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Патент USA US2510589

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June 6, 1950
2,510,589 _
F1186‘ D96. 18. 1947
Patented June 6, 1950
Wheaten W. Kraft, Scarsdale, N. Y., assignor to
The Lummus Company, New York, N. Y., a cor
poration of Delaware
Application December 18, 1947, Serial No. 792,389‘
6 Claims. (Cl. 261-114)
This invention relates to bubble caps and to
methods of making the same, and is particularly
directed toward improvements in the means for
breaking up the gas or vapor into bubbles before
they rise through the liquid, immersing the lower
Fig. 2 is a top plan view of the bubble cap
assembly of Fig. 1;
Fig. 3 is a view similar ‘to Fig. 1 showing a
‘ modi?cation in which the cap is supported by the
edge of the cap skirt, whereby their size and
spacing may to a large degree be predetermined.
It is a general object of the present invention
teeth of the comb;
Fig, 4 illustrates in side elevation a further
embodiment showing a punched comb unit
directly applied to the cap; and
to provide a novel and improved bubble cap
Fig. 5 is a horizontal cross-section on line 5-—5
whereby to predetermine and control the size and 10 of Fig. 1 showing a detail of the depending teeth.
spacing of bubbles emitted from beneath the
Bubble caps arranged in cooperation with risers
lower edge of the same when in use.
extending from openings in the deck-plates of
More particularly it is an object of the inven
towers or columns, used in the chemical and re
tion to provide a skirted bubble cap with simpli?ed
?ning industries for many purposes, bring bubbles
fringe or comb means for breaking up the gas into 15 of a gas or vapor into intimate contact with a
bubbles of predetermined size and spacing, which
means is extremely simple to manufacture and
apply to the cap.
An important object of the invention consists
liquid being treated. The great demand and
widespread varied use has resulted in many types
of such caps, varying from complex cast and/or
machined units to those relatively simple ones
in the arrangement of a bubble cap and sepa 20 stamped or pressed from sheet metal into the ‘de
rately formed comb structure and the manner of
sired shape, usually that of an inverted pot or
applying it to the skirt of the cap to predetermine
bowl. Early forms of bubble caps usually had
the bubble size and spacing.
a simple, unperforated depending skirt with a
A further important object of the invention
straight lower ,edge immersed below the level of
consists in the formation of the comb from a series 25 the liquid on the deck and beneath which the gas
of depending rods or wire lengths which may
- or vapor, coming through the riser perforating
comprise elements of a bent sinuous rod or wire.
the plate, bubbled and rose to the surface, thus
A still further important feature of the inven
remaining in contact with the liquid for the depth
tion consists in forming a comb element for use
of immersion of the skirt.
It was soon recog
with the straight edged skirt of a bubble cap 30 nized that such caps did not offer proper control
comprising a continuous length of rod or wire
of bubble size and spacing and many attempts
bent into alternate bights and uniform stretchers
were made to provide a perforated skirt or toothed
for application about the periphery of and ex
or sinuous form to the skirt edge to break up the
tending below the edge of a skirt with the upper
bubbles into small size for more intimate contact
35 with the liquid. Such caps presented additional
bights welded to the skirt.
One of the exclusive features of the comb con
problems in manufacture. The cast caps, being
struction just de?ned is its capability of being
unmachined, could not be made accurately enough
stretched or compressed longitudinally whereby
to insure a uniform depth to the spaces between
to automatically regulate the spacing between the
teeth to insure that they would all be used in dis
stretchers which determine the number of bubbles
charging vapor. Caps with machined teeth were
about the periphery of the skirt.
expensive and difficult to manufacture. Punch
Other and further features and objects of the
ing was not satisfactory in the case of stamped
present invention will be more apparent to those
or drawn caps because of the di?iculty of con
skilled in the art upon a consideration of the ac
trolling the apertures or teeth if they were out
companying drawing and following speci?cation, 46 before the drawing operation and the almost im
wherein are disclosed several exemplary embodi
possible problem of cutting them during or after
ments of the invention, with the understanding
forming except on expensive indexing shapers.
that such modi?cations and combinations may be
Bubble caps of substantially uniform size and
made therein as fall within the scope of the ap
shape may be used for many processes but de
, pended claims without departing from the spirit
pending on the liquid and the gas or vapor, the
of the invention.
spacing and/or width of the teeth become im
In said drawings:
portant in controlling the operation to produce
Fig. 1 is a central vertical section through a
the desired number and size of bubbles.
bubble cap assembly constructed in accordance
In accordance with the present invention it is
with the present invention and taken on line 1-4
proposed to make the cap and skirt as an integral
of Fig. 2;
structure by any of the operations heretofore used,
but the lower edge of the skirt is formed or cut of!
straight and horizontal so that it will be im
mersed in the liquid to a uniform depth all
around and similarly spaced from the surface
those heretofore known in the art may oe used
if necessary to insure against the cap lifting of!
of the riser under the action of the ascending
gases or vapors.
A comb having the proper width
To insure uniform breaking up of the gas or
and spacing of teeth to provide the bubble- sizing
and spacing is then applied to the skirt. Prefer
ably the rods are relatively straight stretchers or
vapor emerging from the riser and being forced
to pass beneath the surface of the liquid by the
submerged edge of the skirt, a suitable comb as
sembly 25 is applied about the periphery of the
of the deck.
lengths in a sinuous wire bent to have short
radii bights connecting alternate ends of the 10 skirt and attached thereto with the major portion
of the comb teeth depending beneath the skirt
stretchers. Such a comb unit may be precon
structed of the desired wire diameter and bent
with the stretchers substantially parallel to each '
other and can be adjusted before or during the
' application to the skirt of the cap to decrease or
increase the circumferential spacing between the
This then does not require careful machining
of the comb since the edge beneath which the
bubbles pass is the lower edge of the cap and not
the bottoms of the notches between the teeth.
By merely making this lower edge smooth,
stretchers by compressing or stretching the now
straight and horizontal, uniform bubbling is ef
band-like unit or sinuous wire. This permits
fected. In the structure shown in Figs. land 2
variations in the number and spacing of the
comb teeth without any substantial changes in 20 the comb is very simply made by bending a wire
or rod, preferably of circular cross-section, into
the construction methods and assembly of the
a sinuous form composed of alternate relative—
several parts. This provides an extremely sim
ly straight stretchers or lengths 21 and connect
ple and cheap construction which in operation is
ing bights 28 and 29, preferably of about 180° ar
equally as effective as the bubble caps produced
by the more costly and slower processes referred 25 cuate extent.
Such bent up wire is wrapped as a strip about
to above. Since the bottom edge of the cap and
the periphery of the skirt with substantially only
not the notches between the comb teeth is the
the upper bights 28 resting thereon and these are
controlling factor in immersion depth much
welded or otherwise secured thereto in a substan
greater accuracy is assured at no increased cost.
Referring now to the drawings for a better un 30 tial manner. This provides for uniform spacing
between the stretchers, lengths or teeth and again
derstanding of the invention, and ?rst to Figs.
makes use of the lower edge of the skirt, which
1 and 2, there is shown at III a substantially hori
lies in a plane perpendicular to the axis of the
zontal plate or deck forming a portion of a treat
cap, for determining the actual depth of liquid
ing tower assembly of more or less conventional
type, such as shown, for instance in the patent 35 ‘through which the gas is bubbled; The wire may
be of any desired diameter and the radius of each
to Risdon, No. 1,711,656. In a manner such as
bight may be predetermined, but it is simpler
shown in that patent, means is provided for caus
to make use of sinuous wires of the same manu
ing a liquid to ‘flow across the plate at a level
factured pitch or spacing between the teeth and
approximately as indicated by Line L. The deck
is perforated in a number of places as at I] , and 40 to then change this spacing as desired, in ac- '
cordance with the use to which the caps are to be
each of the perforations receives a vertical tubu
put, by merely stretching out or compressing the
lar riser l2. Such riser, formed circular in cross
resultant formation, thus changing the tooth
section or in any other desired con?guration,
. may be attached in a liquid-tight manner to the
spacing in accordance with any predetermined
plate in any of a number of well known ways. 45 calculations.
In Fig. 3 the structure does not differ substan
Conveniently the riser or sleeve ?ts closely in the
perforation 'in the plate and is welded thereto
- tially from that shown in Fig. l, for the cap ele
ment is identical. The brackets 32, however,‘ can
about its periphery at the level of the upper sur
be simpli?ed since they are not requiredto sup
face of the plate, as shown at l3. The upper end
ll of the riser is preferably cut off horizontally. 50 port the cap. Hence they have only the straight
vertical inner edges 33 adapted to abut the ver
The bubble cap unit I 5 is shown as of the pressed
tical sides of the riser tube l2. The cap is sup
metal type, although it will be understood that
ported by permitting the lower bights 29 of the
other types are equally as adaptable to this in
comb structure to rest on the surface of the deck
vention. It comprises a substantially ?at top It
and a vertically depending cylindrical skirt i1 55 III. For this purpose the teeth are shown as of
conventionally merged with the top along a large
greater length than in Fig. '1, whereby the lower
edge 20 of the cap skirt is supported at about the
same distance above the level of the deck; This
form of the invention partakes of all of the bene
is) mounted above a riser l2 and concentric there
80 ?ts of the ?rst form described.
In Fig. 4 a further embodiment is illustrated.
In Figs. 1 and 2 such mounting is effected by
Such a comb assembly or toothed structure may
securing, as by welding or the like, a plurality,
be formed from suitable sheet metal, as for
preferably three brackets 22 to the inner surface
instance, by punching or cutting from a solid
of a cap near the junction of the skirt and top,
which perform the combined functions of co-axi 65 strip which may then be wrapped around and
welded to the skirt with such a positioning that
ally spacing the riser and cap, separating the cap
the full length of tooth does not depend from the
top from the mouth of the riser and the skirt
skirt edge. In this case the supporting means for
edge 20 from the deck. For this purpose each
the cap is not illustrated but may be ‘of any well
bracket is notched as at 23 by the junction of
vertical and horizontal surfaces appropriately - known form. The skirt [1, however, has the same
horizontal lower edge 20. Secured about its
spaced and positioned to respectively and closely
periphery is a bubble spacing and sizing means
engage both the outer walls of and the top edges
punched from a piece of sheet metal and includ
of the riser. Thus the cap is accurately posi
ing a base band 4| and a series of straight ele
tioned by merely setting it down over the riser.
Any appropriate form of hold-down, such as 75 ments of rod or wire 38 with spacing 39 shown in
radius I. The lower edge 20 of the skirt is
straight, continuous and horizontal when the cap
accordance with predetermined computations.
ous comb-like metal strip secured to one of said
The short overlap 40 of each of these elements
with the skirt provides adequate space for weld
ing and insures as in previous cases that the lower
edge of the cap determines the total bubble depth.
Obviously the rods may be long enough to rest
plurality of transverse, peripherally spaced rod
skirt surfaces adjacent the lower edge portion
and coextensive therewith, said strip having a
like elements extending from a point above to a
point below, said skirt edge.
2. The bubble cap unit of claim 1 in which
on the deck or may be cut off to the short length
indicated. Their cross sectional area, shape and
spacing are subject to change in accordance with
the comb-like strip consists of a sinuously shaped
length of rod-like form with alternate relatively
assembly may comprise the initial mounting
thereof in suitable bendable spacing means to
hold them during the welding operation.
comb-like strip comprises a sheet metal band
having the rod-like elements extending integrally
use predetermined for the cap. Their method of 10 straight lengths and connecting bights.
3. The bubble cap unit of claim 1 in which the I
from one side edge thereof.
In each of the structures an extremely simple
4. A bubble cap unit comprising a pressed
metal bubble cap with a depending peripheral
skirt having inner and outer surfaces and a lower
edge, said lower edge lying in a plane perpen
dicuiar to the axis of said cap, and a sheet metal
means is provided for obtaining the desired bubble
sizes and spacing while reducing the necessary
work in providing the cap. Obviously where
serious corrosion, erosion or chemical action re
sults tending to shorten the life of the relatively
thin teeth they may be constructed of more ex
band formed with spaced teeth extending from
pensive highly resistant material than is the
heavier cap, adding a further note of economy
one side edge thereof, said metal band being se
cured to one of said skirt surfaces adjacent the
in the whole structure.
lower edge portion and coextensive therewith,
As shown in Fig. 5 which is a cross section
through two of the rods or teeth 21 of Fig. 1, the _
opening 30 closely approximates a venturi. As a
result, the pressure drop of vapors which pass
through the space 30 is considerably lower than
and said teeth extending from a point above to a
point below, said skirt edge.
5. A bubble cap assembly comprising a plate
with a riser extending therethrough, a metal bub
ble cap with a depending peripheral skirt having
inner and outer surfaces and a straight lower
edge mounted over said riser in spaced relation
for sharp edged openings customary in prior prac
tice. While the advantage of this Venturi e?ect
differs with diameter of rods or teeth and spacing,
it is possible to obtain a coe?icient of discharge
as much as twice that of the sharp edged open
ing and it is thus possible to reduce the pressure
to the plate, the lower edge of said skirt lying
in a plane extending parallel to the plate, and
drop or increase the throughput. ' Inasmuch as ;,,
lower edge portion and coextensive therewith,
pressure drop has a substantial effect at the
temperature used in vacuum distillation, it is
possible under certainv circumstances to recover
additional high boiling materials without exceed
said strip having uniformly spaced straight
a sinuously shaped strip of wire integrally se
cured to one of said skirt surfaces adjacent the
ing the maximum allowable temperatures as re- _
gards decomposition.
The term “rod” or “rod-like” is used herein to
denote lengths, elements or teeth of metalof such
cross-section and stiffness as is requisite for pro
viding with the cap the bubble openings.
It is of course, to be understood that the Ven
lengths extending from a point above to a point
below, said skirt- edge for determining bubble
spacing and sizing.
6. The combination of claim 5 in which ex
tending portions of‘said strip of'wire engage the
plate in cap supporting relation.
The following references are of record in the
turi effect between the teeth may also be accom
?le of this patent:
plished if the teeth are in the form, of truncated
cones, as for example, teeth that are cast on the
edges of the caps. An oval shape may also be 30 Number 7
While I have shown preferred forms of embodi
ment of my ‘invention, I am aware that other
modi?cations may be made thereunto which come
within the scope and spirit of the description 55
herein and of the claims appended hereinafter.
I claim:
14 A bubble cap unit comprising a metal bubble
cap with a depending peripheral skirt having in
Van Gelder ______ __ Mar. 24,
Davies __________ _._ Dec. 10,
Piron _'_ __________ __ Feb. 5,
Wentworth ______ __ Nov. 10,
Rice _____________ __ Feb. 9, 1937
Duey ____________ _- June 22, 1937
Eckart _________ ..1. June 18, 1940
lower edge lying in a plane perpendicular to the
' 885,548
not and outer surfaces and a lower edge, said 60 Number
axis of said cap, and it separately formed bubble
spacing and sizing means comprising a continu
, Date
France -.; ........ -- Sept. 4, 1933
France -..-...............- May 81, 1943
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