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April 11, 1950
2503533
H. M. RATLEY ET AL
FLOCK DEPILLING MACHINE
3 Sheets-Sheet 1
Filed March 18, 1946
/
d
m
INVEN TORS
AROLD M. RATLEY
- *2,
.
,__
BY
ALVIN O.LIND
ma?a/W
ATTORNEYS
April 11, 1950
H. M. RATLEY ETAL
2,503,633
FLOCK DEPILLING MACHINE
Filéd March 18, 1946
'
5 Sheets-Sheet 2
By
Mm’
'HAROLD M.RATLEY
ALVIN C‘LIND
ATTORNEYS
’ APT“ 11, 1950
_H. M. RATLEY ETAL
2,503,633
FLOCK DEPILLING MACHINE
Filed March 18, 1946
s Sheets-Sheet s
I.
.
'1
‘é:
"5E
/
INVENTORS H
HAROLD M.RATLEY
-
By
Auvm cum)
A WKW
ATTO R N EYS
2,503,633
mama Apr. 11, 1950
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,503,633
FLOCK DEPILLING MACHINE
Harold M. Ratley, Highland Park, and Alvin C.
‘ Lind, Detroit, Mich., assignors to National Au
tomotive Fibres, Inc., Detroit, Mich” a corpora
tion of Delaware
Application March 18, 1946, Serial No. 655,327
17 Claims. (Cl.19-80):
.
-
T
1
Cz and C3 are vertical openings through the sup
port C and are preferably above the vibrating
screen designated by the lines A-A.
D andD' are base plates secured to the support
C and surrounding the openings '02 and C3, and
The invention relatesv generally to machines
for making carpet of the cemented pile type and
'refers more particularly to a flock depilling' ma
chine, i. e., a machine having means for breaking
up balls, pillstor other objectionable formations
v E and E’ are casings rigid with the plates D and
of the out ?bers so that they maybe distributed
downwardly in substantially free and loose con
‘dition fromthe machine onto the ‘cement coated
surface of the base carpet material.
_
‘ _
- _ It is,v therefore, the primary object of vthe in
D’ and extending downwardly through the open
ings C2 and C3 for conducting the ?ock to the
_ vibrating screen aforesaid} Extending upward
10 from each of the plates D and D’ is a casing F of
.stanté, invention to accomplish’ this depilling Y
rectangular form.
Within each casing are two
adjacent vertical series of rotary brushes respec
tively G, G',>etc., and H, H’, etc. These brushes
It is a further object of the invention to per
are preferably formed with wire bristles and the
form the depilling directly above the point or
points of deposit, preferably above a suitable 15 brushes of the G series have relatively short
bristles I, while the brushes of the H series have
vibrating screen through which the separated or
longer bristles I’. The brushes in the two series
loose ?bers may be sifted onto the ‘cement coated
are staggered in relation to each other so that
surface of advancing base carpet material.
a brush H is peripherally adjacent the two
With these objects in view, the invention con
sists in the method and apparatus as hereinafter 20 brushes G and G’, and so von down through the
operation.
>
-
.
set forth.
.
series.
'
,
As above stated, the adjacent brushes between
In the drawings:
which the material is fed rotate at differential
Fig. 1 is an elevation of the depilling apparatus
speeds, the slow speed being imparted to the
embodying our invention:
25 brushes of the series G. G', etc., and the high
Fig. 2 is a plan view thereof;
speed to the ‘brushes H,‘ H’, etc. Also in the
Fig. 3 is a vertical longitudinal section through
latter series, the speed is progressively increased
the right hand depilling device;
, '
from top to bottom, as for instance, 438 R. P. M.
Fig. 4 is a plan view thereof partly broken
for the top brushes in the casings F, 493 R. P. M.
away in section; and
.
for. the next lower brushes, and 522 R. P. M. for
Fig. 5 isa side elevation partly in section.
the next lower brushes, etc.‘ The brushes of the
The improved method employed for depilling ,
other series may all be driven at the same low
the ?ock consists essentially in passing the ?ock‘
between. rotary brushes which are revolving at‘ ‘ speed, such as 14.84 R. P. M.
Preferably the peripheral clearance between
differential peripheral speeds and in close proxi
each roll in the G series andrthe adjacent brush
mity to each other. Preferably the flock is, passed
in the H series is approximately .005 inch whereby
in a downward direction between successive'pairs
the wires of the .brushes in the fast rotating H
of such rotary brushes and is' ?nally delivered
onto a vibrating screen through which it is sifted
onto the cement coated surface of the advancing
carpet material to form the pile.
,
As illustrated in Fig. 1, the depilling mecha
nismis supported independently of the rest of
the carpet forming machine in a position above
the vibrating screen thereof.
Inasmuch as the
vibrating screen and'means for advancing the
cement coated base carpet‘ material form no part
of the present invention, we have shown in Fig.
1 -l dotted lines A—A to indicate the position of the
vibratory screen in such machine, and dotted
lines 3-3 to indicate the plane of travel of the
cement coated carpet material.
Preferably two depillin'g devices are supported
in parallel relation ‘to each other upon a suit;
series move close‘ to the wires of the slow rotating
brushes in the G series to break up pills, balls, or
40 other formations of ‘the ?bers passing down
wardly‘ therebetween.‘ In this connection it will
be noted that the slow rotating brushes in the G
series rotate anti-clockwise while the fast rotat
ing brushes in the H series rotate clockwise
. whereby the adjacent peripheral portions of the
brushes in said series G and H travel in the same
direction to project downwardly the ?bers pass
ing therebetween.‘
.
The driving power for the brushes in each cas
ing F preferably comprises two separate motors
J and J’ which are located between the two cas
ings and are supported upon a frame K.
Each motor J is provided with a transmission
J 2 and the driven shaft L of this transmission has
able horizontal support C which, if necessary,
may be reinforced by one or more girders C’. 55 a pair of pulleys L’ and La thereon connected
3
4
by belts L’ and L4 to pulleys M, M’ for the brushes
of the slow rotating series G. Preferably the belt
I.’3 passes around pulleys M for the two uppermost
brushes G, G’. while the belt\L‘ passes about pul
leys M’ for the lower brushes Ga and 6’.
Each motor J’ has directly mounted on its shaft
a pair of sprocket wheels N and N’. The sprocket
having its driven shaft rotating at relatively low
wheel N is connected by a chain N1i with sprocket
speed, a transmission between said low speed
and traveling in the same direction, means for
feeding ?ock into each of said casings above the
uppermost of said lower speed brushes. and means '
for rotating the brushes of the two series dif
ferentially comprising pairs of motors adjacent
to each of said casings. one motor of each pair
wheels N4 and N5 respectively for the fast rotat
motor and the series of brushes having the
ing brushes H and H’. The sprocket wheel N’ is 10 shorter bristles, and a transmission connection
connected by a‘ chain N6 with sprocket wheels N"
between the high speed motor and the brushes
having the longer bristles operable to rotate the
latter at progressively higher speeds.
and N‘ respectively on brushes H2 and H3. Pref
erably the speed of the brushes H, H’, H’ and H3
is progressively increased from top to bottom by
3. A machine for depilling ?ock comprising a
providing each succeeding sprocket from top to 15 supporting frame, a plurality of casings mounted
bottom with a smaller number of teeth. For ex
in spaced relation‘on said frame, two adjacent
vertical series of rotary brushes within each of
said casings, the brushes of one series having
longer bristles than the brushes of the other
ample, the sprocket N‘ has a smaller number of
teeth than the sprocket N‘; the sprocket N”I has
a smaller number of teeth than the sprocket N5,
20 series and the adjacent peripheral portions of
With the construction as above described, the
the brushes in the two series being in close prox
balls, pills, etc. of ?bers such, for example, as
imity and traveling in the same direction, means
wool fibers, are fed to each of the casings F of the
for feeding ?ock into each of said casings above
depillers from the hoppers O at the upper ends
the uppermost of said lower speed brushes, and
thereof. As shown in Fig. 3, an adjustable gate 25 means for rotating the brushes of the two series
P is provided within each casing F to regulate the
differentially comprising two motors adjacent to
quantity of ?bers adapted to pass from the slow I each of said casings and having their driven
rotating upper brush G to the fast rotating upper
shafts rotating respectively at low and at high
brush H. The wires of the brush H will move
speeds, a pulley and belt transmission between
close to the wires of the slow rotating brush G to 30 the low speed motor and the brushes having the
initially break up pills, balls or other formations
short bristles, a sprocket and chain transmission
of the ?bers supplied thereto. Thus, the bristles
between the high speed motor and the brushes
I’ will separate some of the ?bers of the pills but
having the long bristles, the sprockets for the
will yield to permit passage of tangled portions
successive brushes having progressively fewer
not fully untangled. The process will be repeated 35 teeth’to drive the same at progressively higher
in passing the material downwardly between the
speeds, and means connected to the lower end
brushes H and G’ which produce further separ
of each of said casings for discharging the ma
ation, and so on down until after discharge from
terial therefrom at spaced positions in relation
the lowermost brushes (i3 and H3. The com
to a carpet forming machine.
pletely separated individual ?bers will be dis 40 4. A machine for depilling ?ock comprising a
charged by the lowermost brushes G3 and H3
casing, two‘ series of rotary brushes within said
downward through the casings E and E" onto the
casing, the brushes of each series having wire
vibratory screen represented by the line A-A to
bristles and being in vertical alignment, the
be sifted by said screen onto the cement coated
brushes of one series being arranged in stag
surface of the advancing base material repre 45 gered relation to the brushes of the other series
sented by the line 3-3.
with a predetermined clearance between the
What we claim as our invention is:
peripheral portions of the brushes in the two
l. A machine for depilling ?ock comprising a
series, the brushes of one series rotating op
casing, two adjacent vertical series of rotary
positely to the direction of rotation of the brushes
brushes within said casing, the brushes of one 50 0! the other series whereby adjacent peripheral
series having longer bristlesthan the brushes of
portions of the brushes'in said two series travel
the other series and the adjacent peripheral por
in the same direction to project downwardly the
tions of the brushes in the two series being in
?ock passing therebetween, means for rotating
close proximity and traveling in the same direc
the brushes in the two series at differential
tion, means for feeding the flock into saidv casing 55 speeds, the rate of rotation of the brushes of
above the uppermost of said short bristle brushes,
one series being progressively increased from top
and means for rotating the brushes of the two
to bottom of said series, and means for feeding
series differentially comprising two motors having '
flock into the casing so that it will pass suc
their driven shafts rotating respectively at low
and at high speeds, a pulley and belt transmission 60
between the low speed motor and the brushes
having the short bristles, a sprocket and chain
transmission between the high speed motor and
the brushes having the long bristles, the
sprockets for the successive brushes having'65
progressively fewer teeth to drive the same at
cessively between the staggeredly arranged dif
progressively higher speeds.
ferentially rotating brushes. '
5. An apparatus for depilling ?ock having two
adjacent vertical series of rotary brushes, the
brushes of one series rotating at low speed, the
brushes of the other series rotating at relatively
high speed, the brushes of the two series‘ being
in staggered relation to each other with the
brushes of low speed uppermost whereby a high
2. A machine for depilling ?ock comprising a
speed brush is peripherally adjacent two low
supporting frame, a plurality of casings mounted
speed brushes, the brushes of low speed having ,
in spaced relation on said frame, two adjacent 70 relatively short radially extending bristles, the
vertical series of rotary brushes within each of
brushes of high speed having longer bristles, the
said casings, the brushes of one series having
rate of rotation of the high speed brushes .being
longer bristles than the brushes of the other series
progressively increased from top to bottom of
and the adjacent peripheral portions of the
the series, the peripheral clearance between the
brushes in the two series being in close proximity 76 brushes of low speed and the adjacent brushes
“ 8,608,688 '
- of high speed being relatively small whereby the
bristles of the’ brushes of high speed move‘ close
to the bristles of the brushes of low speed to‘
break up pills, balls or other formations of the
?ock, the brushes of high speed rotating op
positely to the direction .of ‘rotation of the
brushes of low speed whereby adjacent periph
eral portions of the brushes in said two series.
.travel in the same direction tovproject down
wardly the flock passing therebetween.
brushes of low speed uppermost whereby a high
speed brush is peripherally adjacent two low
speed brushes, the brushes of low speed having
relatively short radially extending bristles, the
brushes of. higb speed having longer bristles, the
rate of rotation of the high speed brushes being
‘progressively increased‘ from top to bottom of
7 the series, the peripheral clearance between the
, ,brushes of low speed and the adjacent brushes
10 of high speed being relatively small whereby the
6. An apparatus for depilling ?ock having two . bristles of the brushes of high speed move close
to the ‘bristles of the brushes of. low speed to
adjacent vertical series of rotary brushes, the
break up pills, balls or_other formations. of the
brushes of one series rotating at low speed, the
flock, the brushes of high speed rotating oppo
brushes of the other series rotating at relatively
high speed," the brushes of the two series being 15 sitely'to the direction of rotation of the brushes
of low speed whereby adjacent peripheral por
in staggered relation to each otherv with the
tions of the brushes in said two series travel in
brushes oflow‘speed vuppermost whereby a high
the same direction to project downwardly the
speed brush is peripherally adjacent two :low
?ock passing‘ therebetween, means for feeding
speed brushes, the brushes of low speed having
relatively short radially extending bristles, the 20 flock to be depilled onto the uppermost low
brushes of high speed having longer bristles, the " > speed brush to be carried thereby to the upper
most high speed brush, and means adjustable
rate of rotation of the high speed brushes being
relative to the upper-most low speed brush for
progressively increased from top to bottom of
regulating the quanttiy of ?ock to pass there
the series, the peripheral clearance between the »
brushes of low speed and the adjacent brushes 25 from to the uppermost high speed brush.
9. An apparatus for depilling ?ock having two
of high speed being relatively small whereby the
adjacent vertical series of rotary brushes, the
bristles‘ of the brushes of high speed move-close
brushes of one series rotating at low speed, the
to the‘bristles of the brushes of‘ low speed to
brushes oi the other series rotating at relatively
- break up pills, balls-or other formations of the
flock, the brushes of high- ‘speed rotating‘ oppo 30 high speed, the‘brushes of the two series being
in staggered relation to each other with the
sitely to the direction of rotation ‘of the brushes
brushes of low speed uppermost whereby a high
of low speed whereby adjacent peripheral vpor
speed brush is peripherally adjacent two low
tions of the brushes in said two series travel in
‘speed brushes, the rate of rotation of the high\
‘the same direction to project downwardly the
speed brushes beingprogressively increased from
?ock passing therebetween, means for ‘feeding
flock to be depilled onto the uppermost low speed
brush to bevcarried thereby to the uppermost
top to bottom of the series, the peripheral clear- '
ance betwen the brushes of low speed and the
adjacent brushes of high speedv being relatively
high speed brush, and means adjacent the up
small whereby the bristles of the brushes of high
permost low speed brush for regulating the quan
move close to the bristles of the brushes
tity of ?ock to pass therefrom to the uppermost 40I speed
of low speed to breakup pills, balls or other
high speed brush.
a
‘
formations of the flock, the brushes of high.
7. An apparatus for depilling ?ock having two
speed rotating oppositely to the direction of ro
adjacent vertical series of rotary brushes, the
' tationvof the brushes of low speed whereby ad
brushes of one series rotating at low speed, the
jacent peripheral portions of the brushes in said
brushes of the other series rotating at relatively 45 two
series travel in the same direction to project '
high speed, the brushes of the two series, being
downwardly the ?ock‘ passing therebetween.
in staggered relation to each ’other with the
10. An apparatus for depilling'?ock having two
brushes of low speed uppermost whereby a high
adjacent vertical series of rotary brushes, the speed brush is peripherally adjacent two low speed
brushes of one series rotating at low speed, the v brushes, the brushes of low speed» having rela 50 brushes of the other seri vs rotating at relatively
tively short radially extending bristles, the
high speed, the brushes of the two series being
brushes of'high’speed having longer bristles, the
in staggered relation to each other with‘ the
rate of rotation of the high speed brushes being
brushes of low speed uppermost whereby a high
progressively increased from ‘top to ‘bottom of
speed brush is peripherally adjacent two low
the series, the peripheral clearance between the 55 speed brushes, the peripheral clearance between ‘
brushes of low speed and the adjacent brushes of
the brushes of low speed and the adjacent
high speed being relatively small whereby the
brushes ‘ of high speed being relatively small
‘bristles of the brushes .of high speed move close
to the bristles, of the brushes of low vspeed to
break up pills, balls or other formations of the
?ock, the brushes of high speed rotating oppo
sitely to the direction of rotation of the brushes
of low speed whereby adjacent peripheral por- '
tions of the brushes in said two series travel in
whereby the bristles of the brushes of high speed
move close to the bristles of the brushes of low 1
speed to break up pills, balls or other formations
of the ?ock, the brushes of high speed rotating ,
oppositely to the direction of rotation of the
brushes of low speed whereby adjacent peripheral
portions of the brushes in said two series travel
' the same directionv to project downwardly the 65
?ock passing therebetween, and means for feed
ing flock to be depilled onto theuppermost low
speed brush to be carried thereby, to the upper
in the same direction to project downwardly the
?ock, passing therebetween.
>
m
' '
11. An apparatus for depilling ?ock having two
adjacent
vertical series of rotary brushes, the
most high speed brush.
8. .An apparatus for depilling ?ock having two 70 brushes of one series rotating at low speed, the
adjacent vertical series of rotary brushes, the
_ brushes of the other series rotating at relatively
high speed, the brushes of the two series being
brushes of one series rotating at low_ speed, the
in staggered relation to each other with the‘
_- brushes of the other series rotating at relatively
brushes of low speed uppermost whereby a high
high speed, the brushes of the two series being
speed
brush is peripherally adjacent two 10w
75
in- staggered relation to each'other with the
7
. asoaoes
.8
. speed brushes, the rate of rotation of the high
speed brushes being progressively increased from
top to bottom of the series, the peripheral clear
ance between the brushes of low speed and the
adjacent brushes oi high speed being relatively
small whereby the bristles of the brushes of high
bristles, the peripheral clearance between the
brushes of one series and the adjacent brushes
of the otherseries being relatively small whereby
speed move close to the bristles of the brushes‘
of low speed to break up pills, balls or other for
mations oi’ the ?ock, the brushes of high speed
rotating oppositely to the direction of rotation -> 10
01' the brushes of low speed whereby adjacent
peripheral portions of the brushes in said two
series travel in the same direction to project
downwardly the ?ock passing therebetween, and,
I
creased from top to bottom oi said series the
brushes of both series having. radially extending
the bristles of the brushes of said one series
move close to the bristles oi the brushes of said
other series to break up pills, balls or other for
mations of the ?ock, the brushes of one series
rotating oppositely to the direction of rotation
of the brushes of the other series whereby ad
jacent peripheral portions of the brushes in said
two series travel in the same direction to project
downwardly the ?ock passing therebetween,
means for feeding ?ock to be depilled onto the 15 means for feeding ?ock to be depilled onto the
uppermost low speed brush to be carried thereby
upermost brush of the ?rst mentioned series to
to the uppermost high speed brush.
12. An apparatus for depilling ?ock having two
adjacent vertical series of rotary brushes, the
be carried thereby to the uppermost brush of said
other series, and means adjacent the uppermost
brush of said first mentioned series for regulat
brushes of one series rotating at low speed, the 20 ing the quantity of flock to pass therefrom to
brushes of the other series rotating at relatively
the uppermost brush of said other series.
high speed, the brushes of the two series being
15. Apparatus for depilling ?ock having an
in staggered relation to each other with the
upright casing of substantially rectangular form
brushes oi’ low speed uppermost whereby a high
open at the top and bottom thereof, two adjacent
speed brush is peripherally adjacent two low 25 vertical series of rotary brushes within said cas
speed brushes, the rate of rotation of the high
ing between the open top and bottom thereof, the
speed brushes being progressively increased from
brushes of one series rotating, at low speed, the
top to bottom of the series, the peripheral clear
brushes of the other series rotating at relatively
ance between the brushes ‘of low speed and the
high speed, the brushes of the two series being,
adjacent brushes of high speed being relatively 30 in staggered relation to each other with the
small whereby the bristles of the brushes or high
brushes of low speed being uppermost, the
speed move close to the bristles of the brushes
brushes of both series having radially extending
of low speed to break up pills, balls or other for
bristles, the peripheral clearance between the
mations of the flock, the brushes of high speed
brushes of low speed and the adjacent brushes
rotating oppositely to the direction of rotation
of high speed being relatively small whereby the
of the brushes of low speed whereby adjacent
bristles of the brushes of high speed move close
peripheral portions of the brushes in said two
to the bristles of the‘brushes of low speed to
series travel in the same direction to project]
break up pills, balls or other formations oi’ the ‘
‘downwardly the flock passing therebetween,
?ock, the brushes of high speed rotating oppo
means for feeding ?ock to be depilled onto the 40 sitely to the direction of rotation of the brushes
uppermost low speed brush to be carried thereby
of low speed whereby adjacent peripheral por
to the uppermost high speed brush, and means ~ tions of the brushes in said two series travel in
adjacent the uppermost low speed brush for
the same direction to project downwardly the
regulating the quantity of ?ock to pass therefrom
flock passing therebetween and means for feed
to the uppermost high speed brush.
45 ingv flock to be depilled onto the uppermost low
13. An apparatus for depilling ?ock having two
speed brush to be carried thereby to the upper
adjacent verticaliseries of rotary brushes, the
most high speed brush, including a hopper di
brushes oi the two series being in staggered re
rectly above and discharging onto the uppermost
lation to each other with the brushes of one
brush of the low speed series, and an adjustable
series uppermost whereby a brush of the other 50 gate within said casing adjacent said uppermost
series is peripherally adjacent two brushes of
brush of the low speed series to regulate the
the ?rst mentioned series, the rate of rotation of
quantity of ?ock adapted to pass from said up
the brushes of one series being progressively in
permost brush of the low speed series to the up
creased from top to bottom of said series, the
permost brush of the high speed series.
brushes of both series having radially extending 55
16. Apparatus for depilling ?ock having an
bristles, the peripheral clearance between the
upright casing open at the top and bottom there
brushes of one series and the'adjacent brushes
of, two adjacent vertical series 01 rotary brushes
oi the other series being relatively small whereby
within said casing between the open top and bot
the bristles of the brushes of said one series move
tom thereof, the brushes of one series rotating
close to the bristles of the brushes of said other 60 at low speed, the brushes of the other series ro
series to break up pills, balls or other fromations
of the ?ock, the brushes of one series rotating
oppositely to the direction of rotation of the
brushes of the other series whereby adjacent
peripheral portions of the brushes in said two
series travel in the same direction to project
downwardly the hook passing therebetween.
14. An apparatus for depilling flock having two
adjacent vertical series of rotary brushes, the
tating at ‘relatively high speed, the brushes of
the two‘series being in staggered relation to each
other with the brushes of low speed being upper
most, the peripheral clearance between the
brushes of low speed and the adjacent brushes
of high speed being relatively small whereby the
brushes of high speed move close to the brushes
of low speed to break upv pills, balls or other for
mations of the ?ock, the brushes of high speed
brushes of the two series being in staggered re 70 rotating oppositely to the direction 01' rotation
lation to each other with the brushes of one
of the brushes of low speed whereby adjacent
series uppermost whereby a brush of the other
peripheral portions of the brushes in said two
series is peripherally adjacent two brushes of
series travel in the same direction to project
the ?rst mentioned series, the rate 01 rotation of
downwardly the ?ock passing therebetween, and
the brushes of one series being progressively in 76 means for feeding flock to be depilled onto the
asoaoss
uppermost low 'speed brush to be carried thereby
to the uppermost high speed'brush.
17. Apparatus for depilling ?ock having an
10
~ wardiy the ?ock
therebetween, and
means for feeding ?ock to be depilled onto the
uppermost brush of said one series to be carried
- upright casing open at the top and bottom there
L thereby to the uppermost brush of said other
of, two adjacent vertical series of rotary brushes 5 series.
within said casing between the open top and
HAROLD M. RATLEY.
bottom thereof, the brushes of the two series
ALVIN C.
being in staggered relation to each other with
the brushes of one series uppermost whereby a_
brush oi the other series is peripherally adjacent 10
two brushes of said one series, the rate of rota
tion of the brushes of said other series being
‘ progressively increased from top to bottom of
REFERENCES CITED
The following references are of record- in the
?le of this patent:
.
v UNITED STATES PATENTS
Number
said series, the brushes of one series rotating
oppositely to the direction of rotation of the 15 1,544,964
brushes of the other series whereby adjacent pe
1,875,719
ripheral portions of the brushes in said two se
2,300,978
ries travel in the same direction to project down
2,385,781
Name
.
'Date
Wooldridge ______ __ July 7, 1925
Dornan ____________ Sept. 6, 1932
Sheppard ________ __ Nov. 3, 1942
Faris et a1. ______ "0012.72, 1945
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