 46 chine of the amplidyne type. .
type of machine is used as a direct current driven
Another object of this invention is to provide
»motor, the control ñeld gives exceptionally ac
an improved alternating current dynamoelectric
curate control of speed with low energy input,
machine of the amplidyne type in which one set
I used as a direct current excited generator, can be
and the machine is thus adaptable for use with
A of tuning capacitors can be used over the entire
simple low energy speed regulation systems. A 50 operating frequency range of the machine.
~dynamoelectric machine of the type described
A further object of this invention is to provide
above is generally referred to as an “amplidyne,”
an improved variable speed alternating current
the term referring to an armature reaction ex
motor.
cited dynamoelectric machine having a control
ñeld winding, a low resistance quadrature circuit
A still further object of this invention is to
provide an improved alternating current gen
,
2,499,151»
3
erator wherein the frequency generated is inde
pendent of the speed of the machine.
Further objects and advantages of this inven
tion will become apparent and this invention will
be better understood from the following descrip
tion referring to the accompanying drawings, and
the features of novelty which characterize this
invention will be pointed out with particularity in
the claims annexed to and forming a part of
this specification.
_
l
In the drawing Fig. 1 illustrates schematically
an alternating current amplidyne generator uti
lizing the method of tuning of this invention, and
Fig. 2 illustrates the method of tuning of Fig. 1
applied to an alternating current amplidyne
motor.
A feature of this invention is the provision of
transformer means having one winding connected
in the amplidyne circuit to be tuned and having
‘ the tuning capacitor connected across another -
winding by means of a plurality of taps. This
arrangement permits` adjustment for the proper
tuning capacitance by merely selecting the proper
taps thereby allowing the use of only one tuning
capacitor of reasonable size for the entire oper
ating frequency range of the machine.
4
.
v the exciting source). As the armature I rotates,
the conductors which are connected to the sec
ondary or direct axes brushes 5 and 6 will be cut
by the quadrature armature reaction flux and a
voltage will be induced between these brushes.
Since these brushes are connected to the load,
a secondary or direct axis load current will flow
through the direct axis circuit of the armature I
producing a secondary or direct axis armature
„reaction along the axis of the direct axis brushes
as shown by the arrow 22.
In order to control the secondary voltage and
load characteristics of the generator, a field ex
citing winding I5 is arranged to provide a feeble
magnetic excitation along the direct axis of the
machine, as shown by the arrow 23, which exci
tation induces a small electromotive force in the
amature winding
between
the
quadrature
brushes 3 and 4. This small electromotive force
in turn produces a relatively high quadrature cur
rent between these brushes by virtue of the low
impedance of the quadrature circuit, as explained
above.
It will be noted that the control of the quadra
ture flux. and hence the controiof the secondary
"vintage,v by' the small amount of energy supplied
Referring now to Fig. 1, there is shown an alter
to the control field I5, would not be possible unless
hating current amplidyne generator having a ro
the direct axisarmature reaction, as indicated by
tatable armature I provided with a commutator
the arrow 2I, were not completely neutralized.
connected to an armature winding of the conven 30 vThis is due to the fact that the secondary arma
tional direct current type and adapted to be
ture reaction and excitation supplied by the con-_
driven by a suitable source of mechanical power
such as induction motor 2. In this schematic
trol field fall along the same axis. In the case
of a generator, as shown here, the secondary ar
presentation, the stationary member with its
mature reaction and control field excitation are
associated pole pieces is not shown. The arma 35 opposed; however, in a motor they are additive.
ture I is provided with a set of primary or quadra
Since the secondary armature reaction is of much
ture brushes 3 and 4 and a set of secondary or
greater magnitude than the control field excita
direct axis brushes 5 and 6 displaced about the
tion, whether therelationship be additive or in
-commutator from- the primary brush set by 90
opposition, it will override and destroy the effect
electrical degrees. The quadrature and direct 40 of the control field flux unless neutralized. To
axis brush sets provide quadrature and direct axis
accomplish this result, compensating iield wind
or load circuits respectively through the arma
,ing I 4 is provided which produces an mmf., shown
ture I.
'
by the arrow 24, which is in the same plane with
The quadrature circuit includes the armature
and opposes the secondary armature reaction 2|
windings between quadrature brushes 3 and 4 and
and thus substantially neutralizes the magnetic
primary 'I of insulating transformer 8. Quadra-_
back coupling of electric current in the direct axis
ture tuning capacitor III is connected across the
circuit of the armature.
secondary `9 of transformer 8 by means of taps
With the direct axis compensating system de
II. The direct axis brushes 5 and 6 are con
scribed above, the control field I5 is only required
nected across the load at terminals I2 and I3 and
to supply a relatively small amount of excitation, ‘
compensating field I4 in series with the direct
and may therefore be designed for very low cur
axis brushes serves to neutralize substantially the
rent input, increasing its ratio of resistance to ln
secondary armature reaction produced by current
ductance and thereby increasing the speed of
flowing in the direct axis circuit. The control
response and sensitivity to control. Therefore,
ileld winding I5 is adapted to be energized from 55 a compensated amplidyne type of generator can
a low energy master frequency source such as
be made to have a high amplification factor due to
a signal generator or tuning fork and is arranged
the relatively small amount of power required to
in-series with primary I6 of insulating trans
excite the control field Winding.
former I1. The control field tuning capacitor I9
The quadrature tuning capacitor Ill and the
is connected across transformer secondary I8 by 00 control field tuning capacitor `I9 are provided
means of taps 20.
\
in accordance with the invention of the afore
Since the quadrature circuit through trans-_
said'application Serial No. 785,846 in order to
former winding 'I and quadrature brushes 3 and
enable an amplidyne type machine, otherwise
4 is of inherently low impedance, a very small
primarily usable as a direct current device„to
amount of excitation ñux will generate a suffi 65 be operated on alternating current. `It is well
cient voltage across the quadrature brushes 3 and
known that a series direct current motor will
4, when the armature ,is rotating, to p'roduce a '
continue to run in the same direction when the
relatively large primary or quadrature current ~ polarity of the voltage applied is reversed, this
flow through that part of the armature winding ~ result being due to the simultaneous reversal of
which is connected between these brushes. This 70 the field flux and an armature current. It has,
quadrature armature current produces a mag
however, been generally considered impractical
netic flux or primary (quadrature) armature re
tooperate shunt> excited machines, and by anal
.action along the quadrature axis as indicated by
ogy armature reaction excited machines, from
the arrow 2I (all arrows represent instantaneous
alternating current, because inductance effects
conditions for a given polarity or half-cycle of 76 ymaire it apparently impossible to synchronize to
aecomo
the necessary degree the alterations of the arma
mf. capacitor can be used with a l0 to i turn
ture current and the excitation flux. The afore
ratio between the turns of primary ‘I andsec
mentioned> application Serial No. '185,846 dis
ondary l of transformer I, the proper ratio be
closes that in the case of amplidyne type ma
ing selected on taps Ii. It is to be understood
chines, the difficulty can be overcome by ap
that an autotransformer can be utilized instead
propriately tuning certain of the critical cir-~
of the transformer shown in Fig. l.
cuits.
,_ Referring now to Fig. 2, there is shown the im
The above referred to application disclosed that
proved tuning- arrangement of Fig. l .applied
in, an amplldyne type machine operated from
to an alternating current amplidyne motor. Here,
5 to 20 cycles, it was only necessary to tune the 10 armature I is provided with quadrature brushes
control» neld circuit, but that from 20 to 200
3 and 4 and direct axis brushes l and I. In
cycles, both the control field and quadrature cir
sulating transformer I has its primary 1 ar
cuits must be tuned, as illustrated in Fig. 1 of
ranged in series with the quadrature brushes I
this application. It was also disclosed that in a
and l and -quadrature tuning capacitor il is
certain fractional horsepower size machine at 15 connected across secondary i through taps Ii.
`di) cycles, a capacitor rof' .4 mf. was sufficient
The direct4 axis circuit which includes compensat
to adequately tune the control field circuit, while
ing field i4 in series with direct brushes axis
sir-capacitor of 450 mf. was required for the
l and t is connected across the alternating cur
‘ quadrature circuit. It was also found that for
rent power supply line 25 and 2l. The control
‘ frequency of 200- cycles, all circuits, i. e., quadra 20 field circuit including control field winding il
and primary I6 of insulating transformer I1 is
tura» direct axis, and control field, had to be
tuned.
also connected across power supply line ‘2i-2l.
.»With this tuning, an amplidyne type machine
Control Lheld tuning capacitor is is connected
arranged as agenerator will generate alternat
across secondary i8 oi’ transformer il by means
of tabs 20.
ing current. of a frequency independent of the
i speedof the number of poles of the machine,
In this motor, control field i5 supplies a feeble
the frequency being determined entirely by the
excitation fiux which induces a voltage across
frequency applied to the control field, and, due
quadrature brushes 3 and 1 which in turn pro
to the inherent amplification characteristics of
duces, by virtue of the Álow impedance of the
this type of machine, theexcitation required. to 30 quadrature circuit, a relatively heavy flow of
be applied to the control field can be of relatively
current through the armature windings between
iow power isuch as can be supplied from a signal
the brushes 3 and 4; ’ This heavy fiow'of quad
uenerator, i. e., on the order of 2 to d watts.
rature armature current produces the quadrature
en an amplidyne motor has its circuits tuned
armature reaction flux which coacts with the
as described above, a variable speed alternating 35 current flowing in the direct axlscircuit from
current motor is provided wherein the speed does
alternating> current power supply _)line ~25-2B,
not depend on the frequency and number of
through compensating field it and the armature
y poles, but depends only on the excitation ap
windings between brushes d and d, to produce
piied y(quadratini'e flux), the line voltage, the
the motor torque. The tuningv arrangement in
toad, the windings, and the temperature. More-- di) cluding quadrature insulating transformer 8
over, _because of the high amplification factor
with quadrature capacitor it and control
oi’an ampliaA motor, a very low energy speed
field insulating transformer it with control field
regulating device can be employed in connection
tuning capacitor i9 is used, as described above,
with the control ileid.
to permit the utilization oi’ tuning capacitor'oi'
in order to operate the alternating current am
reasonable size over the entire operating fre
piidyne generator described above over a wide
quency range of the motor.
range of frequency, tuning capacitors of vary
ing capacitances must be utilized in order to neu
tralize the inductive 'effectof the windings over
,
While I have illustrated and described par
ticular embodiments of my invention, modifica
tions thereof will occur to those skilled in the
art. I desire it to be understood, therefore, that
instance, the necessary value of a quadrature
my invention is not to be limited to the particu
tuning capacitor for a 60 cycle input impressed
lar arrangements disclosed, and I intend in the
on the control field of a certain generator was
appended claims to cover all modifications which
found to be i900 inf. In order to permit the
use'of capacitors of more practical value, the ar 55 do not depart from the spirit and scope of my
invention.
rangement now to be described is provided. The
What I claim as new and desire to secure by
tuning necessary to permit operation on alter
Letters Patent of the United States is:
nating current is provided by quadrature capaci
1. A dynamoelectric machine of the armature
tor i0 and control held capacitor i9 and insulat
ing transformers ß and il respectively arranged 60 reaction excited type having a stationary mem
ber and a rotatable member provided with a
in the quadrature and control field circuits. As
commutator,
a set of primary brushes and a set
Adescribed above, transformer 8 has its primary
of secondary brushes electrically displaced from
'il arranged in series with the quadrature brushes
said primary brush set adapted to provide a pri
- ëi'and 4 and capacitor i0 is connected across
the complete operating range of frequency. For Y
' secondary 9 through taps il. Transformer i1 is 65 mary and a secondary circuit respectively
through „said rotatable member, a circuit in
arranged with its primary i6 in series with the
control field i5 and capacitor i9 is connected
across the secondary i8 through taps 20.
This arrangement permits simple adjustment
for the proper tuning capacitance for the en
~rtire operating frequency range of the machine
and> utilizesv only one capacitor of reasonable
size in each circuit. Therefore, while a 1900 mf.
capacitor would be required to directly tune the
quadrature circuit-for 60 cycle excitation. a 19
cluding a- field exciting winding i’or controlling
the secondary characteristics of said machine, a
second field winding for substantially neutral
izing the armature reaction produced by current
70 in said secondary circuit, transformer -means
having a winding connected in one of said cir
cuits, and capacitor means connected across an
other winding of said transformer __means for
substantially neutralizing the inductive reactance
ofthe circuit' associated with said transformer.
.
7
8
_
said last named winding of said transformer
having taps for selecting the proper ratio be
mary and a secondary circuit respectively through
said rotatable member, a ñeld exciting circuit in;
tween the turns of said last named winding and
the other winding.
2. _A dynamoelectric machine oi the armature
reaction excited type having a stationary mem
ber and a rotatable member provided with a
commutator, a set of primary brushes and a set
, of secondary brushes electrically displaced from
cluding a field exciting winding for controlling
the secondary characteristics of said machine, a
second field winding for substantially neutralis-ing the armature reaction produced by current
in said secondary circuit, a transformer having
a primary winding in series with said primary
said primary brush set adapted to provide a l0 circuit, a second transformer having a'primary`
winding in series with said ñeld exciting circuit;
primary and a secondary ìcircuit respectively
each of said transformers having a secondary
through said rotatable member, a field exciting
winding provided with taps, and capacitors reácircuit including a field exciting winding for con
spectively connected across the taps of each oi’
trolling the secondary characteristics of said
said transformer secondary windings for substan~
machine, a second field winding for substantially
tially neutralizing the inductive reactance of said
neutralizing the amature reaction produced by
primary and field exciting circuits.
f
current in said secondary circuit, transformer
6.
A
dynamoelectric
machine
ofthe
armatureL
means having a winding in said primary circuit.
reaction excited type having a stationary mem~
and a second transformer means having a wind
ing in said field exciting circuit. each of said 20 ber and a rotatable member provided with a com-mutator, a set .of primary brushes and a set of
transformers having a capacitor connected
secondary
brushes electrically displaced from
across another winding thereof for substantially
said
primary
brush set adapted to provide a pri
neutralizing the inductive reactance oi'> said pri
mary and a secondary circuit respectively through
mary and field .exciting circuits respectively.
rotatable member, a field exciting circuit in-l
3. A -dynamoelectric machine of the armature 25 said
cluding a field exciting winding for controllingI
reaction excited type having a stationary mem
the secondary characteristics of said machine, a
-ber and a rotatable member provided with a
second field winding for substantially neutraliz
commutator, a set of primary brushes and a set
ing the armature reaction produced by- current in
of secondary brushes electrically displaced from
secondary circuit, capacitor means for sub-‘
said primary brush set adapted to provide a pri 30 said
stantially neutralizing the inductive reactance of
mary and a secondary circuit respectivelyj
one of said circuits, and adjustable insulating
through said rotatable member, a field exciting
means between said capacitor and the _circuit
circuit including a' field exciting winding for
amociated with said capacitor whereby a single
controlling the secondary characteristics oi' said
capacitor can be used to neutralize the inductive
machine, a second field winding for substantially
reactance of its associated circuit over the range
neutralizing -the armature reaction produced by
of operating frequency of said machine.
current in said secondary circuit, transformer
means having a winding in said primary circuit,
'
7. An alternating current generator _of the'
armature reaction excited type having a sta
and a. second transformer means having a
tionary member and a rotatable member pro#
winding in said field exciting circuit, each of said 40 vided with a commutator, a _ set of primary:
transformers having a capacitor connected across
brushes and a 'set of secondary brusheselectri»
another winding thereof for substantially neutral
cally displaced from said _primary brushÀ set
izing the inductive reactance of said primary and
adapted to provide a primary anda sebondaryl
iield exciting circuits respectively, each of said
circuit respectively through. said rotatable mem-A
last named transformer windings having taps
ber,a ñeld exciting circuit including a field ex-_
for selecting the proper ratio between the turns
citing winding for controlling the vsecondary
oi' said last named winding and the otherwind
characteristics of said machine, a second ileld
ine.
winding for substantially neutralizing the arma-Í
4. A dynamoelectric machine of the armaturel «
reaction excited type having a stationary mem
60
ber and a rotatable member provided with a com
mutator, a set of primary brushes and a set of
secondary brushes electrically displaced from
said primary brush set adapted to provide a pri
mary and ‘a secondary circuit 'respectively 65
through said‘ rotatable member, a field excitingh
circuit including a field exciting winding for con
trolling the . secondary characteristics of said
machine, a 'second field winding for substantially
neutralizing the armature reaction produced by
current in- said secondary circuit, transformer
means havinga primary winding in series with
one of said circuits and a secondary winding' pro
vided with taps, and capacitor means connected
across the taps of said‘secondary winding of said
transformer for substantially neutralizing the in- _
ductive reactance of said primary winding _cir-'
cuit.
..
ture reaction produced by current in said second-.
ary circuit, a transformer having a primary wind
ing in series with said primary circuit, a second`
transformer having a primary winding in series
with said vfield exciting circuit, capacitor means
respectively connected across the secondary.
winding of said transformer.- for substantially`
neutralizing the inductive reactance of said pri-.
mary and field exciting circuits, each of saidv
transformer secondary windings having tapsi’orI
_selecting the proper ratio between the turns of
‘said primary winding and said secondary winding whereby a _single capacitor can be _used to`
neutralize the inductive reactance of its-asso--'
elated circuit over the operating frequency range.,
. of said machine.
-
8. An alternating current motor of the arma«;
ture reaction excited type having a stationary
member and a rotatable member provided with a»
commutator, a set of primary brushes and a set
5. A dynamoelectric machine of the armature
of secondary brushes electrically displacedl fromreaction excited type having a stationary member 70 said primary brush _set adapted to' provide a‘pri
and a rotatable member provided with a com-mary and a secondary circuit respectively through#
mutator, a .set of primary brushes and a set of
said rotatable member, a field exciting circuit in~secondary brushes electrically' displaced from
cluding a field excitingwinding for controlling'
said primary brush set adapted to provide a pri 75
the secondary characteristics of said machine, ai
2,492,758
second field winding for substantially neutraliz
ing the armature reaction produced by current
in said secondary circuit, a transformer having
a primary winding in series with said primary
circuit, a second transformer having a primary
winding in series with said field exciting circuit,
capacitor means respectively connected across
the secondary winding of said transformer for
substantially neutralizing the inductive reactance
of said primary and _1_ield exciting circuits, each
of said transformer secondary windings having
taps for selecting the proper ratio between the
~‘turns of said primary winding and said second
ary winding whereby a single capacitor can be
used to neutralize the inductive reactance of its
associated circuit over the operating frequency
range of said machine.
FRANK W. MERRILL.
REFERENCES CITED
The following references are of record in the
file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS
Number
Name
Date
1,389,110
2,227,472
Wilson __________ __ Aug. 30, 1921
Weathers _________ __ Jan. 7, 1941
FOREIGN PATENTS
Number
2,677
Country
Date
Great Britain _________ __ of 1907
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