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June 13, 1950
v, GUlLLEMlN, JR
BICYCLE ERGOMETERFiled July 12, 1945
2,510,973
Patented June 13,“1950
2,510,973
UNITED ’ STATES
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PATENT >OFFICE
2,510,973
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1
BICYCLE ERGOMETER
Victor Guillemin, Jr., Dayton, Ohio
Application July 12, 1946, Serial No. 683,195
5 Claims.> (Cl. ’i3-381)
(Granted under thev act of March 34, 1883, as
amended April 30, 1928; 370 O. G. 757)
2v`
»
rIfhe invention described herein may be manu
. A further object of my invention is to provide
factured and usedby or for the Government for
a> bicycle ergometer device having a foot pro
pelled freely rotatable rear wheelwith a smooth
flat periphery in which a band frictionally en
gages the wheel periphery and has ends partially
passing in opposite directions around an indexed
governmental purposes without payment to me
of any royalty thereon.
Thisinvention relates toa frictional braking
dynamometerV device for determining the amount
of work doneor energy expended during exercise
by a human subject operating the device.
' drum rotatively supported by `a lever arm adjust
ably pivotally mounted on the bicycle frame, the
indexed drum being spring biased in one rotative
nection with research directed toward reducing
direction with the >indices inregistering relation
the incidence of aeroembolism (bends) in flying ,A v with a pointerof the lever arm such that adjust
personnel on high altitude missions. The bends,
ment of the pivoted lever karm varies the band
which frequently cause pain of suiñcient intensity
tension and rotation of the wheel produces a
to seriously reduce the eifectiveness of ñying per
diiierence in tension in the ends of the band which
sonnel, were thought to be caused by bubbles of
difference actuates the indexed drum against the
nitrogen forming in the blood at high altitudes.
spring bias to register Vthe net tangential force
The bubble formation may be prevented by re
acting on the wheel periphery denoting work
moving the nitrogen from the flyer’s body before
performance. ,
1
v The need for a device of this kind arose in con
he goes on a mission.
This so-called “denitro
. Other objects and advantages will be apparent
genation” may be accomplished by allowing the 20 as the description .proceeds taken in conjunction
flyer to breathe pure oxygen for a suitable period
before the ascent, and the process may be has
_ with Vthe accompanying drawing wherein for the
purpose of illustration IV have shown a simple pre
tened by allowing him to exercise, thus increas
ferred embodiment of my invention in which:
ing the rate and depth of his breathing. To get
v Fig. 1 is a sideelevational view of the bicycle
_ _
the desired results, it was considered to be neces 25 ergometer;
sary to measure and control the rate of work done
Fig. 2 is an enlarged cutaway View, partly in
during this exercise.
section, of the diñ’erential force meter as sus
. It was found that there was no device avail
pended in the bicycle frame; and
able that was suitable >for the above purpose,
y Fig. 3 isa cross section taken on the line 3--3
and the apparatus, which is the subject of the 30 of Fig. >2, looking in the direction of the arrows.
present invention, was therefore developed. In
k Referring particularly to Fig. 1 there is shownaddition to its original purpose, this bicycle
a bicycle frame, ¿generally referred to by the
ergometer has been used in various aeromedical
reference character Il), having handlebars II and
development projects where it is necessary to
a seat I2 mounted thereon in the usual manner.
measure ‘human work performance. It has been 35 The front fork I3 diverges downwardly to act as
used, for example, to give a measured work load to . a front support 4for the bicycle frame. Rear fork
flying personnel in altitude chambers during tests
members III and I5 intersect at I 6 and are at
of oxygen regulators, in order to determine
tached to diverging rear supporting stands Il.
Whether their oxygen delivery is adequate to take
A wheel 20 rotatively mounted on an axle 2|~
care of the work required in the performance of 40 fixed at the frame intersections I6 is of a diameter
flight duties. Many other uses will become appar- , , , to substantially clear the supporting surface for
ent as the description proceeds. y
‘ the .bicycle frame I0, vand has a smooth flat
The principal object of my invention is to pro
periphery 22 which acts as a brake drum. The
vide a frictional dynamometer device in which a
wheel 20 is rotatively propelled in a clockwise di
sin-gle differential force meter measures the net 45 rection, corresponding to the forward locomotion
tangential force between the frictional co-actîng
of a bicycle, by a foot operated opposed crank
elements.
means 23 journaled at the intersection of the
Another object of my invention is to provide a
frame bars 24 and 25 as is of usual bicycle con
bicycle frame arranged to rest in a stationary up
struction. The [crank means 23 has a sprocket 26
right position having a foot propelled rear wheel 50 ñxed thereto to transmit rotary motion to a
with a smooth periphery in frictional engage
_ `sprocket 21 fixed to the Wheel 20 through a chain
ment with a band passing substantially there
` 28 inthe ordinary manner of bicycle rear Wheel>
propulsion.
around having ends connected in opposed rela
tion to a single differential force meter means
Asbest seen in Figs. 2 and 3, there is a differ
that indicates the net force exerted on the pro 55 ential force meter, referred to generally by the
pelled wheel bythe drag of the band.
vlreference ._ character _30, adjustably pivotally
2,510,973
55 to exceed that in the end 53, thus rotating the
drum until the increased backward torque of the
spiral spring 41 just balances the excess pull of
the end 55, whereupon rotation of the drum 42
mounted on the bicycle frame |U. The differential
force meter 30 includes a lever 3| having a bi
furcated end with arms 32 and 33 straddling one
extension of the fork member |4 and pivotally
supported thereon as by a bolt 34. A right hand
threaded bolt 35 having a knurled head portion
ceases at which time the work in foot-pounds will
be registered by- the indices 45 with relation t0
the pointer 46.
The work load may be varied by adjustment of
36 journaled in an opening 31 of an extension 38
on the fork member I4 above the bolt 34 cooper
the bolt 35 to vary the tension on the band 52.
By turning the knurled head 36 clockwise the
lever 3|l will be rotated counterclockwise about
its pivot stretching the band 52 tighter about the
periphery 22 of the Wheel 20 which will increase
the net tangential force applied to the wheel and
ates with a threaded opening 39 in a nut 40‘11»
pivotally mounted by journal extension portions
4| in the arms 32 and 33 of the biiurcated por
tion of the lever 3| to cause a rotation. of the»
lever 3| about its pivot 34 upon rotation of the
bolt 35. A drum 42 is rotatably- mounted onthe
end of the lever 3| opposite its pivot byv elf-jour
thus increase the work load which will be regis
tered on the differential force meter 30 when the
naling means illustrated herein as a bolt 43 snug
wheel 20 is'being rotated clockwise.
Upon termination of operation of the bicycle
ergometer the spiral spring 41 will return the
of the drum 42 in a well known manner. Where
it. is. desirable to obtain. a very high` degree of 20 drum 42- to its normal» position' of registering 0,
the band 52' slightly rotating the wheel 20 in the
accuracy of indicated Work load` a “frictionl'ess’f’
reverseV direction until' the lug 5U is stopped by
type bearing meansî may. be employed. between
the lug 5|. The rotation ofthe Wheel 20 in thel
the bolt 43»v and the drum. 42. The drum has-an
reverse direction will cause noinjury» to the de
endsurface. 44Iwith indices 45~reading from 0' to
90 which, in. this instance, represents the work 25 vice since the lugs 5l)I and- 5| prevent any reverse
injurious> rotation of’the- drum 42 and the wheel
load in foot-pounds. Theindi'ces- 45are arranged
20 would merely slip in the-band 521'.
around the drum 422m indicative cooperation with
From the foregoing itV may' be seen that this
a pointer 46 'that'.is'. integrallwiththe lever 3|.
bicycle ergometer is a useful contribution to the
The drum- 42'»is-biased ina counterclockwise di
rectionV by'a spirali spring 4'1f that is attachedi on 30 art of determining the power output of human
ly ñtted in a bore through the »lever 3| andloose
ly passing through a central journaling opening>
subjects.
While I have shown` and described a
its innerend to thelever 3| by a stud 48iand- on
its outer end to the drum 42î by a stud 49. The
single specific embodiment of this invention it is
drum normally rests with- the-Oat the pointer- 46,
the counterclockwise rotation being arrested byl
' advantages, as well' as details of construction, mayy
tovbe understood that other modifications andf
aßlug 5€)l (see F‘i`g..3r)`` on the drum 42 engaging» a 35 be anticipated-without departing from the spirit
and scope of my invention.
similar lug` 5L on` the lever 3|.
I'4 claim:
A band 52, consisting of metal orïfabr-icf tape.
1. A bicycle ergometer assembly for measuringA
or other desirable material, has an end 53 pass
thev work output of human subjects per pedal
ing a very' short distance clockwise around-ï the
periphery of the drum- 42 and fastened thereto 40 turn comprising; a' bicycle-like framel arranged
to rest in a stationary upright position; a wheel
as bya rivet'meansr54i. The'band 52 passessub-v
havingl a smooth periphery'rotatably- mounted in
stantia-lly around the wheel 20 being infrictionalY
said `bicycle-like frame; a lever member piv
engagement with» the` smooth» flat periphery `22
otally mounted on one end` to the bicycle-like
thereof and has its opposite end 55 passing-coun
terclockwise substantially around the periphery 45 frame, said lever member being ada-pted‘to swing
through an arc in which the free endI thereof
of the drum 4'2- inv side‘by-'sidev relation to the end
varies relative to the> axis-of said wheel; adjust
53 and fastened theretoasby- a rivet‘mea-ns 551
able means- for rotating said lever member
The end 55 m‘ustbe» fastened as- far around the
througlrsaid arc;- a differential' torque responsive
drum 42 as possibleI to permit' a full scale read'
ing on the drum yet-the endl 55> must not be so 50 meter means’including'an indexed member mov
ably mounted'on- said lever member and being
positioned» as to'ride under'the band- 52 contact-A>
biased inA one directionof movement; and a band
ing- the drum tangentially `to alter~ the- workable
lever arm;
passing partially around thesmooth periphery of
said'wheel'and‘havingtwo ends connected to said
The' spiral- spring 41 is-of a~ strength, and the:>
wheel size and- number of turns» per pedal turn' 55 indexed member in'suclr'a4 manner as to apply
forces‘to» moveV said indexed> member respectively
is'so calibrated and arranged that a' direct read
ihr-'opposite directions, the resulting net force
ing may betaken in- foot-pounds per pedall turn.
moving said indexed member against its bias to
Or, if the pedals-areoperated at a predetermined
an extent proportional- to the frictional force- of
rate, as for example by peda-lingV inA time 'to- a
metronome; the reading maybetaken- directly` in~~ 60 said band on said wheel periphery'upon forward
rotation of said' wheel" wherein> work propor
foot-pounds per second or calibrated` directly in
tional tothe movement of said~ indexed member
horse-power.
is perîormed‘ in Vaccordance with the tension
In operation', the human subject'mountsthe>
placed on said> band by' said adjustable means.
bicycle ergometer'in like manner-'asmounting'an
ordinary bicycle. The subject, upon pedaling'in'
the forward direction, will' causethe wheel 2|l‘t'o~
rotate clockwise and'frictionally dragthe bandY 52"
with it. The two ends of'the‘bandl 5T being'con
nected to the differential force meter in opposed
relation permits the tensionson the two endsíto 70
mechanically evaluate the difference in forces or
2. In a dynamonieter device, a wheel having
a smooth flat periphery adapted to be propelled;
a diiîerenti‘al torquev responsiveY meter means in
cluding a supporting member in adjustable re
lation with sai-dì wheel> on which is rotatably
mounted an indexed' drum member internally
biased in one rotative direction, a band passing
partially' around: the’peripheryof> said: 'wheel and'`
having its two ends Iconnected to said indexed
from the single differential' force. meter dial 45,
drum member about the' periphery' thereof in
4'6‘.. The friction of. the band' 52;onthe periphery
22”of' the'wheelA 20' causes the tension in the end’Y 75 opposed relation sov as- to apply torques tending
produce the net force on the drum 42 to be> read >
2,510,973
associated with said bicycle-like frame and said
lever to rotate said lever about its pivot for
varying the tension of said band whereby wheel
to move said indexed drum member respectively
1in opposite rotative directions, the resulting
net torque arising from frictional tension of said
band upon rotation of said wheel rotating said
rotation will cause a difference of tension at the
indexed drum member until the bias of said in
ends of said band, the net tension being in oppo
dexed drum member balances the resulting net
sition to the spring bias of said indexed drum
torque, the adjustment of said supporting mem
to rotate said indexed drum by an. amount pro
ber relative to said wheel being adapted to vary
portional to the net torque, and said indexed
the tension of said band for changing the net
drum being calibrated in work units to directly
torque on said indexed drum, and said indexed 10 indicate the work done by a predetermined rota
tional movement of said wheel.
drum member being calibrated in work units to
5. In a bicycle ergometer assembly for meas
directly indicate the work done by a predeter
uring the work output of human subjects in
mined rotational movement of said Wheel.
which there is a bicycle-like frame arranged to
3. A bicycle ergometer assembly for measur
rest in a stationary position and having a foot
ing the work output of human subjects compris
ing, a bicycle-like frame arranged to rest in a
propelled wheel with a smooth nat periphery as
stationary upright position, a wheel having a
sociated therewith, the improvement which com
prises; a single differential torque responsive
smooth ñat periphery rotatably mounted in the
meter including a lever arm with a pointer inte
rear fork of said bicycle-like frame and adapted
to be rotated by foot-operated means, a single 20 gral therewith pivotally mounted on the bicycle
like frame and rotatively supporting a spring
differential torque responsive meter including a
spring biased indexed drum rotatably mounted
biased indexed drum, the indices, of said drum'
being arranged in cooperative indicating relation
on a lever arm pivotally attached to said bicycle
with respect to said pointer, a «band passing sub
like frame, said indexed drum being calibrated to
register directly foot-pounds of work done per 25 stantially around said wheel in cooperative fric
pedal turn of the ergometer, a band passing sub
tional relation with respect to the smooth ñat
stantially around the smooth flat periphery of
periphery thereof and having its two ends pass
said wheel |with its two ends passing partially
ing partially around said indexed drum in oppo
around said indexed drum in opposite directions
site directions and fastened thereto, a screw ad
and fastened thereto, an adjusting means asso 30 justing means associated with said bicycle-like
ciated with said bicycle-like frame and said lever
frame and said lever arm for rotating said lever
arm to rotate said lever arm about its pivot for
arm about its pivot to vary the tension of said
varying the tension of said 'band whereby the op
band whereby varying the band tension will Vary
eration of the foot operated means to rotate said
the torque load conditions upon wheel rotation
wheel will frictionally force said band in a di 35 which torque load will be indicated on said dif
rection to rotate said drum against the bias of
ferential torque responsive meter, and said in
dicated torque load being directly proportional to
said spring until said spring Ibias balances said
frictional force, and the balanced position of
the friction force of said band on said wheel pe
said indexed drum indicating the frictional ten
riphery and therefore indicative of the work
sion of said band from which the work done per 40 done per revolution of the ergometer foot pro
pelled wheel.
pedal turn may be deduced.
4. In a bicycle ergometer assembly for meas
VICTOR GUILLEMIN, JR.
uring the work output of human subjects in
REFERENCES CITED
which there is a bicycle-like frame arranged to
rest in a stationary position and having a foot 45 The following references are of record in the
propelled wheel with a smooth periphery asso
ñle of this patent:
ciated therewith, the improvement comprising;
UNITED STATES PATENTS
a single differential torque responsive meter in
cluding an indexed drum rotatively mounted on
a lever and spring biased in one rotative direc
Number
50
403,995
tion, said lever being pivotally mounted to the
562,198
bicycle-like frame, a band passing substantially
2,238,295
around the wheel frictionally engaging the pe
riphery thereof and with its ends passing par
tially around said indexed drum in opposite di 55 Number
rections and fastened thereto, an adjusting means
12,056
Name
Date
Gilman _md-___-- May 28, 1889
Robinson ______ __ June 16, 1896
Snyder __,________ Apr. 15, 1941
FOREIGN PATENTS
Country
Date
Great Britain ______ __ A. D. 1897
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