close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

код для вставки
Aug. 1, 1950
Y. z. vbN STACKELBERG
2,517,051
VALVE
Filed March 9, 1945
A?
2
/4
4/8
23
‘5/9
, ,, a 7
20
J2
43
4:4
J5
-
Yurgen Z.von s’ruckelbler'g
Patented Aug. 1, 1950
2,517,061
UNITED STATES, PATENT OFFICE
2,517,061
VALVE
Yurgen Z. von Stackelberg, Baltimore, Md., as
slgnor to The Glenn L. Martin Company, Mid
» dle River, Md., a corporation of Maryland
Application‘ March 9, 1945, Serial No. 581,744
10 Claims. (CL 251-76)
This invention relates to a novel valve, par
ticularly to an arrangement of structure and seals
to prevent internal ?ow or leakage between the
ports or ?ow paths within a multi-port valve.
In high pressure hydraulic systems involving
pressures from 1,500 to 3,000 pounds per square
inch, it is a di?icult problem to maintain the
structural parts within the valve sealed to pre
vent internal ?ow or leakage during the opera
tion of the valve. By this is meant, that the pri
mary purpose of a multi-port valve is to permit
flow through one or the other paths through the
rubber-like synthetic material and are of gen
erally circular cross-section. They are sufficient
ly elastic so that they may be placed in the
grooves over the valve body or ?t snugly around
the valves when in the grooves. This O-ring in a
groove forms an excellent ?uid-tight seal and
prevents any leakage under high pressures past
such a seal. Due to the fact that part of the seal
ing properties are derived from the snug ?t be
tween the O-ring and the adjacent part, it has
been impossible to 'date to have a satisfactory
?uid-tight seal in a structure where there is rela
tive motion between a shoulder or sharp edge and
the 'O-ring seal. In other words, if the O-ring
valve. A selector valve, for example, may have
one inlet port and two outlet ports so that flow
may be directed from the inlet port to either of 15 is in a groove in the wall of the structure sur
the two outlet ports or it may have two inlet ports
rounding a shaft, the shaft must be of constant
from two separate sources of fluid pressure and
diameter without any breaks where it passes over
a single outlet port through which ?uid will ?ow
the seal, and conversely if the O-ring is in a
from either of the two sources of ?uid pressure
groove in a shaft, it will not pass over the sharp
depending upon the position of the selector valve. 20 edge or break in the adjacent wall structure. The
It is necessary to prevent flow of hydraulic fluid
reason for this is that any. sharp edges, due to
past the valve structure to the closed line. In
change in diameter, tend to destroy or impair the
high pressure valves of this type, it has been
external contour of the gasket and ruin its effi
necessary to resort to poppet valves or ball valves
ciency for further sealing.
25
in an effort to overcome the problem of sealing
An object of this invention is to provide a. struc
the internal structure of a valve to prevent ‘inad
ture whereby O-rings may be employed to per
vertent internal leakage of ?uid. Poppet valves
form the function of sealing a valve against in
and ball valves, are usually arranged so that they
ternal leakage, yet wherein the rings will not be
open against ?uid pressure and can be main
subjected to wear or destruction by passing over
tained sealed because the ?uid pressure helps 30 sharp edges in the valve structure. This inven
seat the valves but flow through such a valve is
tion is illustrated in a selector valve which dem
directional, that is, a ?ow control valve employ
onstrates in a typical valve application the im
ing poppet valves is not reversible as far as the
portant structural elements for carrying out this
direction of flow therethrough is concerned. Fur
thermore, some expedient must be employed in 35 invention, but it is obvious from a consideration
of the selector valve that almost any type of
the valve structure to facilitate opening the valve
multi-?ow control valve might be designed em
against the pressure in the system.
bodying this principle to prevent internal leak
By this invention, the excellent sealing proper
age.
ties of the O-ring seal can be employed to seal
By this invention, an internally sealedl ,valve
the internal structure of a valve against unde 40
is provided for a high pressure system in which
sirable leakage. The O-ring seal referred to is a
very low power is required to open the valve.
type of seal commonly used in high pressure sys
The ?uid pressure in this construction is not re
tems wherein a shaft or any other part of circular
_ lied upon to work against any moving part for
cross-section passing through an opening in a
cylinder, valve or any other hydraulic ?tting can 45 sealing and, therefore, the only power required
to operate this valve is that power necessary to
be sealed in spite of generous clearance which
overcome the snug ?t of the sealing gasket for the
permits relative motion of the shaft and the sur
adjacent part. The valve of this construction
will slide freely, unimpeded by the ?uid pressure,
wall and an annular gasket of generally cir 60 working against only the friction of the gasket.
A valve made according to the teaching of this
cular cross-section‘in the groove, the dimensions
of the annular gasket being such as to form a
invention will be effective to eliminate vibration
snug fit, if the groove is in the wall-—with the
or "water hammer” in the hydraulic system.
shaft, or if the groove is in the shaft-with the
Further and other objects will become apparent
wall. These O-rings are made of soft rubber or
from the description of the accompanying draw
rounding structure. This is accomplished by hav
ing a groove in either the shaft or the adjacent
2,517,061
3
ings which'form a part of this disclosure and in
which like numerals refer to like parts.
In the drawings:
Figure 1 is a sectional view of an embodiment
of the invention in a hydraulic selector valve.
Figure 2 is a sectiontaken on the line 2-2 of
Figure 1.
Figure 3 is an elevation of one portion of the
valve member with the sintered metal sleeve
broken away.
The tolerance on the overall length of member
9 can be held so that it exactly and snugly ?ts
on shoulders of grooves I0 and II so that the
assembly valve consisting of parts 6, ‘I and 3
present an external cylindrical surface which
for all positions of the valve supports the O-ring
seal in its normal operative position. Member
9 is su?lciently porous so that by keeping the wall
thickness between predetermined limits, the
10 pressure drop across this unit is very low so the
Figure 4 is an elevation of the other portion
of the valve member,
Figure 5 is a sectional view of a‘ modi?cation
?ow between, for example, ports I and 3 when
the valve is in the position shown in Figure 1,
will be within the limits specified for such a
of the valve shown in Figure l embodying the
valve. The ?uid under pressure will ?ow, for .
invention.
15 example, in port I into annular chamber 2I
For the purpose of illustrating an application
through porous member 9 into annular space 22
of the invention, Figure 1 of the drawing shows
and ?ow again through porous member 9 into
a selector valve having ?uid ?ow ports I, 2 and
annular space 23 and out through port 3. When
3. Port I may be employed as an outlet for ?uid
valve assembly 5 is moved to a position to inter
under pressure in which case, ports 2 and 3 are 20 connect ports I and 2, O-ring seals I4 and I5
inlets from separate ?uid pressure sources to the
engage the solid wall of member ‘I and cut off any
valve when so used. For example, port 3 might
?ow internally of the valve from port I to port 3.
be connected to the normal ?uid pressure source
In the position shown in Figure 1, port 2 is cut
such as the conventional motor-driven pump.
Port 2 would be connected to an emergency
source of ?uid pressure such as an accumulator
or hand pump. Port I would then be connected
to the equipment such as a cylinder to be
actuated by the ?uid pressure.
The selector valve comprises housing 4 in
- which are formed ports i, 2, and 3.
The valve
‘5 is an assembly of portions 5 and ‘I that are
oil from any leakage or seepage from the ?uid
?owing between ports I and 3 by seal I3. It can
be readily seen from Figure 1 that when the
?ow is shifted from the position shown to a path
between ports I and 2 as valve assembly 5 is
moved to the left, the O-ring seals I3 and I4
30 slide over_ porous member 9 and are continually
supported thereby until the ultimate position of
the valve is reached, at which time seal I4 pre
separably connected, such as by screw threads 8.
vents any ?ow into the line connected to part 3.
A cylindrical porous unit 9 is retained between
Stops 24 and 25 on valve assembly 5 limit the
portions 6 and ‘I in grooves I0 and ii. o-rings 35 axial travel of the valve through the housing.
I2, I3, I4 and 55 are located in grooves IS, IT,
The valve shown in Figure 5 embodies substan
I8 and I9 formed in housing 4. The clearance
tially the same invention shown in Figure l but
around valve 5 as it extends through the wall
illustrates how the invention may be carried out
structure of housing 4 is such that a sliding ?t is
by the use of the O-ring seals mounted on the
provided between these parts. The O-ring seals 40 valve rather than in the housing structure. This
in the groove are so calculated that they afford
construction is sometimes preferred because it is
a ?uid-tight ?t between the groove and the valve.
easier to turn and polish the grooves around the
Hole 20 formed in portion "I permits the connec
external periphery of the valve rather than in
tion of a suitable linkage for a manual or servo
the internal periphery of a hole in a wall struc
control to operate the selector valve.
45 ture. Valve body 30 is formed with ports 3I, 32
The cylindrical member is formed from pow
and 33. Valve assembly 34 consists of right hand
dered metal put through a sintering process to
portion 36 and left hand portion 35 intercon~
form a mechanically strong self-supporting,
nected by portion 31 which is of reduced diameter
unitary structure. Such material is commer
and affords an annular passage 38 for the flow of
cially available under the trade name of Porex, 50 ?uid between ports 3| and 33 when the valve is
manufactured by Moraine Products Division of
in the position shown in Figure 5. O-ring seals
General Motors Corp. This material is produced
39 and 40 are placed in grooves 4i and 42 so that
by having particles of metal of a selected size put
they span the porous seal-supporting sleeve 43.
through a sintering process whereby the particles
Similar seals 45 and 46 will span porous sleeve
adhere and form a porous mass. By selecting 55 44 when the valve is moved in the opposite direc
the size of the particles, the pore size of the
tion. It will be seen from a consideration of this
sintered mass can be controlled. The particle
drawing that when the valve is in the position
size and wall thickness determine the mechanical
shown so that ?uid may ?ow from ports 3| to 33,
strength of cylinder 9. The wall thickness and
internal leakage or seepage to port 32 will be
pore size also determine the resistance to the 60 prevented by seal 40. When the valve is in the
?ow of ?uid through the cylinder and therefore
position shown, ?uid will ?ow from port (II to
the differential in pressure. In practice, the par
annular chamber 41 through annular space 38
ticles size can be anything that will give a pore
through porous member 44 into annular cham
opening at the surface less than .015" and not
ber 48 to port 33. When the valve is in the alter
interpose an objectionable restriction on the ?ow 65 nate position, seal 45 will prevent internal leak
oi’ ?uid. It has been determined that pits of
age between ports 3| and 33 when fluid is ?owing
.015" or less will not harm the O-ring seal, that
from port 3I to port 32. The valve body 30 has
is, the seals will slide freely over pits or cracks
guides 49 and 50 threaded into the ends thereof.
of this width and not suffer any abrasion. Porous
Annular seals 5I and 52 at the ends of members
cylinder 9 can be machined and ?nished so that 70 49 and 50 render the threaded joint ?uid-tight.
the length can be controlled with close tolerances
Porous members 43 and 44 are retained by mem
to ?t between the shoulders of grooves I0 and
bers 49 and 50 in annular grooves in the valve
II and the external periphery of the cylinder
body and members 49 and 50. The tolerances and
forms a smooth and continuous cylindrical sur
?ts of the parts are such that member 49, sleeve
face throughout the length or the valve 5.
75 43, valve body 30 and sleeve 44 and the opening
2,517,061
in member 50 provides a bore through which
valve 34 slides with a sliding ?t, said bore afford
ing a continuous and smooth support for the
O-ring seals throughout the length of their path
of travel. Flange 53 and snap ring 54 in a groove
in member 35 provides stops to limit the axial
travel of the valve through the housing.
Valves made according to this invention will ef
fectively eliminate the‘ vibration commonly called
“water hammer,” due to the kinetic energy of
the ?ow of ?uid. The pores of members 8, l3
and 44 each permit only restricted ?ow, but the
porous members afford many parallel ?ow paths
grain size to control the size of the pores in said
sleeve, said porous sleeve member following said
valve as the valve is withdrawn from the bore
to a?ord a support for said annular elastic gasket
but permit the ?ow of ?uid therethrough from the
inlet to the outlet chamber.
4. A ?ow control valve comprising a body hav
ing inlet and outlet chambers formed therein, a
bore formed in the wall between said chambers,
a valve member having a cylindrical portion ex
tending through said bore and mounted for axial
vmotion to control the ?ow of ?uid through said
bore, a V-groove in the wall of ‘said bore sur
so as not to offer undue resistance to the ?ow
rounding said valve member, an annular sealing
of ?uid, and it has been found in systems having 15 gasket in said groove engaging the outer periph
?uid ?ow so restricted that “water hammer" or »
ery of said valve member, a hollow cylindrical
vibration is eliminated. This is an additional
member of ?ne grain porous material secured in
advantage derived from this improved valve con
abutting relation to the end of said valve member,
struction.
the outer periphery thereof forming a smooth
It will further be__noted that in the arrange 20 continuation of said valve member so that said
ment of structure shown in Figure 1, the porous
porous member supports said gasket in said groove
member 9 is self-cleaning as the ?ow is reversed
as said valve member is withdrawn from the bore
as the valve is moved. The units in Figure 5
to permit ?uid from said inlet chamber‘ through
can readily be cleaned by reverse ?ow if cleaning
and within said sleeve and out through said sleeve
is found to be necessary.
25 to said outlet chamber.
It is to be understood that certain changes, al
5. A valve comprising a valve body having in
terations, modi?cations and substitutions can be
let and outlet chambers formed therein, a bore
made without departing from the spirit and scope
formed in the wall between said chambers, a
of the appended claims.
cylindrical valve member mounted in said bore
I claim as my invention:
30 to move therethrough with a sliding ?t, a groove
1. In a valve comprisinga body having inlet
formed in the wall of said bore, an annular
and outlet chambers formed therein. a bore
elastic gasket positioned within said groove sur
formed in the wall between said chambers, a valve
rounding said valve, a porous sleeve member
member having a cylindrical portion extending
having surface pore openings of less than .015"
through said bore and mounted for axial motion 35 mounted to form an extension of the cylindrical
to control the ?ow of ?uid through said bore,
surface of said valve, said porous sleeve mem
a groove in the wall of said bore surrounding said
ber moving with said valve as the valve is with
valve member, an annular sealing gasket in said
drawn from the bore past said gasket to afford
groove engaging the outer periphery of said valve
a support for said annular elastic gasket but
member, a sleeve of ?ne grain porous material 40 permit the ?ow of ?uid therethrough from the
secured to the end of said valve member, the
inlet to the outlet chamber.
outer periphery thereof forming a smooth con
6. A ?ow control valve comprising a valve
tinuation of the outer periphery of said valve
body having inlet and outlet chambers formed
member so that said porous sleeve supports said ‘
therein, a passage formed in a wall between said
gasket in said groove as said valve member is 45 chambers, a cylindrical valve member mounted
withdrawn from the bore to permit ?uid from said
in said passage to control the flow of ?uid there
inlet chamber through and within said sleeve
through, an annula groove formed in the wall
and out through said sleeve to said outlet chamber.
of said passage, an annular elastic gasket posi
2. In a valve comprising a valve body having
tioned within said groove surrounding said valve,
inlet and outlet chambers formed therein, a bore 50 a porous sleeve 1:. .mber mounted to form an
extension of a cylindrical surface of said valve,
formed in the wall between said chambers, 9, cy
lindrical valve member mounted in said bore to
said porous sleeve formed from sintered granular
move therethrough with a sliding ?t, a groove.
metal of selected grain size to control the size
formed in the wall of said bore, an annular elastic
of the pores in said sleeve, said porous sleeve
gasket positioned within said groove surrounding 55 member following said valve as the valve is
withdrawn from said passage to afford a sup
said valve, a porous sleeve member mounted to
form a smooth extension of the cylindrical surface
port for said annular elastic gasket but permit
of said valve, said porous sleeve member moving
the ?ow oi’ ?uid therethrough from the inlet to
with said valve as the valve is withdrawn from
the outlet chamber.
.
the bore past said gasket to afford a support for 60
7. In a valve comprising a body member hav
said annular elastic gasket but permit the ?ow of
ing inlet and outlet chambers, a bore formed
?uid therethrough from the inlet to the outlet
in the wall between said chambers providing a
chamber.
?ow path from said inlet to said outlet cham
3. In a ?ow control valve comprising a valve
bers, a cylindrical valve member movable
body having inlet and outlet chambers formed 65 through said bore to control the ?ow of ?uid
therein, a bore formed in the wall between said
therethrough, an annular sealingr gasket carried
chambers, a cylindrical valve member mounted in
by one of said members and arranged to engage
said bore to move therethrough to control the
the other member to render the valve ?uid tight
?ow of ?uid, a groove formed in the wall of said
when the valve member is in the closed position,
bore, an annular elastic gasket of generally cir
and a cylindrical, porous sleeve carried by the
cular cross ‘section positioned within said groove
other member and interposed in the path of the
surrounding said valve, a porous sleeve member
?ow of ?uid so constructed and arranged to
mounted to form a smooth extension of a cylin
form a support for said sealing gasket to retain
drical surface of said valve, said porous sleeve
said annular gasket in place as said valve mem
formed from sintered granular metal of selected 75 ber is withdrawn from said bore.
2,617,061
7
8. In a valve comprising a body member hav
forming a retainer and support for said gasket in
ing inlet and outlet chambers, a bore extend
said groove as the valve member is withdrawn
ing through the partition wall between said
from the bore in the partition wall to permit the
chambers, a cylindrical valve member extend
ing through said bore and said chambers and
axially movable for controlling the ?ow of ?uid
between said chambers, said cylindrical \valve
member having an intermediate portion of re
duced diameter of an axial length greater than
?ow of ?uid therethrough to said outlet chamber.
10. A valve comprising a valve body having
cut portion of said valve spans said partition
The following references are of record in the
file of this patent:
inlet and outlet chambers formed therein, a bore
formed in the wall between said chambers. a
cylindrical valve member mounted in said bore
to move therethrough with a sliding ?t, sealing
the thickness of said partition wall, an annular 10 means to prevent ?ow of ?uid past the valve
when in the closed position, a porous sleeve
sealing gasket carried by one of said members
member mounted to form a. smooth extension of
and interposed between the wall of said bore
the cylindrical surface 01' said valve, said porous
and said valve member to seal the same against
sleeve member moving with said valve through
the passage of ?uid in one position of said valve
member, and a cylindrical, porous sleeve carried 15 said wall as the valve is withdrawn from the bore
to permit the ?ow oi.’ ?uid therethrough from
by the other member and interposed in the path
the inlet to the outlet chamber.
of the ?ow‘of ?uid so constructed and arranged
YURGEN Z. von STACKELBERG.
to form a support for said sealing gasket to re
tain said annular gasket in place as said valve
REFERENCES CITED
is withdrawn to a position wherein the under 20
wall.
'
9. A valve comprising a body having inlet
and outlet chambers, a bore extending through
the outside walls and the partition wall between 25 Number
said chambers, a cylindrical valve member ex
UNITED STATES PATENTS
Name
Date
651,334
Baker ___________ __ June 12, 1900
1,111,244
tending through said bore and said chambers, a
1,988,545
porous sleeve member mounted in said outlet
2,132,030
chamber forming the inner wall thereof, the in
ternal face of said sleeve forming a continuation 30 2,297,817
2,360,733
of said bore, an annular sealing gasket mount
ed in a groove in the periphery of said valve
member sealing the space between said valve
member and the bore in said partition wall when - Number
190,561
the valve is in closed position, said porous sleeve 35
Wilson __________ __ Sept. 22, 1914
Donn ___________ __ Jan. 22,
Hunt _____________ __ Oct. 4,
Truxell ___________ __ Oct. 6,
Smith ___________ __ Oct. 17,
1935
1938
1942
1944
FOREIGN PATENTS
Country
Date
Great Britain _________ __ 01' 1922
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
0
Размер файла
715 Кб
Теги
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа