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Патент USA US2502138

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March 28, 1950
2,502,137
w. |_. FLEISHER
APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR CLEANING AND HUMIDIFYING
GASEOUS mums sucn AS AIR
Filed April 25, 1946
5 Sheets-Sheet 1
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WALTER L.FLEISHER
BY
H
ATTORNEYS.
March 28, 1950
w. L. FLEISHER
2,502,137
APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR CLEANING AND HUMIDIFYING
‘
GASEOUS FLUIDS SUCH AS AIR
Filed April 25, ‘1946
5 Sheets-Sheet 2
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INVENTOR.
WALTER L.FLEISHER
Byadr“
I
A T TORNEYS.
March 28, 1950
w, L, FLElsHER
2,502,137
APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR CLEANING AND HUMIDIFYING
GASEOUS FLUIDS SUCH AS AIR
Filed April 25, 1946
5 Sheets-Sheet 3
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March 28, 1950
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APPARATUS 'AND METHOD FOR
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Filed April 25, 1946
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I
INVENTOR.
WALTER L. FLEISHER
BY
A TTORNEYS
Patented Mar. 28, 1950
2,502,137
‘UNITED STATES PATENTOFFICE
APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR CLEANING
AND
HUMIDIFYING GASEOUS FLUIDS
SUCH AS AIR
Walter L. Fleisher, New City, N. Y.
Application Apr-i125, 1946, Serial No. 664,744
9 Claims. (01. 261-19)
2
This invention relates to a method and ap
paratus for cleaning and humidifying air, i. e. for
The employment of a concentrated triethylene
glycol solution instead of water for the purpose
of producing controlled humidi?cation furnishes
the answer to this entire problem.
Another important object of this invention is
to provide method and apparatus for maintain
ing proper concentrations of triethylene glycol
solution for conditioning of air throughout the
heating season within a prescribed desirable
range of relative humidities.
Another object of this invention is to provide
simple and effective means for meeting these re
properly conditioning air in an enclosure during
the entire heating season, and is a continuation
in-part of my co-pending applications, Serial
‘No. 549,668 ?led August 16, 1944, now Patent No.
2,429,265 issued October 21, 1947 and Serial No.
618,438 ?led September 25, 1945 now Patent No.
2,431,389 issued November 25, 1947.
A winter air conditioning system is a system
which, in connection with any heating system,
provides thoroughly cleaned air humidi?ed with
quirements.
In the following, I shall attempt to_describe
Another and principal object of this invention
brie?y the inherent faults of the present day 15 is to provide apparatus for effecting the fore
equipment and my endeavors to correct them.
going which obviates the usual controls and at
Of more importance than merely clean air
tention that must be given in present systems
merely is the problem of adequate humidity.
or apparatus in order to have them work eco
Adequate humidity in the home is essential, not
nomically and continuously throughout the heat;
only for the well being of the inhabitants, but 20 ing season in various parts of the country where
for the proper care of woodwork, furniture, tapes
conditions vary from below 0° F., to 50° F. or 60°
try, books, etc.
F. and where the humidity varies greatly and
Humidi?cation is usually accomplished by
where the hardness of the available water sup
in certain limits, a simple answer.
evaporating water from a pan located on the
bonnet of the furnace. This pan is frequently
equipped with porous absorbent insets. The in
termittent ?ow of water to this pan is controlled
by a ?oat valve. Generally, it may be said that
95% of all existing winter air conditioning sys
tems, or 95% of all such systems now being 30
manufactured, consist merely of a fan with‘
throw-away dry ?lters and a humidifying pan
with a ?oat valve. A thermostat regulates the
operation of the furnace and a humidostat con
trols the humidity.
Dry ?lters require careful attention and chang
ply may be excessive.
To the accomplishment of the foregoing and
such other objects as may hereinafter appear,
this invention consists in the novel construction
and arrangement of parts, hereinafter to be de
scribed in detaii and then sought to be de?ned
in the appended claims, reference being had to
the accompanying drawing forming a part hereof
which shows, merely for the purposes of illustra
tive disclosure, preferred embodiments of the in
vention, it being expressly understood, however,
35 that changes may be made in practice within
the scope of the claims without digressing from
ing during the heating season and their removal
the inventive idea.
is always a dirty Job.. Only too often the home
In the drawing:
owner has dispensed with these ?lters for good.
Fig. 1 is a sectional elevation taken along line
Wet ?lters of the type where water is sprayed 40 l—l of Fig. 2;
,
over some sort of a porous mat are apt to cake
Fig. 2 is a sectional elevation taken along line
up with lime and dirt because the sprays can
2—-2 of Fig. 1;‘
function only intermittently in order to prevent
Fig. 3 is a transverse section taken along line
overhumidi?cation.
3-3 of Fig. 1;
The conventional type of pan humidi?er is def 45 Fig. 4 is a diagrammatic sectional elevation of
initely unsatisfactory.
_
‘
9
a modi?ed form of construction;
Analysis of the faults inherent to the present
Fig. 5 is a reproduction of a chart whose ordi
winter air conditioning furnace, seem to furnish
nates 'are equilibrium contact temperatures in
‘ample proof that heating or winter air condi
degrees F., and whose abscissae are per cent tri
tioning equipment, must consist of a simple self 50 ethylene glycol by weight; and
cleaning air ?ltering system together with a .
Fig. 6 is a diagrammatic showing of the appli
humidi?er free from the dangers of lime forma
cation of the device for conditioning air in a
tions and independent of outside control.
house.
An object of this invention is to provide a
Referring to the drawing, in denotes a casing
method and apparatus meeting these require- . of suitable material that is provided with a gas
ments.
or air inlet opening I I, preferably in its top, and
9,609,187
a gas or air discharge opening 12 in one of its
sides at the lower portion thereof.
A water trough or dumping pan I3, preferably
of trapezoidal section is loosely pivoted on shafts
l4, it between sides of the casing it, so as to
dump or tilt under the weight of a predeter
mined amount oi’ liquid therein in the clockwise
direction of Fig. 1. Suitable abutments it, it
extending from the face of casing it, restrict
4
described. This pan 25 also serves as a parti
tioning member or bai'?e to force the flow of gas
or air from the inlet H through the cells or
screens 2i and 23.
The collecting or sump portion 250 slopes down
wardly toward one of the side walls of the cas
ing in to a drain outlet 26 that delivers the col
lected ?uid to a tank 21 supported suitably from
the casing ID.
The tank 21 and the sump portion 25c in the
embodiment shown have a capacity of approxi
mately five gallons, that is, a larger capacity than
limit stops it, ii are ?tted with rubber or other
is required for normal wintertime operation for
sound-deadening material so that in making the
reasons that will be presently described.
dump and returning to normal position the
A suitable inlet conduit 28 is connected to a
sound of metal to metal between lever is and 15
source of water supply (not shown) and the de
stops it, ii, is eliminated. These tops prevent
livery of water to the tank 2i from said conduit
over-travel of the dumping pan 58 during dump
is controlled by any conventional ?oat operated
ing 01‘ its contents so that it will always return
valve 2% whose float 3b, in the embodiment
automatically to the normal position shown in
Fig. 1 after being emptied. In the embodiment 20 shown, is positioned permanently to cut oil’ water
supply to the tank 2‘? as long as its contents re
shown, the dump tank is is adapted to dump
main above a certain amount to be described. A
when approximately two gallons of liquid have
pump st of conventional form, driven by a motor
been delivered to it. This amount, however, is
32 is connected with the tank by conduit 33. The
subject to variation as desired.
When the pan i3 is ?lled to its dumping 25 delivery conduit 3d of the pump extends up
wardly from the pump, terminating in a nozzle
capacity, it tilts in the clockwise direction of
35 overlying the dump bucket 53 so that the liquid
Fig. l and delivers its contents so that they strike
pumped from tank 27 is delivered to the said
a baf?e plate 89 whence they fall upon the slightly
dump bucket or trough iii. If desired, conven
sloping pan 20. In the embodiment shown, the
slope of pan 2G is approximately %" per foot. 30 tional electric circuit connections can be pro
vided to halt operation of the pump while bucket
Both the bafiie plate is and sloping pan 2d are
i3 is dumping although this is not essential to
suspended suitably within the casing iii. The dis
successful operation. A conventional drain out»
tance between the baffle plate 119 and the dis
let 3%, normally closed by a valve 3i serves to
charge edge Ziia of the sloping pan 28 is so ad:
measured and the time required for the dumped 35 remove the ?uid from tank 2? for cleaning there
of or replacement.
liquid after it strikes bai?e plate is to reach the
discharge edge 28a is sumcient in relation to the
‘The air to be conditioned is circulated by
viscosity of the dumped fluid to eliminate un
means of a suitable fan 38. This fan is posi
evennesses of ?ow due to impact of the liquid
tioned within the casing ii] on a frame 89 so that
upon the pan 28, so that substantially absolute 40 its discharge outlet 4t discharges air or gas
through opening it’ in said casing. The suction
uniformity of flow of such liquid over the dis
inlets iii of the fan open into the casing iii so
charge edge 20a is effected.
A screen or ?lter cell 26 is suspended angularly
as to draw air or gas from casing inlet i i through
the cells 2! and 23 and discharge it through
within the container or casing it at approximate
ly 60° with the horizontal. The upper edge of
opening 1! 2 after passing through the fan 38. The
this screen or ?lter cell 2i! is positioned to lie
fan 38 is driven in conventional manner, for ex
or limit the rotary movement oi a crank lever 10
i8 fixed suitably to the pivot shaft H5.
The
directly below the discharge edge 28a of sloping
ample, by a motor 42 coupled by belting 63 to a
pan iii. The lower edge of the cell 25 extends
downwardly and forwardly of its upper edge and
rests, for example, on the bracket 22 supported
from the casing it) so as to maintain the desired
sheave M on the fan shaft 38a. Operation oi’
the motor is controlled by a conventional ther
angular disposition oi’ said cell. This cell 2i,
mostat T.
i
The liquid which is used in the conditioners
of this application consists of a high percentage
for example, has the construction of the cell of
triethylene glycol water solution. The employ
my ai'oremention Patent 2,356,757, granted Au
ment of a hygroscopic agent for the purpose of
gust 29, 19M, or may have other suitable con 55 controlled humidiilcation, is novel in the industry.
struction.
With the aid of a chart embodied in this appli
A second cell 23 is suspended within the cas
cation (Fig. 5) on which there are plotted tri
ing Iii so that it and the cell iii in section have
ethylene glycol water solutions equilibrium dew
the appearance of an inverted V. To this end,
points in treating gases one can determine the
the upper edge of cell 23 lies adjacent the upper
concentration of a triethylene glycol water solu
edge of cell 2!, while its lower edge extends for-: 80 tion in equilibrium with any desired relative hu
wardly and downwardly and rests, for example,
midity at various contact temperatures. For in
on the bracket 25 supported from the casing iii
stance, for a 35% R. H. (relative humidity) at
and disposed to maintain the angular disposition
F. with a dew point of 41° F. the concentra
of cell 23 with respect to cell ‘2i so that the top 65 70°
tion of the triethylene glycol water solution
or apex angle between the two screens 2! and
should be 87.8% by weight.
23 does not exceed 60°. The cell 23 is preferably
Extreme humidities in the average home dur
of similar construction to that of cell 2!, al
ing the winter months should not be less than
though it need not be as thick. It also may have
20% and should not exceed 50 %‘ at 70° F.
other construction if desired.
I ?nd that a relative humidity of 20% at 70° F.
A collecting member or pan 25 is secured suit 70
(28° dew point) indicates a 92% triethylene glycol
ably to the bracket 24. This pan extends the
solution and a relative humidity of 50% at ‘70°
full width of casing in between its side walls and
F. (505° dew point) indicates an 82% solution.
has a downwardly sloping portion 25a, a substan
From the chart of Fig. 5 it is apparent that tri
tially vertical portion 25b and a collecting or
sump portion 25c for a purpose to be presently 75 ethylene glycol has a very ?at curve of equilib
asoaisr
.
riinnfortbeilrst'io? oisolutionconcenil'ation
l
0
~
'
aroundthehousesothatthenewmethodlhave
measured by weight; in fact until the concen
tration of the triethylene glycol reaches 88% by
invented operates only when the fan is running
weight, the control of water liberation is not suf
ncient to warrant its use from a humidiiying
V present. The-basisof’mymethodis theuseof
control angle. However, from 82% to 92% the
equilibrium contact temperature allows within
vvery de?nite consistency which ,I have dis
narrow limits the exact liberation ‘of water vapor
essential to maintain the relative humidity in a
house or other places where the dry bulb tem
perature is maintained relatively constant. In
except in solar as air inilltration is always
a solution of triethylene glycol and water of a
covered maintains over a whole heating season,
seneral in the United States and in similar at
‘mospheric environments, the required cleaning
is. and humidiflcation'irrespective of the number
of minutes per hour or per day that the fan
runs to maintain the desired dry bulb tempera~
' other words, within this extremely narrow range
of concentrations, 82% to.92%, lies the control
,
ture.
.
of the extreme lower and upper limits of relative
It must be remembered in considering this
humidities that may be required in a residence 15 invention that. depending on the insulation and
during the winter heating season.
storm sashing of a house, the warm air system
A typical example of the control which might
operates not over one-third of the time; the
period of operation also varies with the outside
temperature and the wind velocity. The rela
lating approximately 1,000 cubic ft./min. (c. f. m.) 20 tive humidity that is desirable in the house is
in 10,000 cubic feet of residential space. It is
about 25% to 40% as determined by various
be effected by this means in the average resi
dence is the following. Assume a unit recircu
. desired to maintain this space at a minimum
authorities, and the amount of fresh or outside
air that combines with the air brought back
ture is 33.3° F. and to maintain a relative hué
from the house for reheating and then recondi
midity of approximately 30%. (I have taken the 25 tioning and mixing is about 25%, most of which
outside temperature as 33.3“ F. because it repre
leaks into the house through doors, windows,
sents a fair average winter condition in certain
etc. and is ‘mixed in the house itself and is heated
sections of this country.) ‘It is safe only to as
to room temperature by the heated air so that
temperature of 70° F. when the outdoor tempera
sume for average construction and usage that
two changes per hour of actual air will be in
?ltered through ‘the wall and cracks, admitted
through doors in use, etc. This would amount to
all the air comes back for recirculation, and re
30 heating at about room conditions or normally
in the United States of America at about 70° F.
to 72° F. in the winter time.
20,000 cubic feet of air per hour or about 330
c. f. m. The room air, i. e., recirculated air
Now if a sloping screen at over which water
is dumped is used as a ?lter, such as the screen
taken back to the heater at 70° F. dry bulb (D. B.)
or cell mentioned in my lPatent No. 2,356,757, and
and 30% R. H. will have a moisture content of
air is drawn through this ?lter screen 25 for
one-third of the heating period and 25% of this
air is outside or untreated air and 30% to 35%
R. H. is the greatest amount of relative humidity
33 grains per pound. The in?ltered air entering
at 333° F. and at 85% R. H. carries only 23.5
grains per pound. In order to establish an av
erage of 33 grains per pound of the air entering 40 desirable and 72° is the desired dry bulb tem
the space, the air passing through the condi
ditioner must pick up enough moisture to raise
the infiltered outdoor air to 36.2 grains per pound.
perature, then the room condition should be a
condition corresponding to 54° W. B. If only
25% of the air has to be humidi?ed but all the
Theoretically, we should have the following con
air passes through a water-wetted screen even
ditlons entering and leaving the conditioner:
‘
halv-
£5 with the low saturating emciency of my thin
'
‘
Entering
D. B.
W. B.
R. H.
Degrees
Degrees
Per cent
70
53
30
Leaving
GrsJLb.
D. P
33
.37. 5
D. B.
W. B.
R. H.
Degrees
Degrees
Per cent
_ 68. 5
53
35
The concentration of the triethylene glycol so
lution required for this condition is 87.8%. taken
from the Fig. 5 chart of this application.
On a 65% saturation e?iclency basis, leaving
Grs./Lb.
D. P.
36. 2
40
screen 2|, of say 40 to 60% saturating e?iciency,
enough water has been shown by experiment to
be evaporated in the operating period of the fan
33 to raise the humidity of the average house
60 to a point where water condenses out and runs
conditions are as follows:
down the walls and windows. If by some means
D.B. W.B. 11.11.
66
53
42 l
Grs.
Lblfer
39
(say by means of a hydrostat) the water dumped
over the screen is turned o?, the ?lter becomes
1).},
' 42
very ine?icient as a dust and dirt arrester. Then.
85 it hard water is used (that means high in CaCos
vor Mg C03) caking takes place.
Now I have discovered as shown herein that
The concentration of the triethylene glycol so
lution required for this condition is 85% taken
from the chart reproduced in this application.
if a solution of triethylene glycol having by
weight 92% triethylene glycol and 8% water
(triethylene glycol and water make a true and
perfect solution) and the solution is not weak
ened below 82% by weight, this solution may
This invention relates to such forced warm
air systems in which the temperature in the
house is controlled by the starting and stopping
be dumped on my cells as called for in my co
of the fan (whose motor is connected in a ther
mostat circuit) which forces the heating air
75
pending applications, Serial Nos. 549,668 and
618,438 now Patent Nos. 2,429,265 and 2,431,389
9,509,187
7
issued October 21, 1947 and November 25, 194’!
respectively, without regard to the time element
to produce controlled humidi?cation, highly e?l
cient continuous dust and dirt removal as a ?lter.
and lubrication of the ?oat mechanism to insure
renewal of water evaporated, and absence of in
crustations due to the deposit of the carbonates
that I provide a small additional container 00
?lled with concentrated triethylene glycol and
so attached to the unit that at each time when
the dump bucket 36 tilts any desired quantity of
triethylene glycol is released into the system.
Other means might be employed actuated by the
movement of the fan or the ?oat, if desired.
In the embodiment shovm, the container
is
supported suitably from the casing 90. This con~
I am aware that triethylene glycol has been
used as a dehumidi?er and that in dilute solu 10 tainer has a restricted outlet ori?ce til which
normally is closed by a cover 02 which is suitably
tion it has allowed evaporation to take place,
pivoted at 63 and actuated by a spring 00 that
but the idea of controlled humidification in the
normally tends to make the cover E32 close the
method as proposed by me is new and novel.
orifice 66. A sealing gasket 65 may be attached
The 1,000 C. F. M. unit of Figs. 1-3 inclusive
of this application is charged with 32 pounds of 15 to the cover 02. An extension 00 of this cover
is positioned so that an adjustable member 6?
a triethylene glycol solution. The sump 25c and
thereon lies in the path of travel of the lip 03'
tank 21 in the conditioner are large enough to
of the dumping pan iii as the latter nears its
hold approximately 50 pounds. The ?oat valve
final tilted position which is regulated by the
30 is so installed in this reservoir that with the
tilt bucket l3 full and on the verge of spilling 20 abutment ll. Thus, each time the dump pan
on the ?lter surfaces.
i3 tilts to dumping position, it temporarily opens
it is ready to open and admit water. Conse
cover 82 and permits a limited amount of the
quently, if by evaporation the level of the tri
triethylene glycol within container 60 to pass
ethylene glycol water solution drops, the valve
out for mixture with the dumped solution to
will open just before each tilt and admit suf
?cient water to restore the liquid level to its 25 replenish the small amount of the triethylene
glycol lost by evaporation. The amount of added
proper height. In this manner, the amount of
triethylene glycol can be regulated by the size
water contained in the triethylene glycol solu
of ori?ce 0i and by the position of adjustable
tion is kept constant at all times provided, of
member 6?. Cover 62 is closed by spring 6!}, ex
course, that no triethylene glycol is evaporated.
In order to properly ?ush the sloping cell 2!, 30 cept for the short period while edge l3’ engages
member ?ll.
approximately two gallons of solution is required.
From a chart of triethylene glycol properties,
Due to the nature of the setting of the float 30
for example, chart No. G. C. 13 published by
and the fact that the dumping is not dependent
Carbide it Carbon Chemicals Corporation, 30
on the pumping but purely on the balance of
East 42d Street, New York, N. Y., it can be found
the tilting bucket 65, during this entire heating
that with average operation for a heating season
cycle the ?ushing is uniform irrespective of the
with a ‘70° contact temperature .528 pound of
slight change in the concentration of the solu
glycol would be evaporated at the end of one
tion. However, the system is designed to have
hundred hours. If in conjunction with my
su?icient triethylene glycol per thousand cubic
feet of air per minute circulated so that with 40 method of operation a supplementary container
00 of concentrated triethylene glycol is placed
an e?iciency of 65% the amount of triethylene
with respect to dumping pan It so that each
glycol per thousand cubic feet would be-—through
time the bucket l0 dumps a drop or a regulated
this particular cycle that I have indicated
amount of triethylene glycol is released, the con
decreased by only 0.528 pound per 100 hours of
centration can be maintained at the right amount
continuous operation.
throughout the entire period that the supple
Assuming 65% saturation ej?ciency
Per cent Tri- 60° F.
05° F.
70° F.
Glycol Sol.
Loss
Loss
Loss
86
87
88
. 052
. 053
. O55
. 062
. O67
. 072
. 085
. 088
. 091
ethylene
Vapor Vapor Vapor
A 1,000 C. F. M. unit charged with 32 pounds
of an 87% triethylene glycol solution would va
porize at 70° contact temperature approximately
.00528 pound of triethylene glycol per hour
mentary supply lasts.
As it can be seen from
the table just above, within the limits that I have
set of 92% and 82% the entire quantity of tri_
50 ethylene glycol evaporated would probably not
exceed 6 pounds for an entire season. As the
dump bucket 06 only operates when the pump
3i operates and as the pump 3i only operates
when the fan 33 is moving and as evaporation
55 of triethylene glycol only takes place during the
time that the fan 33 is blowing air through the
contact screen 2!, no triethylene glycol would
be dropped from the container 50 except when it
was being evaporated on screen 2i.
Conse
quently, the means of maintaining the triethylene
glycol concentration between the two critical
or .528 pound per 100 hours
percentages of 82-92% discovered by me and
1,000,000
called for in this speci?cation would automati
To exercise a reasonable control over the rela
cally be cared for without the possibility of over
tlve humidity it would be necessary to add every
concentration. As the supplementary container
100 hours approximately one-half pound of tri
60 could either be of glass or of such a design
ethylene glycol to the solution. The rapid fall
that the quantity therein was easily discernible
and if more than its contents were required for
of the concentration could, of course, be slowed
down by using an auxiliary sump holding twice
a heating season, it could readily be supple
the amount of solution with which now the unit 70 mented without in any way stopping the system
or removing from the system any of its parts.
is charged. While such a procedure is feasible
it would still necessitate adding at least once
The combination, therefore, of the critical con
centration of triethylene glycol and its relation
during the season three or four pounds of tri
ship to the operation of a heating system and its
ethylene glycol. It is for this reason and in
(.ossx 00,000
order to make this unit completely automatic 76 supplementing automatically, but without exte
9,502,187
10
9
rior apparatus, to maintain a concentration
within the required limits for the desired winter
conditioning and heating is part of this invention.
The conditioner in its container I0 is placed
.ahead of the furnace F, the conditioner inlet ll
- being connected to a conduit 50 leading to room
air and also via conduit 50a to outside air, and the conditioner outlet I2 being connected by con
duit 5| to inlet 52 of the furnace F whose outlet
is connected by conduit 53 to supply air to room 10
or rooms R of house H, (see Fig. 6).
Conven
tional dampers in conduits 50 and 50a control the
air flow to‘inlet II. The water is evaporated at
temperatures ranging from 60° to 80° F. When
and other portions pass through the filter or
screen for wetting and partial humidi?cation of
the gas passing therethrough, some of the liquid,
because of its viscosity and surface tension tends
to form itself into minute spheres in the nature
of tiny hollow bubbles. These bubbles being
very light, are carried along in the air stream and
are not taken out by conventional eliminators or
hooks, which are commonly an integral part of
a washer or scrubber eliminator, and where the
speci?c gravity of the ordinary water droplets is
su?lcient for the velocity of discharge to throw
the droplets against the surfaces of the elimina
tor plates. With the tiny viscous bubbles which
ever the fan 33 operates and air passes over and 15 are developed with a solution such as the solution
through the contact cell 2| a fairly large amount
of water-one gallon or more-is washed over
and through the cell; this takes place at from 3
to 31/2 minute intervals. The triethylene glycol
herein described, there is no tendency for the
bubbles to be thrown out of the air stream and
consequently a screen having only the ‘finest
interstices (such as the ?lter screen described in
solution is washed into the tank 21 which holds 20 Patent No. 2,356,757 or one of similar construc
approximately four gallons and while the solu
tion) is e?ective for the purpose, and even a
tion is recirculated and only the evaporated por
screen such as this, unless set at the angle herein
tion of water is replenished with fresh water it
described, will not effectively remove these bub
can readily be seen that even when using plain
bles, which are not in the nature of an evapo~
water instead of triethylene glycol solution cal 25 rated vapor.
cium and magnesium salt concentration can be
In the case, for example, where the ?lter
screens are similar to that disclosed in my U. S.
built up to a considerable extent before lime
Patent No. 2,356,757 or in my co-pending appli
forms on the cell or interferes with the action
cation Ser. No. 549,668, ?led August 16, 1944. now
of the ?oat valve. This, of course, is due to the
large quantity of solution which is contained in 30 Patent No. 2,429,265 issued October 21, 1947, or
the sump. With a triethylene glycol solution
with other ?lter screens, I have discovered that
if the second screen 23 similar in principle to the
from 82% to 92%. such as is used in the condi
original ?lter screen or ?lter 2| is installed at
tioner of this application, ‘the lime formation
does not occur even when extremely hard water
an angle facing the original screen 2| and ap
is used.
35 proximately at the same angle. the two forming
an inverted V, the small bubbles or droplets
The cleaning of the air is accomplished with,
which ordinarily would be carried over and
emitted with the gaseous stream, are eliminated.
These small bubbles or droplets are either bro
has been added to the‘ system in order to prevent 40 ken into such small shattered fragments that
they attach themselves to and follow the slope
entrainment and carry over of the triethylene
of the eliminating screens and are thus carried
glycol solution. Both of these cells or screens 21!
to the bottom of the screen and to the collecting
and 23 are good and e?icientcleaners even when
pan, or else, by the eddy set up by the action of
only plain water is used in the system. The
cleaning efficiency of the mat 23 has been found 45 the gas or air stream, because of the angular po
sition of the eliminating screen, are de?ected
to be 98.1%. The cleaning efficiency of the con
back into the liquid in the collecting pan and
tact cell 2|, using plain water, is’ considerably
less. This is due to the construction of this cell
Ehence drained into the liquid medium in the
ank.
which was designed for a comparatively low sat
uration e?iciency—-an efficiency not to exceed 50
The velocity of the gas or air stream striking
65%. However, the use of triethylene glycol
the eliminating screen 23 is of maior importance.
solution in the system considerably improves the
At the top of this screen where the gas velocity
cleaning characteristics of the contact cell 2i.
is greatest, because the distance between the
The viscosity of triethylene glycol is responsible
leaving surface of the ?lter 2| is closest to the
for this.
55 entering surface of the leaving eliminator 23,
The hygroscopic nature of triethylene glycol
the eddies created are so strong that they have
has an added advantage. This has to do with
a tendency to immediately carry the drops or
the extremely simple procedure of cleaning the
bubbles ?oating in the gas or air stream away
system at the end of the heating season. The
from the entering face of the eliminator 23 to
dirt and dust held in the cell 2 I, on the underside 60 prevent the bubbles or drops from even coming
of the contact mat 23 or remaining in other parts
in contact with said face. Also, due to the
of the unit, such as the tilt bucket it of the
velocity over this upper surface, I have discovered
sump 25 exists in the form of a sludge, the liquid
that an induced current is developed which has
part of which is the highly hygroscopic solution
a tendency to keep these droplets away from
of triethylene glycol. Consequently, when the 65 the surface of the leaving screen 23 until they can
system is being ?ushed out with water this type
be absorbed or de?ected. In the lower portion
sludge, contrary to dirt and dust formed into a
of the leaving screen or eliminator 23 where the
solid cake after evaporation of the water, read
velocity of approaching gas or air is less, the
ily liqui?es and is easily drained from the system.
bubbles or droplets have an opportunity to settle
When the water, or a combination of water 70 and cling to the face of the eliminator screen
and a viscous ?uid such as triethylene glycol, is
23, and are then by gravity or gas or air move
dumped periodically over the upper part of a
ment carried to the bottom of the screen 23 and
sloping ?lter screen such as a glass ?lter, where
then carried off‘ to the collecting pan 25.
purposefully certain portions of the liquid ?ow
If the eliminator screen 23 were not disposed
down the ?lter or screen for cleaning purposes 75 angularly as indicated, namely, so that it and the
the aid of two ?lter screens 2| and 23: the con
tact cell 2| which also serves as the evaporator
or humidi?er and the eliminator mat 23 which
2,502,187
ii.
12
?lter screen 2 l form an inverted "V", the structure
in section approximating an isosceles triangle
with the top apex angle not exceeding 60 degrees,
the tendency would be for the droplets to settle
on the eliminator screen 23.
They then would
set permanently at the winter level, the summer~
time level in the tank 21 ‘always remains above
the cut-off level of the ?oat?Sll and no additional
water will be supplied to the solution during this
period. In this way, by having the tank 2? de
eventually work themselves through the latter to
signed for the variation in the vapor pressure
again be carried by the emerging air or gas
characteristics of the particular solution, de?nite
stream as unvaporized ‘droplets. The latter
humidities can be maintained during the arti
would then become deposited on walls, furniture
?cially created heating season, and safety factors
and ceilings and throughout the ducts and as 10 for the saving of the solution can be maintained
sociated apparatus. It is extremely important
during the free. or mild season. In this way,
that this should not occur because the viscous
the simplest type of control of humidity is main
or controlling liquid is expensive and its loss by
tained over a wide period of the year without
deposit would require replacement. Moreover,
thermostatically sensitive instruments, which re
this deposited material would create an unde
sirable sticky scum on the walls, furniture, ceil
ings, ducts and associated apparatus. Although
these droplets are minute in their individual en
tities, they constitute a far greatenweight of
the viscous material than is actually evaporated
and purposefully carried through the leaving
screen with the air stream. Consequently, al~
though there is some danger of the vaporized
solution eventually depositing out, it is so minute
spond to the moisture content of the air.
The principles disclosed can be adapted for use
with a multiple cleaning and humidifying ap
paratus as is illustrated digrammatically in Fig.
4. Therein the sumping trough i3’ discharges its
contents to deliver the conditioning liquid to the
?lter screen 2|’. The liquid drained therefrom
and the eliminated bubbles or droplets from its
eliminator screen 23' are caught on the drain
pan 25'. This pan 25' is controlled by a weighted
that it is of no importance, but, if the droplets or gate 50. When the liquid collected in the sump
escape or have a tendency to escape, the effect
portion 25’c of the pan 25’ overcomes the weight
would be undesirable. Except in true vapor form,
5|, the sump contents are dumped to cascade over
none of the conditioning liquid must leave the
the second ?lter screen 2|". The liquid drained
apparatus. The eliminator screen 23 and its ar
from the latter screen and the eliminated bub
rangement relative to ?lter screen 2| obviates 30 bles and droplets from its eliminator screen 23"
such an occurrence.
are caught on drain pan 25".
Because of the cost of the triethylene glycol,
it is essential to conserve and re-use the latter
for an inde?nite period of time. Consequently,
the solution which is dumped over the sloping cell
wise controlled by a weight-operated gate 50'.
When the liquid collected in sump portion 25"c
of the pan 25" overcomes weight 5|’, the sump
or screen is collected on the sloping plate 25a
and in sump 25c underneath the screen and
drained into the tank 21.‘ The sump 25c and the
This pan is like
0 contents are dumped to cascade over the next
succeeding ?lter screen 2|"' also having asso
ciated with it an eliminator screen 23"’. Ulti
mately the residual liquid is returned to a collect
tank 21 together must be designed in accordance
ing tank for repumping to the original dump
with this invention to hold from one-and-a-half 40 trough l3’. It will be noted that each ?lter
to twice the volume of the basic viscous liquid
screen and its associated eliminator screen forms
‘ that is, the triethylene glycol or similar liquid
chemical. This is an extremely important aspect
of this invention. The importance can be under
an inverted V whose apex angle does not exceed
60°. The number of such sets of inverted V's can
be as desired. The same auxiliary container 60'
stood from a consideration of the operations re 45 and operating parts can be provided and operated
sulting from use of the apparatus.
by bucket l6’ to replace evaporated triethylene
If the dumping pan l3 or similar equipment
glycol. The principle of operation whether a sin
holds two gallons essential for proper ?ushing
gle set or multiple sets are used is the same as
of the cell or screen 2|, then for winter use the (
that described for the single set of Figs. 1-3 in
tank 21 must hold at least four gallons of solution 50 clusive.
'
so that two gallons can be drawn by pump, 3|
‘The apparatuses decribed may be used directly
from this tank and discharged into the dumping
for conditioning a room or enclosure. They may
pan |3 through conduit 34 and discharge nozzle \
35. In the tank 21’ which contains the total
also, for example, be used in conjunction with
heating systems, such as warm air heating sys
tems. When so used, the casings III or ID’ and
volume of solution, the ?oat 30 is positioned to.
their contents may be positioned adjacent to the
cut an water delivery at the level of the remainder
hot air furnace. An air inlet conduit 50 for lead
left'in the tank 21 after the dumping volume (two
ing air from the room of the house is connected
gallons in this embodiment) is withdrawn. If
to the inlet II or II' of casings l0 or III’. The
water is evaporated during the period after a
dump, then on the next ?lling of the dumping 60 delivery outlets l2 or I2’ of the casings are con
nectedyby a conduit 5| to the air inlet 52 of the
tank I3 the level remaining in the sump 25c and
furnace so that conditioned air from the device
‘ tank 21 will be reduced below the cut-off level
of the invention is delivered to the furnace, heated
of the ?oat 30-and water will ?ow into the tank
therein and from the latter is delivered by con
21 to replace the evaporated water. As the chem
duits to the room or rooms of the house. Ordi
ical. such as triethylene glycol or similar viscous
nary heating or cooling coils (not shown) such
material, is minute in its evaporative character- .
as those used for hot water or steam heating can
istics, the diminution in the height of liquid in
be inserted in the discharge outlet l2 from the
the tank 21 is due primarily to the evaporation
fan and the apparatus used, therefore, for any
of water, and consequently the introduction of
additional water when the valve 29 opens tends 70 type of heating.
Other hygroscopic materials may be used pro
to restore the water lost by evaporation to the
vided they have similar characteristics as those
right percentages to maintain the relative hu
inherent to triethylene glycol. For instance, they
midities indicated. The valve 29, of course,
may be those mentioned in my said other applica
‘closes as soon as the ?oat 30 rises to its cut-oil
‘level. However, as the ?oat control valve 29 is 75 tion. or such materials may belong to the group
13
2,002,137
known as polyhydric alcohols“ Each additional
.
l4
-
hydroxyl (OH) group introduced into a glycol
such as air under heating season conditions in
an enclosure wherein it is largely recirculated
results in a product in which its qualities of ab
sorbing or releasing water vapors from or into
for cleaning thereof and humidifying said ?uid
within prescribed limits of relative humidity at
the atmosphere, according to the existing rela
tionship between the moisture content of the ma
terial and the relative humidity is enhanced.
Usually the boiling point of such products is
determined dry bulb temperatures, comprising
circulating said ?uid through a cleaning and
humidifying element, wetting the element with
a solution of water and triethylene glycol whose
concentration of triethylene glycol lies within
poration is correspondingly decreased. Any 10 ?xed limits of 82%-92% by weight of said solu
tion, recirculating said solution repeatedly, auto
products of this or similar type may consequently
matically replenishing water evaporated there
be used to advantage in connection with this in
from during circulation and adding periodically
vention.
concentrated triethylene glycol to replace tri
While speci?c embodiments of the invention
have been disclosed, it is to be understood that 15 ethylene glycol evaporated from the solution in
quantities su?lcient to maintain substantially the
changes may be made in practice and are con
initial concentration of said solution at all times.
templated. The size and dimensions of the de
5. A method for conditioning air under winter
vices are not to be construed as limited to those
raised approximately 100° C. and its rate of eva
described as they may be varied in practice to suit
time conditions in an enclosure wherein it is
different operating requirements. There is no 20 largely recirculated for‘ cleaning thereof, for
maintaining it at a dry bulb temperature rang
intention of limitation to the exact details shown
ing from 70° to 75° F. at a relative humidity not
and described.
less than 25% nor more than 50% comprising the
What is claimed is:
steps of circulating air drawn from said enclosure
1. In apparatus of the character described, gas
through a cleaning and humidifying element and
cleaning and humidifying means, periodically op
then through a heater and back to said enclosure,
erable dumping means for supplying viscous con
wetting said element with a solution of water
ditioning liquid consisting of a solution of water
and triethylene glycol whose concentration of
and a hygroscopic material to said ?rst-named
triethylene glycol is not less than approximately
means, means for circulating the gas to be con
ditioned through said ?rst-named means, means 30 82% by weight nor more than approximately 92%
by weight of said solution, recirculating said solu
for replenishing the water evaporated from said
tion repeatedly, automatically replenishing water
solution, and means responsive to operation of
evaporated therefrom during circulation and
the dumping means for automatically r-eplenish—
adding triethylene glycol to replace triethylene
ing the hygroscopic material evaporated from said
35 glycol evaporated from the solution in quantities
solution.
/
su?icient to maintain substantially the initial
2. Apparatus of the character described for
conditioning a gaseous ?uid such as air in an en-
_ concentration of said solution at all times.
6. Apparatus of the character described for
conditioning air under heating season conditions
clean and humidify it to prescribed humidity and
dry bulb temperature comprising filtering means, 40 in an enclosure wherein the air of the enclosure
mixed with air in?ltrating from outdoors is large
means for circulating said ?uid therethrough,
ly recirculated for cleaning thereof and humidi?
means for intermittently dumping upon said ?l
cation within limits of relative humidity
tering means a solution of water and a hygro
ranging
from not less than 25% to not more than
scopic material of prescribed concentration,
40% at dry bulb temperatures of approximately
means for replenishing water evaporated from
closed space wherein it is largely recirculated to
said solution and means responsive to operation
of said dumping means for replenishing hygro
70° F. to approximately 75° F. comprising a ?lter
element, heating means, means for circulating
the air from said enclosure through said element
and through said heating means back to said en
50 closure, a reservoir for a solution of water and
triethylene glycol whose concentration of tri
3. Apparatus of the character described for
scopic material evaporated fromv said solution to
maintain said prescribed concentration of said
solution.
conditioning a gaseous ?uid such as air in an
ethylene glycol by weight lies between 82% and
92%, a dumping tank adapted to tilt and dump
when a ?xed quantity of said solution has been
midity and dry bulb temperature comprising 55 delivered thereto, means for delivering solution
to said tank, means for directing solution dumped
?ltering means, means for circulating said ?uid
from said tank onto said ?lter element, means
therethrough, a reservoir for a solution of water
enclosure wherein it is largely recirculated to
clean and humidity said ?uid to prescribed hu
and hygroscopicmaterial, a dumping tank, posi
for returning dumped solution draining from said
element to said reservoir, ?oat means in said res
tioned to empty itself when ?lled to a determined
level, means for pumping solution from said res 60 ervoir operative at a determined level of solution
‘therein to admit water to replenish that lost
ervoir to said dumping tank, means for deliver
from said solution by evaporation, an auxiliary
ing solution dumped from said tank onto said
reservoir for concentrated triethylene glycol, and
?ltering. means, means for collecting solution
means operated by the tilting of said tank for
draining from said ?ltering means and returning
it to said reservoir, means in said reservoir con 65 admitting concentrated triethylene glycol of a
determined quantity to said solution to replenish
trolled by the level of solution therein for re
plenishing water evaporated from said solution,
triethylene glycol evaporated from the solution '
a reservoir for concentrated hygroscopic ma
to maintain substantially the initial concentra
terial, and means operated by said dumping tank
tion of said solution at all times.
7. A method for conditioning a gaseous ?uid
such as air under heating season conditions
in an enclosure wherein it is largely recirculated
for cleaning thereof and humidifying the ?uid
in tilting to release a determined quantity of said 70
concentrated hygroscopic material to the solu
tion to maintain the prescribed initial concentra
tion of said solution substantially uniform at all
within prescribed limits of relative humidity at
times.
4. A method for conditioning a gaseous ?uid 15 determined dry bulb temperatures, comprising
2,502,137
B5
circulating said ?uid through a cleaning and
humidifying element, wetting the element with a
solution of water'and triethylene glycol whose
concentration of triethylene glycol lies within
approximately 82% to approximately 92% by
weight to evaporate water from said solution into
said circulating ?uid and triethylene glycol from
said solution into said circulating ?uid to main
10
out the heating season by the absorption of water
hygroscopically irom the air and water automat
ically added in response to departures from a de
termined level of liquid in said reservoir.
9. A method for conditioning air under winter
time conditions in an enclosure wherein it is
largely recirculated for cleaning the air, for
maintaining it at a dry bulb temperature ranging
tain a relative humidity in said fluid of approxi
from 70° to 75° F. and at a relative humidity not
mately 30% to 35% and to vaporize approximate
10 less than 25% nor more than 50% comprising the
steps of circulating the air drawn from said en
ly 0.528 lb. of triethylene glycol for each one hun
closure through a ?ltering screen wetted with a
dred hours of continuous passage at 1000 cubic
solution of water and triethylene glycol whose
feet per minute of said circulating ?uid through
concentration of triethylene glycol by weight
said element at approximately 70° E1, recirculat
ing said solution repeatedly, automatically re 15 ranges from approximately 82 % to approximately
92%, automatically maintaining said concentra-= ’
plenishing water evaporated from said solution
tion of said solution. delivering the said wetting
during circulation'of said ?uid and adding con
solution to said'screen to provide a ?ushing action
centrated triethylene glycol to replace triethylene
thereby to clean the screen of filtrate accumulat
glycol evaporated from the solution in quantities
su?lcient to maintain said concentration within 20 ing thereon as a result of passage of the air cir
culated therethrough, subsequently ridding the
the range 01’ approximately 82% to approxi
air leaving said screen of any entrained droplets
mately 92% by weight.
of said solution and then passing the air through
8. A method for conditioning air during the
a heater and back to said enclosure.
heating season of a year in an enclosure wherein
WALTER L. FLEISHER.
it is largely recirculated for cleaning thereof and
for maintaining it at a dry bulb temperature
REFERENCES CITED
ranging from 70° to 75° F. at a relative humidity
not less than 25% nor more than 50% comprising
The following references are of record in the
the steps of circulating air drawn from said en
?le of this patent:
closure through a cleaning and humidifying ele 30
UNITED STATES PATENTS
ment and then through a heater and back to said
enclosure, providing a reservoir for triethylene
Number
Name
Date
glycol whose capacity is in excess of that quantity
871,194
Thomas __________ __ Nov. 19, 1907
of said glycol required for use during the heating
1,791,086
Speer, Jr ___________ "Feb. 3, 1931
season, wetting said element with triethylene gly
1,846,875
Karr et al _________ .._ Feb. 23, 1932
col withdrawn from said reservoir together with
1,952 406
Barstow et al. ____ “Mar. 27, 1934
water in a solution whose concentration of tri
ethylene glycol by weight during the heating
2,137,996
2,431,389
season ranges from approximately 82% to 92%,
recirculating the solution repeatedly, and auto 40
matically maintaining the concentration of the
Number
solution within said percentage ranges through
515,502
Crawford ________ .._ Nov. 22, 1938
Fleisher __________ __ Nov. 25, 1947
FOREIGN PATENTS
Country
Date
France __________ __Nov. 26, 1920
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