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July 11, 1950
2,514,579
c. F. HENNEY
REFRIGERATING APPARATUS
Filed May 11, 1946
4 Sheets-Sheet 1
741'
42
llllllllllllll
l
INVENTOR.
78
M 1".’
BY
' an;
July 11, 1950
c, F, HENNEY
REFRIGERATING APPARATUS
Filed llay 11, 1946
2,514,579
'
4 Sheds-Sheet 2
INVENTOK
July 11, 1950
c. F. HENNEY
2,514,579
REFRIGERATING APPARATUS
Filed May 11. 1946
4 Sheets-Sheet 3
INVEN TOR.
BY"%
July 1 l, 1950
CrF. HENNEY
2,514,579
REFRIGERATING APPARATUS
Filed May 11, 1956
4 Sheets-Sheet 4
IN VEN TOR.
Patented July 11, 1950
2,514,579
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE '
2.514.579
BEFRIGERATING APPARATUS
Charles 1-‘. Honey, Dayton, Ohio, allignor to
General Motors Corporation, Dayton, Ohio, a
corporation of Delaware
Application May 11, 1948, Serial No. 869,070
11 Claims. (Cl. Bit-11'!)
‘y,
2
.
Fig. 5 is a plan view, with parts broken away,
of the spray cabinet;
This invention relates to refrigerating appa
ratus and more particularly to an improved type
Fig. 6 is a diagrammatic view showing the re
of evaporative condenser for use in railway air
frigerant circuit;
conditioning and the like.
Fig. 7 is a fragmentary horizontal. sectional
There are a number of problems present in
view showing the shape of the eliminator ?ns;
the design of refrigerating apparatus for use in
railway air conditioning which are not normally
and.
'
Fig. 8 is a diagrammatic view illustrating the
present in .the design of air conditioning equip
effect of the eliminators on air ?owing between
ment used in other types of installations. Thus
in designing air conditioning equipment for use 10 adjacent eliminator ?ns.
The drawings illustrate apparatus which has
on railway cars, it is of utmost importance to
been designed especially for use in railway air
conserve on the amount of space used and it is
conditioning but it is apparent that the same or
also important to conserve on the amount of
A very similar apparatus may be used in other types
water used for cooling the condenser. ‘Further
more, the air used for cooling the condenser often 15 of installations equally well. In order to avoid
unnecessary details, the views shown in the draw
contains a large amount of dust and debris which
complicates the design of an evaporative type of
ing are all somewhat diagrammatic and omit un
important structural details.
condenser.
,
Referring nrst to Fig. 6 of the drawing where
It is an object of this invention to provide a
compact evaporative condenser unit in which the 20 in I have diagrammatically shown the main parts
of the refrigerating system, reference numeral
arrangement of the bai?es within the condenser
20 designates the refrigerant compressor which
cabinet facilitates the removal of dirt and dust
is used for withdrawing refrigerant vapor from
from the condenser cooling air.
the evaporator 22 and for discharging the com
Another object of this invention is to provide
an improved arrangement and design of elimi 25 pressed refrigerant to, the condenser 2'. The
evaporator 22 may be mounted in any suitable
nators and air outlets in an evaporative con
place so as to supply cooled air to the space to
denser so as to conserve on water.
be conditioned within the railway car (not shown)
More particularly it is an object of this inven
on which the apparatus is adapted to be mounted.
tion to provide an arrangement in which the air
velocity at the outlets from the cabinet is low 30 "lhe compressed refrigerant leaving the compres
sor 2| through the line 2| first discharges into a
enough to prevent droplets of water'from pass
superheat removing coil 24 and then into another
ing through eliminators placed adjacent the out
superheat removing coil 26 via the line 25 before
lets.
j
entering the main condenser 28. The superheat
A further object of this inventioh is to fa
removing coils '24 and 26 may each comprise a
cilitate ef?cient removal of heat from the com
pressed refrigerant.
relatively ?at rectangular unit including a plu
rality of convolutions of conduit having ?ns there
"
Further objects and advantages of the present
invention will be apparent from the- following
on. These coils are employed to remove sensible
heat from the refrigerant, created by compress
panying drawings, wherein a preferred form of 40 ing the gas, prior to its flow into the condenser
28 wherein the compressed ?uid is further cooled
the present invention is clearly shown.
description. reference being had to
accom
In the drawings:
Fig. 1 is a side elevational view, with parts
broken away, showing the spray cabinet within
which the condenser is mounted;
Fig. 2 is a vertical sectional view taken sub
to cause liquefaction and/or condensation there
of. The condensed refrigerant flows from the con
denser “ and collects in the receiver 30 from
whence the liquid refrigerant is supplied to the
evaporator 22 through the liquid line 32. The
?ow of refrigerant through the line 32 may be
controlled by any conventional refrigerant con
trol device such as the thermostatic expansion
Fig. 3 is an end elevational view. with parts
broken away, showing the arrangement of parts 50 valve 24. The valve 34 is provided with the usual
stantially on line 2—2 of Fig. 3 showing the ar
rangement within the spray cabinet;
within the spray cabinet;
.
form of thermostatic bulb It which serves to
~
. Fig. 4 is an isometric view, with parts broken
away, showing the arrangement of the various
water and air directing bailes within the spray
cabinet;
at
close the valve 34 when the refrigerating effect
reaches the outlet of the evaporator 22.
As shown in Figs. 1 through 5, the condenser
20 is horizontally disposed within a spray cab
9,614,579
,-
‘- inet‘generally designated by the reference nu
a
'
4"
eliminator ?ns 82 (see Fig. 7) which are bent
as shown to form a tortuous path for the air leav
meral 48. The cabinet 40 is provided with an air
ing the spray cabinet. The bends in the ?ns are
inlet 42 and a pair of side outlets 43. A remov
arranged in such a manner that the droplets
able air ?lter 44 which‘ serves to ?lter the incom
of water carried along with the air will strike
ing air has been placed adjacent the inlet 42.
against. the ?n surfaces and drain off onto the
As best shown in Figs. 2, 4, and 5, a partition
drainboards 83 (Fig. 3) ‘and into the main water
46 is provided within the cabinet 48 for separat
sump without being carried along with the air.
ing the cabinet into a blower compartment 48 and
a spray compartment 58. A motor 52 is mounted
The outer edges 84 of the ?ns 82 are bent in a di
within the blower compartment 48' and serves to 10 rection substantially perpendicular to the direc
tion of air ?ow so as-to intercept vany droplets of
operate a pair of centrifugal fans or blowers 54
water not previously eliminated. As shown in
which, as best shown in Fig. 2, blow air hori
Fig. 8, the bent edge portions 84 are long enough
zontally through the outlets 55 and into the space
.to extend substantially halfway across the space
beneath the condenser 28.
A condenser spray system 56 is arranged in the 15 between the straight portion of the ?ns. It has
been found that eliminator ?ns having an over
upper part of the cabinet so as to spray water
- all length of approximately 2%" in the direction
downwardly onto the condenser 28 in countercur
of air flow and being spaced substantially 1/8"
rent relationship to the condenser cooling air.
apart are very effective in eliminating droplets
The excess or unevaporated water drips down from
the condenser 28 into the hoppers 58 provided 20 of water provided the air ?ows through the elimi
nator ?ns in the direction indicated by the solid
beneath the condenser 28. This excess water
line arrows in Fig. 8 rather than in the di
eifectively serves to wash 'the incoming air before
rection indicated by the dotted line arrows in
- , the air contacts the ?ns of the condenser 28. As
shown in Fig. 2, a drainboard 60 is arranged for . the same ?gure. By virtue of the arrangement
directing this excess water and any entrained dirt 25 of the bends in the eliminator ?ns, the air ?owing
between the ?ns in the direction of the solid line,
into the hoppers 58.
arrows in Fig. 8 tends to impinge against the end
The entire bottom portion of the spray cab
' inet 40 serves as a sump for the water.
The
water which drains into the hoppers 58 can ?ow
portions 84 so as to drop out any droplets of water
which have not already been eliminated from
into the main sump through the passages 62 (see 30 the air. It will be noted that by placing the elimi
nator ?ns on the superheat removing coils it is
Figs. 2 and 4) formed between the lower end of
possible to use the eliminator ?ns for the dual
the drainboard 68 and the vertical portions 63
purpose of heat removal and water conservation.
of the hoppers 58. By virtue of this arrange
While the form of embodiment of the invention
ment it is apparent that the heavier dirt particles
settle to the bottom of the hoppers 58 with the 35 as herein disclosed constitutes a preferred form,
it' is to be understood that other forms might
result that the water which drains into the main
be adopted, as may come within the scope of the
reservoir through the passages 82 is substantially
claims which follow.
dirt-free.
What is claimed is as follows:
A water pump 18 driven by a motor 12 is
1. In an air conditioning system, an evapol
mounted on the side wall of the cabinet 48 and 40
rator, a compressor, a superheat removing coil,
serves to withdraw water from the bottom of the
a condenser, refrigerant ?ow means connecting
casing 48 through the sump outlet 13 (Figs. 3
said evaporator, compressor, superheat removing
and 4) and serves to supply ‘water to the spray
coil, and condenser, means for controlling the
' system through the line 14. A screen or ?lter
element 11 strains out foreign particles from the 45 ?ow of refrigerant from said condenser to said
evaporator, said connecting means serving to di
water which enters the outlet 13. The arrange
rect refrigerant vapor leaving said compressor
ment of the sprays within the cabinet is such
into said superheat removing coil and thereafter
' that they may be removed as a unit through the
into said condenser, va casing enclosing said su
, air inlet opening 42 for cleaning and repair pur
poses by disconnecting the supply line as at 15. 50 perheat removing coil and said condenser, par
tition means separating said casing into a fan
It will be noted that the wall 45 is provided with
a section 41 (see Fig. 4) which may be removed - compartment and a spray compartment, said par
tition being provided with an opening affording
along with the sprays. Clean-out doors 16 are
communication between said compartments, said
provided for draining the sediment from the bot
toms of the hoppers 58. As shown in Fig. 8 the 55 condenser being disposed within said spray com
partment, means for spraying water onto said
side walls 59 and SI of the hoppers 58 are tapered
condenser, said casing having an air inlet in a
so as to direct the sediment towards the clean
wall of said fan compartment and an air outlet
out doors 16. Opening of the doors ‘I8 merely
in a wall of said spray compartment, said super
drains the water and sediment from the hoppers
58 without draining the entire sump. Make-up 60 heat removing coil being disposed adjacent said
water may be supplied to the sump in ‘any con
ventional manner to compensate for the con
air outlet, and fan meanswithin said fan com
partment for ?owing air through said inlet, said
compartment communicating opening, across said
taminated water drained from the hopper.
condenser in counter-?ow relation to water being
After the air leaves the top of the condenser
28 it is required to change its direction and ?ow 65 sprayed in said spray compartment and there
after across said superheat removing coil to said
towards the side walls of the cabinet 48 where
outlet.
in outlets 43 are provided as shown. The one
. 2. In an air conditioning system, an evapora
superheat removing coil 24 is arranged adja
tor, a compressor, a superheat removing coil, a
cent the one side outlet and the other superheat
condenser, refrigerant ?ow means connecting said
removing coil 26 is arranged adjacent the other 70 evaporator, compressor, superheat removing coil,
side outlet. The receiver 38 (see Figs. 3 and 5)
and condenser, means for controlling the ?ow
is arranged within the spray compartment 58 so
of refrigerant from said condenser to said evap
as to be kept cool by the air and drops of water
orator, said connecting means serving to direct
coming from the upper side of condenser 28.
75 refrigerant vapor leaving said compressor into
Each superheat removing coil is provided with
said superheat removing coil and thereafter into
9,514,590
.‘5‘ _
said condenser, a‘casing
super
heat removing coil and said condenser. parti
tion means separating said easing into a fan'
compartment and a spray compartment, said.
partition being provided with an opening afford
- ing ‘communication between said compartments,
said condenserbeing disposed within said spray
compartment, means for spraying water onto
said condenser, said casing having an air inlet
6‘
l
.
let in a wall of said spray compartment, means
within said fan compartment for ?owing air
through said inlet, said compartment communi
cating opening, across said condenser in counter
?ow relation to water being sprayed in ‘said spray _
compartment and thereafter to said outlet, mois
ture eliminating means located adjacent said
outlet for preventing droplets of water carried
by said air from being discharged into the at
mosphere outside said casing. said eliminating
inawallofsaidfancompartmentandanair lo
means comprising a plurality of parallel spaced
superheat removing coil being disposed adjacent
?ns between which the air passes in'its ?ow to
outlet in a wall of said spray compartment, said
said air outlet, and fan means within said fan
said outlet,_ said ?ns being bent to form tortuous
paths of ?ow for said air. and the edges of said
said compartment communicating opening, across 15 ?ns at the exit side of said tortuous air paths
compartment'for ?owing air through said inlet,
/being?angedinadirectiontocausetheair~tobe
said condenser in. counter-?ow relation to water
being sprayed in, said spray compartment and
imphiigged thereagainst before
g from said
thereafter across said superheat removing coil to
pa
.
said outlet, said superheat removing coil being
5. In an air conditioning system, an evaporator,
provided with moisture eliminator ?ns for pre 20 a compressor, a condenser, refrigerant ?ow means
venting droplets of water carried by said air from
connecting said evaporator, condenser and com
being discharged into the outside atmosphere.
3. In an air conditioning system, an evaporator,
a compressor, a superheat removing coil, a con
denser, refrigerant ?ow means connecting said
evaporator, compressor, superheat removing coil,
and condenser, means for controlling the ?ow of
refrigerant from said condenser to said evapora
tor, said connecting- means serving to direct re
pressor, means for controlling- the ?ow of re
frigerant from said condenser to said evaporator,
a casing enclosing said condenser, partition
l means separating said casing into a fan com
partment and a spray compartment, said parti
tion means being provided with an opening af
fording communication between said compart
ments,'said condenser being disposed within said
frigerant vapor leaving said compressor into said '
in
spray compartment, means for spraying water
superheat removing coil and thereafter into said
onto said condenser, said casing having an air
condenser, a casing enclosing said superheat re
inlet in a wall of said fan compartment and an
moving coil and said condenser, partition means
air outlet in a wall of said spray compartment,
separating said casing into a fan compartment
means within said fan compartment for ?owing
and a spray compartment, said partition being 35 air through said inlet, said compartment com
provided with an opening affording communica
municating opening,. across said condenser in
tion between said compartments, said condenser
counter-?ow relation to water being sprayed in
being disposed within said spray‘compartment,
said spray compartment and thereafter to said
said casing having an air inlet in a wall of said
outlet, moisture eliminating means located ad
fan compartment and an air outlet in a wall of 40 jacent said outlet for preventing droplets of water
said spray compartment, said superheat removing
carried by said air from being discharged into
coil being disposed adjacent said air outlet, the
the atmosphere outside said casing, said elimi
lower portion of said casing forming a sump,
nating means comprising a plurality of parallel
means for separating said sump into a plurality
spaced ,?ns between which the air passes in its
of compartments, means for pumping water from 45 ?ow to said outlet, said ?ns being bent to form
one of said sump compartments and for spray
tortuous paths of ?ow for said air, the/edges of
ing the water over the upper side of said con
said ?ns at the exit side of said tortuous air paths
denser, means within said fan compartment for
being ?anged in a direction to cause the air to
?owing air through said inlet, said compartment
be impinged thereagainst before egressing from
communicating opening, upwardly across said 50 said paths, the bottom of said casing forming a
condenser and thereafter across said superheat
sump for the storage of the spray water, means
removing coil to said outlet, means for directing
for pumping water from said sump to said water
the spray water leaving said condenser into an
spraying means, and means for directing the
other of said sump compartments which serves
sprayed water and water from said moisture
as a dirt and debris settling tank, means for 56 eliminating means back into said sump.
draining water from the upper portion of said
6. In an air conditioning system, an evapo
settling tank into said ?rst mentioned compart
rator, a compressor, a superheat removing coil, a
ment of said sump compartments, said settling
condenser, refrigerant ?ow means connecting
tank having a normally closed drain opening in
said evaporator, compressor, superheat removing
the bottom wall thereof, and said tank having
coil, and condenser, means for controlling the
side walls tapering toward said drain opening.
flow of refrigerant from said condenser to said
4. In an air conditioning system, an evaporator,
evaporator, said connecting means serving to
a compressor, a condenser, refrigerant ?ow means
direct refrigerant vapor leaving said compressor
connecting said evaporator, condenser and com
into said superheat removing coil and thereafter
pressor, means for controlling the ?ow of refrig
into said condenser, a casing enclosing said super
erant from said condenser to said evaporator, a
heat removisg coil and said condenser, partition
casing enclosing said condenser, partition means
means separating said easing into a fan com
separating said casing into a fan compartment
partment and a spray compartment, said parti
and a spray compartment, said partition means
tion being provided with an openingr a?'ordinq
being provided with an opening affording com
communication between said compartments, said
munication between said compartments, said
condenser being disposed substantially horizon
condenser being disposed within said spray com
tally within‘said spray compartment, said casing
partment, means for spraying water onto said
having an air inlet in a wall of said fan com
condenser, said casing having an air inlet in a
partment and an air outlet in a wall of said spray
wall of said fan compartment and an air out 75 compartment, said superheat removing coil being
8,514,570 .
,
disposed adjacent said air outlet, the lower por
tion of said casing forming a sump containing
a body of water, means for pumping water from
said sump and for .-_-,spraying the water over
the upper side of said condenser, means within‘
said fan compartment ‘for ?owing air through
said inlet, horizontally through said compart
ment communicating opening beneath said con
denser andupwardly- thereacross in said spray
8
being; discharged into atmosphere. outside said
casing
9. In an air conditioning system, an evapo
rator, a compressor, a condenser and a unitary
structure comprising a superheat removing coil
and moisture eliminating means associated there
with, refrigerant condu'cting means connecting
' said evaporator, said compressor, said condenser
and said coil of said unitary structure in closed
compartment and thereafter across said super 10 circuit relation, means for controlling the ?ow
heat removing coil to said outlet whereby the
of refrigerant from said condenser to said evap
spray 1water leaving said condenser serves to
orator, a casing having a plurality of walls en
wash the air prior to its contact with said con
closing said condenser and said unitary structure,
denser, and moisture eliminating means asso
'means‘i'or spraying water onto said condenser,
ciated with said superheat removing coil for 15 said casing having an air inlet in one wall there
extracting particles of water from the air before
of and an air outlet in another wall thereof.
said air leaves said casing.
said unitary structure being disposed adjacent
7. In combination, an evaporator, refrigerant
translating means for withdrawing gaseous re
said air outlet, fan means for ?owing air through
said inlet and across said condenser in counter
frigerant from and for supplying liquid refriger 20 ?ow relation to water being'sprayed thereon and
ant to said evaporator including,-a compressor,
thereafter through said unitary structure, said
a superheat removing coil and a, condenser, a
moisture eliminating means of said unitary struc
casing enclosing said superheat removing coil
ture including‘ a plurality of parallel spaced ?ns
and said condenser, said casing having an air
secured in intimate thermal contact with said
‘inlet Opening and an air. outlet opening, said 25 superheat removing coil thereof and between
superheat removing coil being disposed adja
which the air passes in its ?ow to said outlet,
cent said air-outlet opening, means for spraying
said ?ns being bent to form tortuous paths of
water over surfaces of said condenser, means for
?ow for said .air, and the edges of said ?ns at the
circulating air in through said air inlet opening
exit side of said tortuous air paths being ?anged
and directing the air into thermal exchange re 30 in a direction to cause the air to be impinged
lationship with said condenser in_ counter-?ow
relation to water being sprayed thereover and
thereafter into thermal exchange relationship
thereagainst before egressing from said paths.
10. In an air conditioning system, an. evapora
tor, a compressor, a superheat removing coil and
with said superheat removing coil, moisture elim
a condenser, refrigerant conducting means con
inating means for extracting particles of water 35 necting said evaporator, said compressor, said
from the circulating air before _said air leaves
superheat removing coil and said condenser in
said casing through said outlet opening, said
closed circuit relation, means for controlling the
eliminating means comprising a plurality of
now of refrigerant from said condenser to said
parallel spaced ?ns on said superheat removing
evaporator, a casing having a plurality of walls ‘
coil,'said ?ns being bent to form tortuous paths 40 enclosing said superheat removing coil and said
of ?ow each having an inlet and an outlet for
condenser, said casing having an air inlet opening
the air ?owing over said superheat removing
in one of its upright walls and an air outlet open
coil, and the edge of each ?n at the outlet side
‘ing in another of its upright walls disposed sub
of said paths of ?ow being ?anged in a direction
stantially at right angles to said one wall, means
to cause the air to be impinged thereagainst be
for circulating air into and out of said casing
fore egressing from said paths.
through said openings, means for spraying water
8. In an air conditioning system, an evapo
rator, a compressor, a condenser, refrigerant
?ow means connecting said evaporator, con
onto said condenser, said superheat removing coil
being disposed adjacent said air outlet opening,
denser and compressor, means for controlling"
the ?ow of refrigerant from said condenser to
said evaporator, a ‘substantially rectangularly
shaped casing enclosing said condenser, parti
culating through said casing ?ows upwardly over
tion means separating said casing into a fan
compartment and a, spray compartment, said
partition means being provided with an opening
affording communication between said compart
ments, said condenser being disposed within said
spray compartment, means for spraying water
and said ‘casing inlet and outlet openings being so
arranged with respect to one another that air cir
said condenser from said inlet opening to be
washed by spray water leaving the condenser and
is caused to change its direction of ?ow and pass
horizontally across said superheat removing coil
to said outlet opening.
11. In an air conditioning system, an evapo
rator, a compressor‘, a ?rst superheat removing
coil, a second superheat removing coil and a con
onto said condenser, said casing being provided 60 denser, refrigerant conducting means connect
with an air inlet and a pair of air outlets, said
air inlet being'in an upright wall of said fan
compartment, one of said pair of air outlets being
in an upright wall of said spray compartment, the
other of said pair of air outlets being in an up
right wall of said spray compartment opposed to
the wall having said one outlet therein, means
within said fan compartment for ?owing air
ing said evaporator, said compressor and super
heat removing coils and said condenser in closed
circuit relation, means for controlling the ?ow of
refrigerant from said condenser to said evapora
tor, a casing having a plurality of walls enclosing
said superheat removing coils and said condens
er, said casing having an air inlet opening in one
of its upright walls, said casing having a ?rst air
through said inlet, said compartment communi
outlet opening in a wall thereof disposed substan
cating opening, across said condenser in counter 70 tially at right angles to said one wall, said casing
?ow relation to water being sprayed in said spray
also having a second air outlet opening in another
' compartment, and thereafter toward the opposed
wall thereof disposed substantially at right angles
pair of outlets, and a moisture eliminating means
to saidone wall, meansfor circulating air into and
located adjacent each of said outlets for prevent
out of said casing through said openings, means
75
ing droplets of water carried by said air from
for spraying water onto said condenser. said first
2,514,679
9
1
superheat removing coil being disposed adjacent
one of said air outlet openings, said second super
heat removing coil being disposed adjacent the
REFERENCES CITED
The following references are or record in the
?le of ‘this patent:
.
-
other of said air outlet openings, said casing inlet
v UNITED STATES‘ PATENTS
and outlet openings being so arranged with re 5
spect to one another that air circulating through
Number
Name
Date
said casing ?ows upwardly over said condenser
438,423
Peregrine ________ __ Oct. 14, 1890
from said inlet opening and is thence caused to be
1,751,999 \ Hines ___________ __ Mar. 25, 1930
divided and ?ow horizontally in two oppositely di
2,100,834
Chapman ________ __ Nov. 30, 1937
rected stream, one of saidhorizontal streams 01'
2,111,905 Smith et a1 ______ __ Mar. 22, 1938
air passing over said ?rst superheat removing coil
2,175,946
Smith ____________ __ Oct. 10, 1939
to the outlet opening adjacent thereto, and the
2,187,398
Goggins __________ __ Jan. 16, 1940
other of said horizontal streams of air passing
2,226,480
Reilly et al _______ __ Dec. 24, 1940
over said second superheat removing coil to the
outlet opening adjacent thereto.
CHARLES F. HENNEY.
2,251,649
Wichmann _______ __ Aug. 5, 1941
2,296,997
Knoy ____________ .._ Sept. 29, 1942
2,297,928
Wilson. 1
2,355,289
Gibson IIIIIII. Aug. 8, 1944
Oct. 6, 1.942
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