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Feb. 14, 1950
2,497,144
A. L. STONE
DRILL BIT
Filed Nov; 25, 1945
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
A
, u
v.
/
#1321971. $70111“
/& 23 22 24 23 33
INVEN TOR.
?r TOP/VE)’
Feb. 14, £950
A. L. STONE
2,4979144
DRILL BIT
Filed Nov. 25,. 1945
44 45 49 a9
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
40
6.38
INVENTOR.
Patented Feb. 14,‘ 1950
UNITED
2,497,144
STATES ‘
ATENT
OFFICE~
2,497,144
DRILL BIT
Albert L. Stone, Palos Verdes Estates, Calif.
Application November 23, 1945, Serial No. 630,197
8 Claims.
(Cl. 255-—71)
1
2
This invention has to do with improvements in
the bottom surface of the hole. Thus the effect
of the ?uid driven cutter is to assure constant and
well drilling bits, particularly rotary bits to be
used for drilling rock or other hard formations
presenting di?icult considerations with respect
both to cutting of the formation and the removal
of the severed particles or cuttings.
One major object and characteristic of the in
vention is the adaptation in a rotary drill bit
of a rotary cutting or abrading wheel driven inde
pendently of the bit rotation and having certain
important and distinctive functions in relation
to the cutting e?iciency of the bit. Of particular
importance in contributing to that e?iciency and
the capacity of the bit to penetrate hard forma
ion to better advanage than the usual bits, are
(1) the cutting functions of the rotary cutter,
complete removal of cuttings with greater effi
ciency than is permitted by the usual bit.
A further important feature and object of the
invention is to provide an improved bit having
greater hard formation drilling e?lciency by in
corporation of diamond particles in its cutting or
abrading faces, and speci?cally in the cutting
surfaces of either or both the body and high speed
rotary cutter of the present type of bit. With
particular reference to the cutter wheel, the pres
ence of diamond particles in its outer face gives
the wheel, especially at high rotative speeds, ca
pacity for very efficient cutting or abrading action
against the hardest of formations.
Certain typical embodiments of the invention
and (2) the maintenance of ?uid circulation and
shown in the accompanying drawings will serve‘
immediate removal of cuttings from the forma
more clearly to illustrate the above mentioned
tion surfaces against which the cutter acts.
and further contemplated features and objects.
In its preferred forms the present bit com
Referring to the drawings:
'
prises a ?uid driven rotary cutter contained in
Fig. 1 is a side elevation illustrating one em
the bit body in such relation to the bottom cut
bodiment of the invention;
ting face of the body as to be capable of high
Fig. 2 ‘is a section on line 2——2 of Fig. 1;
speed cutting or abrading contact with the forma
Fig. 3 is a section on line 3-—3_of Fig. 2;
tion surface, or a portion thereof, being drilled 25
Fig. 4 is a section on line 4—4 of Fig. 2;
away. One main function of the cutter is to re
Fig. 5 is a view similar to Fig. 3 illustrating a
move the formation at the center of the hole, thus
variational form of the invention;
eliminating any core that might otherwise tend
Fig. 6 is a section on line 6-6 of Fig. 5;
to form, and also the formation at a central loca
Fig. 7 is a section on line 1--1 of Fig. 6;
tion where, in the case of bits having a non-coring '
Fig. 8 is a fragmentary section showing a vari
action as by a central or diametrically continuous
ational form of rotary cutter; and
cutting blade or face, a localized center grinding
Fig. 9 is a section on line 9-9 of Fig. 8.
effect would occur without adequate circulation
The drill bit illustrated in Figs. 1 through 4'
to conduct away heat generated by the extreme
friction. The present ?uid driven cutter may be u Or comprises a suitable body structure I 0 which may
have any suitable means, not shown, for attach
centered relative to the hole for rotation about
ment to the usual drill string through which cir
a transverse axis so that the bottom surface of
culating ?uid is pumped for delivery through the
the cutter removes at least that portion of the
body bore I l to the rotary cutter as will presently
formation at the center of the cutting area of
the bit. As will appear, the rotary cutter may 40 appear. Generally speaking, the body proper
may be designed to have any suitable or speci?c
be adapted to cut across the full diameter of the
form or arrangement of cutting faces rotatable
bore, or it may be so mounted in the bit body as
against the bottom of the well bore l3 to cut the
to selectively work against a central or core area
formation l4. Merely as typical, the body is
otherwise unsevered by the cutting faces of the
body.
‘ shown to have curved face portions or ribs l5 and
of a turbine or impeller wheel carrying vanes
against which one or more streams of high veloc
16 between which the body surface is channeled
at ll to facilitate the ?ow and distribution of cir
culating ?uid over the cutting area of the bit.‘
ity circulating fluid are directed to drive the cut
Particularly for hard formation or rock drilling
ter at relatively high speed.
it is desirable that the cutting ribs 15 and 16 be
made specially resistant to the severe wearing
conditions and that they be capable‘ of efficient
abrading cutting action. For this purpose dia
mond particles l8 are embedded in the cutting
faces of the body, it being understood that the
The rotary cutter may take essentially the form
The wheel has pe- -
ripheral cutting surfaces, as presented for ex;
ample by annular side portions beyond the vanes,
and by reason of the open or vaned form of vthe
wheel, movement of circulating ?uid is continu
ously maintained at its cutting faces and across
2,497,144
4
0
may be so located that its peripheral cutting faces
may be o?-set suf?ciently above the cutting sur
diamonds may be embedded therein in any suit
able manner as by the known methods of caulking
into the cutting faces individual diamonds, or
diamond-containing metallic slugs, or by facing
the surfaces with metallic matarix containing
relatively ?nely divided diamond particles.
faces of the body that the vertical load and pres
sure of the tool against the bottom of the hole
Li
will be assumed by the body, at least to a degree
relieving the rotating cutter of bottom pressure
to an extent that it will be capable of high speed
rotation under the in?uence of the fluid stream
The body contains a central or axially alined
vertical opening or slot 20 having a top arcuate
directed against it.
surface 2| below which the sides of the slot are
The variational. form of‘ the. invention shown
de?ned by' and in accordance with. the curvature 0
in Figs. 5 to 7 is generally similar to the described
of the body rib portions l6 through which they
embodiment except with respect to certain modi
slot is formed or cut. The slot 20 contains a
rotary cutter generally indicated at 22 preferably‘
in the form of an impeller or turbine wheel hay-r
ing spaced sides 23 interconnected by curved
vanes 24, the particular shapes and; extents; of
which may be selected or determined to. best
utilize the energy (velocity) of the fluid~ directed‘
?cations in the body structure and the adaptation
of the rotary cutter for selectively removing a
core portion of the formation. Here the body 35
has the annular bottom portions 36 forming the
cutting faces 3.‘! and 38 at the outside of a central
recess 39 which receives a core portion 40 of the
formation as the bit progressively cuts the hole.
the cutter. High pressure circulating ?uid is dis- ._ Delivery of circulating ?uid from the bore II to
the cutting faces of the body may be effected in
chargedv from bore. H through one or more-nozzle
any suitable. manner, as for. example, through
passages 25.v against. the cutter vanes 24' to. cause.
passages. 46 from which the ?uid is discharged
rotationof. the cutter at. high speeds, the. rate. of
into channels or. grooves 41,48 and 49 respectively
which in. individual instances. will depend upon
such. considerations. as, the ?uid. pressure obtain 25 in the. inside, bottom. and exterior cutting faces
of the body portion 3.6.
able. at the nozzle. 25. and the ?uid head. against
The. function of the cutting. wheel 4! is to re
whichthe liquidisdischarged, into the well.
against them to produce high speed rotation. of
The. cutter may be formedwithlsolid. or tubular
move the core. 4‘ at. a rate corresponding tolthe
trunnions. 26. journaled. for. rotation within
rate of. penetration of the bit. As illustrated, the
bottom portion‘ of. the cutter may extend into the
bearings. 211. The bearings. may be specially se
lected‘ for resistance, to. abrasive. fluid, andv de
si'rably may be. made. of rubber. speci?cally as
sleeves or other suitable. bearing. form. When
hollow. or tubular, the trunnions-2B. provide pas
sages Zllthrough which ?uidlmay escape from- the.
center of the cutter. wheel into the body. recesses
29 and thence upwardly into, the ?uid column. in
the well; As will. be. understood. Without-neces
sity for speci?c illustration,,i£ the trunnions. are.
solidly formed, the body metal may be extended.
to occupy all or a portion of' the. recesses 25..
Proper. clearances are. maintained between the
cutter and the surfaces 20'- and 21 ,. to permit free
rotation.of the cutter. Referring to. Fig.,-2,.it.will“
be noted. that surface 2|‘, extended‘. by the body
portion 30 forms with the curved‘ face 3] of the
hole apartial; peripheral‘ closure about the. wheel,
con?ning the ?'uidT. for application of.‘ its velocity
force or headto the vanes?. The clearance32
maintained‘ at theperipherali porti'onof‘the cutter ‘
opposite the portion 30;. permits escape of.‘ the
?uid and‘ cuttingsbeing. carried’. upwardly, by the.
wheel, into the well' ?uid. column,v The cutting
faces .ofthe, wheel may include. the peripheral
faces of'both the. annular sides, 23,. and‘, if. desired.
recess-39 below thev body surface 4H 50 as to cut
the core against a segmental spherical surface 42.
The cuttingsare immediately swept into the ?uid
stream. in the cutter to be discharged through the
openings 43; Except at the bottom, the rotary
cutter 41 is peripherally enclosed within the cir
cular body opening dill, it being understood that
ample clearances may be maintained at all 10
cations. between the cutter and the body to permit
free. rotation of the cutter. The cutting faces ofv
the body andv wheel may if. desired‘ contain em
bedded‘ diamond‘. particles 45' as described with
reference to Figs. 1'. to 4'.
Figs. 8 and; 9‘ illustrate a variational form of
rotary cutter in which the vanes. 50 extend in
wardly to the radial center of the wheel and carry
vanes 51.‘ centered transversely of the vanes to di
v-ide the. ?uid. stream projecting against them.
Toward‘ the. center of the. wheel the vanes widen
at 52 to form bafflev surf-aces servingto deflect the
?uid streams into. the outlet passage 53 formed
by, the. hollow trunnions 5'4‘.
Itshonld be observed that the body may have
any suitable. section. or other. construction per
mitting installation, of‘ the rotary cutter and its
bearings. and ?nal. integration. of the body..
of.‘ the body ribs I5 and, |.6,.thev cutting, surfaces.
Merely as. illustrative, initially the body in both.
of‘ the. wheel may contain embedded diamond
described forms of the invention may be made in
particles 33‘.which,,at the high. speedof the. cutter.
separate upper and‘ lower sections, for example,
rotations. give the wheel highly.- efficient cutting. 60 aboye and. below thetransverse planes of section
andabrading actionagainst the. formation.
lines ll—4i and; ‘|—'! in Figs. 2. and 6. After in
In the. operation of. the. tool,, rotationof the. bit
sertion of the rotary cutter and its bearings in
body produces corresponding. cutting. actionof the,
one. of the sections, the other may be applied
curvedsurface bod-y. portions I 5.and Idagainstthe.
thereto and. the two- sections welded together at
formation. Simultaneously, the. independently
the interfaces corresponding to the locations of.
driven. cutter wheel. 22 is. given an; independent;
the section lines.
the. outer edges. of’ the vanes. 2.4;. As.in the. case
cutting andabrading action. againstsubstantially
the=full hemispherical bottom surfaceof- thehola.
A further» importantfunction. of; the cutter tn
constantly maintain. a. high. velocity sweep of.
circulating ?uid against the. formation surface
being acted. upon by all the cutting,’ faces, result
ing; in. the immediate: removal. of. cuttings; and.
I claim:
1. A well drill bit. comprising a rotatable body
carrying; a bottom formation cutting means, a
circular'cutter carried by and rotatable. within a
central. portionof the; body to cut the formation
at.the>. center of. the cutting area of said means
while; the- body and cutter are vertically sup
dissipation of. frictionally developed heat. At.
ported by the- engagement of said. cutting means.
this. point. it. may: be mentionedthat the wheel; 7.5-- witlrthe; formation
the=cutter is. thereby per
2,497,144
5
mitted relatively high speed rotation, and means
for rotating said cutter at such relatively high
speed independently of the body rotation.
carrying bottom formation cutting means, a cir
cular cutter carried by and rotatable within a
central opening in the body about a transverse
2. A well drill bit comprising a rotatable body
axis while the body and cutter are vertically sup
having a bottom cutting face, a circular cutter 5 ported by the engagement of said cutting means
carried by and rotatable within a central portion
with the formation and the cutter is thereby per
of the body to cut the formation at the center
mitted relatively high speed rotation, said cutter
having bottom cutting contact with the forma
of the cutting area of said body face while the
body and cutter are vertically supported by the
tion throughout a substantially semi-circular ex
engagement of said cutting means with the for 10 tent of the cutter, vanes carried by the cutter,
and means directing ?uid against said vanes to
mation and the cutter is thereby permitted rela
rotate the cutter at such relatively high speed.
tively high speed rotation, and means for rotat
7. A Well drill bit comprising a rotatable body
ing said cutter at such relatively high speed by
having a bottom formation cutting face, a cir
?uid pressure independently of the body rotation.
cular cutter carried by and rotatable within a
3. A well drill bit comprising a rotatable body
central opening in the body about a transverse
having a bottom formation cutting face, a cir
cular cutter carried by and rotatable within a
axis while the body and cutter are vertically sup
ported by the engagement of said cutting means
central opening in the body about a transverse
with the formation and the cutter is thereby per
axis while the body and cutter are vertically sup
ported by the engagement of said cutting means 20 mitted relatively high speed rotation, said cutter
having bottom cutting contact with the forma
with the formation and the cutter is thereby per
tion at a location above said bottom cutting face
mitted relatively high speed rotation, vanes car
of the body, vanes carried by the cutter, and
ried by the cutter, and means directing ?uid
means directing ?uid against said vanes to ro
against said vanes to rotate the cutter, said for
tate the cutter at such relatively high speed.
mation cutting face of the body being curved
8. A well drill bit comprising a rotatable body
substantially in accordance with the curvature of
having a bottom formation cutting face, a circu
said cutter.
lar cutter carried by and rotatable within a cen
4. A well drill bit comprising a rotatable body
tral opening in the body about a transverse axis
having a bottom formation cutting face, a circu
while the body and cutter are vertically support
lar cutter carried by and rotatable within a cen
ed by the engagement of said cutting means with
tral opening in the body about a transverse axis
the formation and the cutter is thereby per
While the body and cutter are vertically support
mitted relatively high speed rotation, said cutter
ed by the engagement of said cutting means with
having bottom cutting contact with the forma
the formation and the cutter is thereby permitted
relatively high speed rotation, said cutter having 1- tion, trunnions supporting the cutter and jour
naled in lateral openings in the body, vanes car
spaced sides having bottom cutting contact with
ried by the cutters, and means directing the ?uid
the formation, vanes extending between said
against said vanes to rotate the cutter at such
sides, and means directing fluid against said
relatively high speed, said trunnions containing
vanes to rotate the cutter at such relatively high
speed.
40 openings through which ?uid leaving said vanes
escapes.
5. A well drill bit comprising a rotatable body
ALBERT L. STONE.
having a bottom formation cutting face, a circu
lar cutter carried by and rotatable within a cen
REFERENCES CITED
tral opening in the body about a transverse axis
while the body and cutter are vertically support 45 The following references are of record in the
ed by the engagement of said cutting means with
?le of this patent:
the formation and the cutter is thereby permitted
UNITED STATES PATENTS
relatively high speed rotation, said cutter hav
ing spaced sides having bottom cutting contact
Number
with the formation, vanes extending between said 50 1,391,626
sides, diamonds embedded in the peripheral sur
1,870,592
faces of said sides, and means directing ?uid
against said vanes to rotate the cutter at such
relatively high speed.
6. A well drill bit comprising a rotatable body 55
2,034,073
2,184,066
2,207,187
2,268,775
Name
Date
Gilthorpe _______ __ Sept. 20, 1921
Schuerman ______ __ Aug. 9, 1932
Wright __________ __ Mar. 17, 1936
Zublin ___________ __ Dec. 19, 1939
Zublin ___________ __ July 9, 1940
Potvin ___________ __ Jan. 6, 1942
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