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Патент USA US2502144

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March 28, 1950
c. A. GETz
2,502,143
FIRE EXTINGU-ISHING METHOD
Filed Aug. so, 1944
10 sheets-sheet 1
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March 28, 1950
c. A. GETz -
2,502,143
, FIRE EXTINGUISHING METHOD
Filed Aug. 50, 1944
10 Sheets-Sheet 2
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March 28, 1950 `
c. A. GE-rz
2,502,143
FIRE EXTINGUISHING METHOD
Filed Aug. 50, 1944
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FIRE EXTINGUISHING METHOD
2,502,143
March Z8, 1950
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c. A. GETz
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2,502,143
FIRE EXTINGUISHING METHOD
Filed Aug'. 30, 1944
10 Sheets-Sheet 5
March 28, 195o
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Filed Aug. 50, 1944
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2,502,143
FIRE EXTINGUISHING METHOD
v10 Sheets-Sheet 6
March 28, 1950
c. A. GETz
2,502,143
FIRE EXTINGUISHING METHGD
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Filed Aug. 30, 1944
10 Sheets-Sheet '7
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March 2.8, 1950
c. A. GETz
2,502,143
FIRE EXTINGUISHING METHOD
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Filed Aug. 30, 1944
10 Sheets-Sheet 8
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March 28, 1950
c. A. GETZ _
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FIRE EXTINGUISHING METHOD I
Filed Aug. 30, 1944
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10 Sheets-Sheet 9
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March 28, 1950
c. A. GETz
2,502,143
FIRE EXTINGUISHING METHODV
Filed Aug. 30, 1944
10 Sheets-Sheet 10
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Patented Mar. 28, 1950
2,502,143
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
FIRE~EXTINGUISHING METHOD
Charles A. Getz, Glen Ellyn, lll., assigner, by'
mesne assignments, to Cardox Corporation,
` Chicago, Ill., a corporation '0f Illinois
Application August 3€), 1944, Serial `No.» 551,869>
'
26 anims.
(C1. 16e-_11)
1
2
This invention relates to new and useful im
delivered to the scene of `the ñre when both tne
provements in methods for extinguishing ñres.
snow and the vapor are employed as carriers.
This application> is. va continuation-in~.par.i'l of my
This peculiarity was assumed to be due to thefact
that Class “A” ñres 'are most effectively extin
guished by a medium which 'both quenches and
cools; that all of the water droplets that are en
ycopending application Ser. No. 502,175, ñled Sep
tomber 13, 1943, now abandoned.
Patent No. 2,352,399, issued to Leonard D.
Myers on June 27, 1944, broadly covers the de
velopment of combining pre-formed water fog
trained by the carbon dioxide snow are con
verted to water -ice ,particles and for. that reason
with carbon dioxide snow and vapor to provide an
aii'ord very little immediate quenching action;
extinguishing medium discharge that possesses
very marked improvements in carrying range and
and that substantially all `of the quenching action
of the entire discharge is accomplished by the
water droplets that are entrained by the carbon
dioxide vapor which converts only a portion of
the droplets to water ice.
It was discovered that the high velocity of the
carbon dioxide discharge lproduces suilîcient suc
penetrating capacity, as Well as ability to more
quickly extinguish ñres and cool the material be
ing consumed, .as well as associated heat absorb
ing masses, to a temperature below that at which
the combustible materials will rekindle or re
ñash.
The specific apparatus that is disclosed in the
above identiiied patent produces a combined dis
tion or aspirating Vaction to create an air cur
rent or iiow adîiacent the periphery of and in the
same direction asv the carbon dioxide stream and
charge stream of carbon dioxide and water fog. 20 that this fluid moving force or reaction could be
relied upon rto carryto the ñre zone Water .fog
The carbon dioxide of the discharge consists. of
or water fog foam that is projected in a certain
snow and vapor components which are separated
relation with respect to the periphery of the car
or .segregated to provide a snow core and a vapor
bon dioxide stream.` This discovery led to the cle
enclosing or encircling envelope. The water fog
is completely formed or generatedv before it is 25 velopment of the structural arrangement. of the
extinguisher discharge `apparatus shown in the
combined with the carbon dioxide. The water
drawings of the present application, wherein the
fog generating device is so constructed and ar~
vgenerated Water fog or vwater fog foam `is projected
ranged that the. angle of' projection of the .fog
vin such a manner that approximately one-.half
causes complete entrainment of all of the Water
droplets in 'the carbon dioxide. The combining 30 of it is actually er1-trained by the vapor envelope
of the carbon dioxide discharge while. the re
of the carbon .dioxide and water ’fogmay be .such ì
mainder is carried along to the `í'lre zone by the
that the water droplets are entrained by both
the snow core and the vapor envelope, or so that
all of the water droplets are entrained by the
vapor envelope. Because of this complete en
trainmentv of the water fog by the carbon dioxide,
the amount of water fog that is delivered. to the
scene of the lire is `limited tothe entrainment
capacity of the components of the carbon di
oxide discharge to which the water droplets are
aspirating action of the carbon dioxide stream.
~ Class
“B” fires-fires
involving flammable
liquids, grease's, etc-_are most effectively ex
tinguished'by amedium which cools and smothers.
_Carbon dioxide is an excellent extinguishing agent
for this class of fires, including ñuids of both
high and low volatility,r because of its high cool
40 ing capacity and its 4ability to form a smotherin-g
and fuel diluting'blanket over the surface of the
liquid. The single'weakness of carbon dioxide for
extinguishing iires of this classis that the car
bon dioxide -bianket -dissipates >rather rapidly and
than when water droplets are only entra-ined >by 45 consequently fails to lprovide 'a relatively parma*
nent protective blanket over the‘surface of the
the vapor.
flammable liquid._,`The provision of such a perma
It has been determinedthat the combined car
nent blanket is very important and highly desira
bon dioxide and water fog discharge .of the afore
ble when the hazard involved includes spilled gas~
said patent lis only slightly more >effective for
.extinguishing Class “A” ñres-ñres involvingv or 50 oline,„or thelike, because the relatively Vpermanent
blanket provides Aprotection against reignition
dinary combustible materials, suchv as paper,
caused by accidentally_..created sparks, or the
wood, etc.---when water fog vis entrained by both
like.
'
"
'the `snow and the vapor `than when water ,fog is
Foam extinguishers are effective. for Class “B”
Lonlytentrained bythe vapor, notwithstanding the
delivered. That is to say, a greater volume of
water fog can be delivered to the nre zone when
the water droplets are entrained .by both the snow
and the vapor of the carbon vdioxide discharge
facltthatjtwîce the volume «of water fog maybe 55 fires because of their ’extremely <effective .and
2,502,143
3
permanent smothering characteristics.
How
tacking the fire with a combined discharge of
carbon dioxide and pre-formed Water fog foam
to quickly dispose of the ñame and partially cool
down the burnt material and associated heat
absorbing masses, and by ñnally applying to the
surfaces of the burnt material and heat absorbing
ever, they are rather slow in their action, due to
the necessity of gradually building up the blanket
formation over the surface of the involved body
oi’ liquid. Their use is generally limited to the
treatment of horizontal surfaces.
Water fog of the low-velocity variety depends
masses a cooling and smothering blanket formed
of Water fog foam to prevent reflash.
primarily on cooling and diluting for its fire
extinguishing action. Its range of application is
A still further obj ect of the invention is to pro
vide methods which are capable of effecting the
limited because the Water droplets are very small ‘
and necessarily have a low discharge velocity.
Water fog is of distinct value in ñghting ñres in
volving the less volatile flammable fluids, such as
fuel oil, but it has very definite limitations with
reference to its use on the highly volatile liquids.
For instance, burning gasoline flowing over a
pavement can rarely be extinguished by water
extinguishment of diiîerent classes of i’ires as a
result of the direct application of carbon dioxide
and foam separately, or as a combination of car
bon dioxide and foam.
Another object of the invention is to provide a
method of effecting extinguishment by iirst at
tacking a fire with a combined discharge of car
bon dioxide and foam; the foam being either of
the water fog, mechanical, chemical, or mechani
cal-chemical type; to quickly dispose of the ñame,
cool down the burnt material and associated heat
absorbing masses, and build up a thin smothering
blanket of foam, and by ñnally completing the
building up of a heavy smothering blanket of
foam to prevent reñash.
Other objects and advantages of the invention
will be apparent during the course of the follow
fog, although gasoline fires in open tanks, hav
ing a substantial amount of free-board, can some
times be extinguished by directing the fog against
the free-board if the latter is hot enough to con
vert the fog to steam.
Class “C” iires--fires involving electrical equip
ment-require a non-conducting extinguishing
agent. Carbon dioxide undoubtedly is the best
all-round extinguisher for this class of fires be
cause of its non-damaging characteristics. How
ever, electrical equipment that involves a sub
stantial amount of insulation material that can
smolder can only be extinguished with carbon
dioxide by a prolonged application of the same.
Low-velocity water fog can be employed on
electrical equipment ñres because the ñne drop
ing description.
.
In the accompanying drawings forming a part
of this speciñcation and in which like numerals
are employed to designate like parts throughout
the same,
Figure l is a diagrammatic View of the fire
lets oiïer an enormous resistance to the flow of
extinguishing apparatus embodying this inven
electricity and the quenching action of the Water
is very effective in extinguishing smoldering insu
tion,
lating material. However, complete extinguish
charge apparatus for the iire extinguishing
agents that are made available by the apparatus
of Fig. 1,
Figure 2 is a front elevational view of the dis~
ment of electrical equipment fires by means of
water in any form causes substantial property
damage.
Figure 3 is a sectional view taken on line 3-3
of Fig. 2,
The use of foam on Class “C” i-lres is never
recommended unless no other, more suitable ex
Figure 4 is a diagrammatic view of the dis
charge apparatus of Figs. 2 and 3 and illustrates
the projection angles, etc., of the carbon dioxide
and the water fog or water fog foam discharges,
Figure 5 provides a diagram of the discharge
pattern taken on line a-a of Fig. 4,
tinguishing agent is available because of the
high property damage that results and because
foam is highly conductive of electricity.
From the above’analysis of the different classes
of ñres and the effectiveness, or lack oi effective
ness, of carbon dioxide, water fog, and foam as
extinguishing agents therefor, it will be seen
Figure 6 is an elevational View of a water car
bonating tank which may be substituted for the
water tank of Fig. 1,
Figure 7 is a similar View to Fig. l but illus
that no one of these agents is an “all purpose”
extinguisher. It is because of that fact that city
ñre departments and the fire fighting organiza
tions of large manufacturing plants, or the like,
must be provided with diiïerent pieces of equip
ment for handling the different types of ex
tinguishing agents that are required to combat
all of the classes of ñres such departments and
organizations may be called upon to handle.
The primary object lof the invention is the pro
vision of methods of eiïecting quick and corn
plete extinguishment of different classes of fires
trates apparatus for producing chemical foam
for use with the carbon dioxide,
Figure 8 is a similar View to Figs. l and 7 but
55
illustrates slightly diii‘erent apparatus for pro
ducing chemical foam for use with the carbon
dioxide,
Figure 9 is a front elevational view oi the dis
charge apparatus for the i-lre extinguishing agents
that are made available by the apparatus of Figs.
6, '7 and 8,
Figure 10 is a sectional view taken on line
and of preventing reñashes by combined and/or
separate applications of carbon dioxide and water
IU-IU of Fig. 9,
Y
Figure 1l is a front elevational view of the dis
fog foam, mechanical foam, chemical foam, or
65 charge apparatus for the ñre extinguishing agents
mechanical-chemical foam.
that are made available by the apparatus of
Another speciñc object of the invention is to
provide methods of effecting the extinguishment
Figs. l, 6, 7 and 8, and
of ñres by means of a discharge stream consist
ing of a core of carbon dioxide snow, an encir
cling layer or envelope made. up of a mixture of
carbon dioxide vapor and pre-formed water fog
foam, and an external layer or envelope of water
fog foam.
A further object of the invention is to provide a
method of effecting extinguishment by :first at
Figure 12 is a sectional View taken on line
|2-I2 of Fig. 11.
In the drawings, wherein for the purpose of
illustration are shown the preferred embodiments
of this invention, and ñrst particularly referring
to Fig. l, the reference character 6 designates in
its entirety the insulated storage tank for liquid
.~ carbon dioxide. This liquid, preferably; is main
Ad
A.5
¿tained at a `desiredesubatmospheric temperature,
and its correspondingfloW-vapor pressuraiby the
.theetopaof .the watery-storage »tank rt'I. fha-suit
rcoolingcoil 'I -lwhichfís included as »apartmf a
- A.able .'fl‘ow -controlling »and ¿pressure îregulating
vmechanical `»refrigerating cycle. :Although vthe
.liquidfcarbon diox-ide'used for .carrying-«out this
y‘spaceftof .the .carbon dioxide storagextank “16 tto'
Avalve 20a iis provided »in `the 4îfp-ipe line »'20. «Al
though a 'vapor `pressure `of lapproximately 90
:invention is imorefeftlcient «and-‘effective Wheniit
ypounds -per «square inch can `be z employed `fort .ex
iisuat a‘preselected low temperatura-and itscor
pelling :the Waterffrom Ithe .-tankll, it-has been
`:responding low vapor pressureitisto be under
.stoodlthat `.the inventioncontem-plates the uselof
.determined .that fogging- ofthe water-'bythe gen
erating ring -IZ is more efficient whenpressures
¿high »pressure .liquid carbony dioxide .stored .in '.a 110 from ’,125 `~pounds to approximately "20G pounds,
.bank of ,pressure cylinders.
«,per. square -inch, are employed.
ïLiquid carbon ^dioxide is -Withdrawn yfrom .the
The tfoam stabilizing chemical >supply Vtank `I.í9
insulated storagetank 6 -through the pipe line a8
»is provided with aremovable‘cap I`9a, for closing
...thateextends-to Vthe carbon dioxide dischargeipor
.an opening `through-umich -the chemical risin
:tion »- -9 ’Y of ' the Y discharge .apparatus l:or . nozzle.
control valve I0 is illustrated as being lprovided
Adnt-¿this `^carbon f dioxide pipe . line «.8 adjacent .the
ëstorage tank'sâ. This valye-.isremployed;for con
.trolling the flow of liquid carbon .dioxide (from
@the tank to ythe nozzle portion 9. 7The valve .I9
.may be :either manually» or rautomatically `oper
eatedg-as desired. z'I-‘he2pipe line 8 may be A.of A.a
.rigid-.character if .thea'pparatus of éFig. .1.is.em~
Ltroduced and va >second lcap IzSb `for closing ‘an
Iopening through which-the tankfmay be drained
.and flushed out.
A ,branch-line 12 I :receives IWa
.ter'from the vsupifzlyçpîpe I6 andidelivers it‘tothe
.top of fthe chemical supply tank:l9. This‘water
enters „the tank and` forces the‘foam stabilizing
`chemical out of the tank‘throug‘hits-bottom con
1nectionzyvtihthe branchline |519. >A .valvefZZïis
>connected in theïbranch line Iâb for'regulating
thera‘te at which the` chemical .isdischarged from
Lployedwas a ñxed ñreextinguishing system or .if
.thefentire apparatus is associatedwith'mobile fire F25 vtank I9. .In this way, `tlie;amount of chemical
:lighting apparatus of the typekdisclosed .in `the
.«Ericf»Geer.tz patent, ~No..~2,352,3'79, issued .June..27,
12119.44. `EI‘hispipe line«.8,-.also,.may take `the :form
of a flexible hose line if desired. Ii a ñexible. hose
'.-line .is 4employed, afsecond :control .valve should
:be;.»provided. in Vclose proximity to 5 the .carbon .di
«cxide- discharge Lportion `:9 -zof »the nozzle, 4in .ac
.cordance With-.the disclosures »of .the patent ,to
eHilding N. -.Williamson, for Jlï‘ire extinguishing
¿discharge apparatus, No. 2,354,631, -issued July
'i2-5, .194.4.
`.The i. discharge vnozzle .- or aapparatus, designated
Lin- its» entirety by the » reference» character I I , .also
‘iincludes »a lwater ~fog .and V‘waterïog `foam‘gen
»ferating nozzle portion A4I2 «which is îassociated Q40
with :the fperiphery of <-the carbon dioxide v-dis
«icharge »inozzle Iportion `9. .A «pipe .line - lf3, -fwhich
.may «either :be -rigid Yor .- flexible, depending upon
~zthe character ofthe carbondioxide .pipe..1iner8,
eis ¿suitably Tattached y at .its - outer .end to .the gen
l.er-ating nozzle portion _I2 »and .extendsrsalon'g ._a
¿suitable part of'the pipeline E8 :to -beattached
@thereto 4Icy/clamps, bands,.or :the `like «.M. „If .the
,»,pipe~1ine.8 «takes the :form y.of Wra sflexible `.hose fline
¿and .is provided *with a «.valve «adjacent uthe dis
fchargeinozzle IfI ,-the;„pipe .line 43,» alsopshould» be
xñexibleand .it should be «provided with .a flow
¿control 4Valve „adjacent .the .discharge nozzle yI I.
-The Water pipe line -I.3 eisaintendedtobefused
Aflowing through branch .line I5?) into 'the <pipe
~line 23 as `compared to the amount of Water now-
ing through branch vline [5a into `thepipe line
<I3 can be regulatedand controlled to obtain the
desired proportions. Valve 2'3 Eis :connected in
r~branch line .12! »topermit .the‘ch‘emical tank i9
'.tobe completely cut oiïfrolm» pipe lines I3 andelxß
íforîfilling andcleaning purposes.
.The foam stabilizing‘chemical ’placedxin tank
.I9 can `be .any of the -‘Well 'known stabilizing
lagents, ‘ such .as¢ an> aqueousi solution .of saponin,
¿secondary ’extract of ` licorice, leguminous extra-ct,
extractfofßtanbark, or the like. When l.the appa
ratus .is :subjected to :freezing temperatures, ta
suitable î'anti-freeze solution, .such as calcium
lchloride, is ladded. This foam stabilizer can `be
'mixed with `water during the ñow of the latter
through >thexpipejlineLISand-no foaming will oc
cur'until >the mixture isl‘discharged. If desired,
the 'îfoam :stabilizer-'can bei premixed'with-,thewww
.terin‘tank I'ï »andthe chemical supply tank I9,
l»with its piping, dispensed with.
Because of my desire ’.to be/able .togenerate
seither v`Water'îog or Water :fog foam vsit-selected
intervalsvby means .of thev generating; nozzle `ring
¿IL/Iman controldeli-very of the foaming chem
.icaltozthe'waterxilow‘pipe ¿line i3 by means of
“ val-vies z2f21'and v23.
.The construction of the-'discharge- apparatus or
.ras îa ¿premixingchamber .for ‘water :and a »fnam »1.55 :nozzle îI-'Zzís best disclosed'linlê‘igs. Zand 3 and
fstabilizing .chemical 4`and .=is connected vto «the
.Will ~«he ‘described lin detail kin connection `with
Lbranch..li-nes #5a anddâb fortthatfpurpose. .The
.ibranch line -I5a‘isconnected to the waterxsupply
pipe I6 that is in turn connected nto „the «water
rthesefñgures.
v.The carbon dioxide :discharge vportion ’fS rdf
.the-.complete nozzleis >of the type disclosedand
.storage y»tank.l1. `-A,~suitableíeontrol.yalveslß is -»(iO <rbroaclly claimed in thegpatent‘to ‘I-Iilding-VJWiln
.located in the .water »supply `l.pipe ‘I6 Iand -is «em
lliamson, .N0. 2,351,089, issued August ‘29, "1944.
ployed for controlling .and regulating the `.rate'of
“.Thelliquid carbon dioxidesupply pipe line-T8
fflow- of water. Theibranch .line »I5b is~ connected
:suitably A'threadedly connected `to the :stem `or
.to »the `supply Ítank .I9 .fior thefoam :stabilizing
shank24 ofthe .carbon dioxide nozzle >portion
fzchemical.
Y *.05 :9.
This >stem'or-«shank'ill is -provided vWith-‘a
Although the vwater y.can be yWtihdrawn Afrom
kboreî25=for deliveringlthe >liquid carbonfdioxide
@the tank r:Hand propelled«tothegenerating noz
:toxtherinterior of the‘bodyfportion of thenozzle.
v.zle î.portion .or v.ring .L2 vby:mea1'1s`of.a `suitable
The :outer or-forward end »2610i this bore «com
electric ‘motor . or i gasoline Yengine .driven pump,
»municates lwith Lthe interior l of "a 'deflector »ele
Pnot. shown,..it. ispreferred .insofar as thisinvention J0 4ment ‘and wcooperates 'fWìt-h thisv elementJ tc‘form
»isconcernedto .expel the `Waterfront the storage
ïaçflow path forithediquidicarbonfdioxide. ¿The
‘f tank . by . incans- of„car.hon .dioxide .vapor .pressure
:stem orïs‘hank ‘24 'has formed von ‘its -outer end
~obtainedïfrfom:the insulated carbon dioxide «stor
.a zradially texten-ding 'íiange r=2l 'which `is :formed
.sageitank‘e I'Fhis vaporpressure is -tobtainedfby
:with >faxcircular: :series oiroriñces >Zilthroug'hfwhic‘h
nth’e :pipe -line 20 ‘that .extends ifrom r.the »vapor ..75 :thesliquid carbon` dioxide is ,frei-eased ":to mpermit
77
‘2,502,143
sudden expansion so that its pressure will drop
below '75 pounds per square inch, absolute, which
will cause a certain percentage of the liquid to '
8
chamber for receiving the circular series of flow
controlling and directing units 45.
yThese units 45 are equally spaced around and
extend radially of the stem or shank 24 and the
deflector element 32. Each one of these units in
cludes a semi-circular or semi-cylindrical band
'provided with a circular series of threaded open
46 which is flanged at both of its longitudinal
ings 26, for a purpose to lbe explained at a later
edges 41, see Fig. 3. The inner transverse edge
point. Exteriorly, the stem or shank 24 is pro
48 of each one of these bands 46 is suitably an
vided with a rearwardly curved or flared sur
10 chored either in close proximity to or in contact
face 30 that terminates in a shoulder 3l.
with the periphery of the ilared portion or sur
The deflector element referred to above is
face 30 of the stem or shank 24. The outer edge
identiñed by the reference character 32 in Figs.
49 of each one of these bands 46 terminates in the
2 and 3. This defiector element is secured to
plane of the outer face of the body or casing por
the fiange 2l by means of the series of screws
tion 42 and the outer edges of the defiector ele~
33 that are threaded into the holes 29 of the
ment ribs 38.
flange 2ï. The deñector is partially hollowed
The opposite sides of each one of these flow
out so as to control the direction of flow of the
controlling and directing units 45 are formed
liquid carbon dioxide to the discharge orifices
by wall members 50 which lie inside of the edge
28. For this purpose, the interior of the de
flector is provided with a conically shaped pro 20 flanges 41 and are suitably secured thereto.
These Figs. 2 and 3 show the opposite side walls
jection 34 that is axially aligned with the bore
of each adjacent pair of units 45 as being formed
25 of the shank or stem 24. The interior of
by a single piece of sheet material with the cen
the defiector element 32, radially outwardly of
ter or intermediate portion of each one of these
the spreading projection 34, is provided with the
curved surfaces 35 that function to change the 25 side Wall forming pieces designated by the refer
ence character 5|. These center or intermediate
direction of ñow of the liquid carbon dioxide so
portions 5I function to bridge the gaps or spaces
that it will be directed rearwardly through the
left between the inner edges or sides of adjacent
discharge oriñces 28. The inner or rear por
units 45.
tion of the defiector element 32 is belled or
curved outwardly at 35 to ¿form an internal 30
Fig. 3 clearly discloses the side walls 5D of the
several units 45 as having apertures 52 formed
curved surface 31 that lies opposite to and co
therein. These apertures are formed in the outer
operates with the curved exterior' surface 30 of
the stem or shank 24. Fig. 3 clearly shows that
or vfront halves of the side walls 56; i. e., rela
these two cooperating surfaces 3l] and 31 diverge
tively close tothe outer edges 49 of the bands
with respect to each other in any radial section 35 46. Each flow controlling and deflecting unit
to form an annular passageway that gradually
45 has mounted within the same a plow-shaped
deñecting and separating element 53. These ele
increases in depth or thickness. This increase
functions to permit further expansion of the re
ments are of V or wedge shape in section with
leased carbon dioxide so that the pressure of the
securing ñanges 54 formed on the sides thereof
same will drop still further and will provide for 40 for securing, such as by welding, the elements
ñashing of whatever liquid may remain as a
53 in their proper places within the units 45.
ñash to snow while the remainder of the liquid
'is vaporized. This annular flange 2l' is further
part of the flowing material. The outer portion
Fig. 3 discloses these deñecting and separating
of the deflector element 32 is illustrated in Figs.
elements 53 as being arranged with respect to
2 and 3 as being formed with radial ribs 38 which
the side wall openings or apertures 52 so that
form the valleys 39 having curved inner surfaces 45 the lateral sloping surfaces 55 of each element
40 Which will function to deflect forwardly or
will split or spread any material iiowing through
axially any of the discharged medium that comes
the interior of a unit 45 so that this material
in contact with the same.
will be deflected through the cooperating side
The defiector element 32 and the cooperating
Wall openings or apertures 52. These elements
portion of the stem or shank 24 are enclosed with 50 53 are shown in Fig. 3 as being arranged so that
in a chambered body or casing which is formed
their outer transverse edges 56 are spaced from
by the inner portion 4l and the outer portion 42.
the inner surfaces of the outer end portions of
The inner portion 4l of the body or casing is dish
their associated bands 46.
In other words, a
shaped and is centrally cut away at 43 to permit
space or gap is left between the inner surface
the inner portion of the stem or shank 24 to pass 55 of the hand 46 of each one of the units 45 and
therethrough so that the shoulder 3| of the said
the outer edge 56 of its associated deflecting and
stem or shank will act as a seat or an abutment
for this inner portion 4I of the body or casing.
Any suitable means may be provided for secur
separating element 53 through which the extin
guishing medium may flow to the outer edge 49
of the band 46.
_
ing the body or casing portion 4l to the shoulder 60 The mode of operation of the carbon dioxide
portion 3l, such as by welding or by theuse of
discharge nozzle pori?on described above is ex
suitable screws or bolts. The outer portion 42
p‘ained in detail in the aforesaid Hilding C.
of the body or casing is of cylindrical shape and
has its inner edge portion overlapped or tele
scopically associated with the outer marginal edge
portion of the inner body part 4I to provide a
lapped joint 44. Welding, or the like, may be
employed for rendering this joint permanent.
Figs. 2 and 3 clearly show that the body or cas
» ing of the carbon dioxide discharge nozzle portion>
cooperates with the stem or shank 24 to provide
a, closed rear Wall while leaving the front of the
Williamson patent and for that reason its mode
of operation will be more generally set forth
herein. Liquid carbon dioxide, at any desired
pressure and temperature, will be delivered to
the bore of the shank or stem 24 and will ñow
as a liquid to the discharge orifices 28. As the
liquid carbon dioxide leaves these oriñces, it ex
pands suddenly and its pressure drops to such
an extent that the liquid flashes and vaporizes.
The carbon dioxide that enters the space formed
apparatus entirely open. The body or casing ad
between the outwardly iiared surfaces 3D and 31,
ditionally cooperates with the stem or shank 24
therefore, takes the form of a mixture of snow
and the deflector element 32 to form an annular 75 and vapor. Depending upon the temperature of
'2,502,143
l0
the ¿liquid rcarbon dioxide :that is delivered `to
this discharge apparatus, va :certainpercentage
`ing vaporenvelope for the compact, dense snow
vwhich ‘forms thel core of the composite dis
lof the same willñash intosnow >as 'a result of
charge.
the self-'ccoling'action that is produced. In other
words, the entire discharge from the peripheral
mouth, formed -by the >outer* edges ofthe sur
’ >From 'this ‘description of the mode of -opera
'tionfof the'discharge apparatus for the carbon
dioxide, it’will‘be appreciated that there is :Oro-`
faces 30 and 3'1, will consist of a mixture of snow
-vided a discharge stream which is of` substantial
and'vapor.,
This snow andvapor mixture, as` it leaves Ithe
aforesaid peripheral mouth, will be flowing in a
`truly-radial direction. Some portions of the mix
ture will pass directly into the various flow con»
"trolling and directing units >45. .The remainder
ofthe mixture will besplit and deflected laterally
in opposite directions by the axially extending
rportion 5| of; theside Wall formingpieces '50.
These deflected portions ofthe mixture, there
fore, will -be directed into the several units 4,5.
`
ly circular shapein transverse section. In Fig. l3`
ofthe drawings, the dotted lines A and -B are
‘intended 4*to represent the peripheral marginof
¿this compositestream on the section of this-iig
ure.
The dotted lines C and D are intended to
illustrate the peripheral margin of the compact,
Adense snow core. Therefore, the inner and outer
marginsfof ‘the vapor envelope are represented
by theI dotted lines A-C and B-D.
"The wateriog and water fog foam generating
portion #|12 o‘i the‘entire discharge nozzle or ap
paratus consists of the hollow water ring 51 'that
`The outer lcurved bands '46 ,of the ilow con
trolling and directing lunits 45 will deilect the 20 surrounds the outer edge portion-of the body
creasing part'i42. -Anysuitable means maybe
flowing mixture from its. straight line, radial path
‘employed fior properly attaching this water ring
and-convertthe >straight line flow ofthe vsame
to .the ‘body creasing and a band of any -suit
into a curvilinear'iiow or motion. vAs the carbon
ableheatinsul-ating material of any proper thick
dioxide snow of the mixture isy many Vtimes more.
dense than the carbon dioxide vapor, and as the 25 ness may be-»provid‘ed at 58 to insulate the water
in'theiinterioroi the» ring from the low temper
ature of therbody or casingpart 42. -Water‘by
itself or mixed with‘the foam stabilizing chemi
cal is supplied >to the interior ofthe ring bythe
moved tothe outer side o_f each one of the cur 30 pipe line i3"through the suitable‘connection‘îß.
The ring I5'! -is'provided witha iront wall’Sll that
vilinear ilow paths-‘for the material, The snow,
iseforrned with v.the two annular, angularly ar
in seeking this Vouter portion oi each flow path,
ranged portions iil' .andiiîz :Each one of these
will Ícrowd or force'the vvapor inwardly> away
iront; Wall'porticnsczis` provided with an annular
from the inner surfaces ofthe various bands 4.6.
The difference indensity of the snow, as com 35 series of apertures l'whichmay be of .any-size. or
diameter desired.. . The apertures lfory the lfront
pared to the vapor, therefore, effects a. segrega
ywall portionv 6l' are designated by the reference
>tion of these two components. The snow is
character 63 whileztherapertures,for the wall'por‘
>segregated at or close tothe outer side of each
tion ‘Glare _designated by the reference charac
one of the curvilinear paths while the. vapor is
terfêd. yEach-one'o'f the apertures-53 is arranged
segregated on- the inner'side’of each path.
in thessameradial plane as anaperture .64:so
Asy the segregated snow and-vapor reach the
that =the :axes .of the several apertures 1(i3 are
outer side of each'one `of the flow. controlling
angular-ly arranged with respect :to the axes ¿of
and- directing‘units 45, the'snow passes through
-velocity of both of these components is the same,
~'the ‘snow’ oi’fers’more resistance to the deiiect
ing force exerted -by the obstructing, curved
>bands 46 with ,the result that >the snow will be
‘the gap or space left between "the inner surface
the apertures: 64.
of its band 4'5 andtheÍ cuter edge’o? itsflow split
-ting and separating element 5-3. The inwardly
the referencefcharacters E and -E‘ respectively.
By inspectingfFig. 2, it will be seen-that thef‘asso'à
positioned, segregated vaporfhowever, strikes the
These y axes'. `are » designated'by
elated-.pairs of aperturestß andM‘are radially
aligned withA the carbon dioxide> vapor discharg
ing spaces that .are located -between adjacent
'and is directed laterally l«through the side wall
apertures ‘52 into the portions of the body or 'so carbon Idioxide flow `controlling and directing
v units 45.
casingwhich lie‘between adjacent units 45. The
As-a~solid stream of water or water :mixed
segregated and separated snow passes radially
with a foam stabilizer will befdischarged‘through
outwardly »beyond the edges 49 of the several
each one of these apertures 6.3:'andfß'4', thestreams
Ibands 45 and is `directed into the Valleys >39
foreach associatedyradially aligned pair of aper
ofthe de?lector element 32. The curved inner
tures, .will impinge against: each other with `the
surfaces 4G of these valleys deflect the snow so
resul-t «that Ithe water orfwa'ter and roam sta
that it will iiow, or'will be discharged, to the
bilizer mixture- ".ot >both streams will line/broken
atmosphere in an axial direction'with respect'to
up intoaiog or a-fog> foam which is` formedof
the entire carbon dioxide discharging apparatus.
This discharge of’ all of the separated'snow from to very ñne ‘water~ droplets or >foam . bubbles ioi - uni
form size.. This water iogor water Vfog foam
all of the units 45 causes the-samel to be assem
will iill to a substantially yuniform Ydensity-all
bled `into a compact, dense vcore for the entire
portions of „the space ,lying between theangu
vcarbon dioxide discharge. The separated `vapor
larly arranged axeslines E and .F outwardly of
will leave ‘the-spaces between the adjacent units
the Ypoint ‘or zone of impingement of the two
4.5 .and will flow in an axial' direction relative to
streams.
.the discharge apparatus. The vapor is in this
.way >disclfiarged‘ outwardly >of the 'dense `snow
Lety us- now consider the diagrammatic disclos
core. Because the areas of discharge for the
ures of'Figs. '4 and’ 5 in connection with the -dis
vapor are spacedLdis-tances equal to the width
closure of' Fig. 3*.V Figs. 4 and ‘5 have applied
of the flow controlling andy directing units '45, 70 thereto the reference characters A andB which
`-the vapor discharges will be separated lfrom each y
designatethe louter limits ofl the carbon dioxide
other immediately adjacent‘thelfront face of" the
discharge stream, and, of course, the outer limits
apparatus. However', the vapor discharges will
ofthe carbon’dioxide vapor envelope. The ref
blend together ashort distance inadvance ci the
erence/characters C" and D are appli-ed- to Figs’. 4
apparatus, and'wil'lV form-i a. surrounding or= enclos
and‘ö iso-«designate the outerl'imits ofthe carbon
sloping surfaces "55 of the various elements ‘53
,2,502,143
.dioxide snow core and the inner limits of the
carbon dioxide vapor envelope. The reference
characters E and F, also, have been applied to the
disclosures of Figs. 4 and 5 to designate the angles
of projection that are normally provided by the
generated, the carbon dioxide stream would en»
train air at its periphery.
It is believed that persons familiar with the art
Fig. 5 discloses the dotted lines of Figs. 3 and 4
translated into circles to illustrate the type of
of producing and using foams for extinguishing
lires will fully understand what is meant by the
term “water fog foam” as applied to the type of
foam that is produced by the apparatus so far
described. Nevertheless the following explana
pattern provided by the discharges of carbon
tion will be given so that no misunderstanding
-dioxide and water fog or water fog foam atY the 10
will be possible.
:associated fog generating apertures 63 and 64.
Y
There are two Well recognized types of fire
a--a of Fig. 4.
extinguishing foams; i. e., mechanical air foam
and chemical foam. Mechanical air foam is
If We consider that the carbon dioxide is being
produced by discharging under pressure a mix
.discharged all by itself, the margins of the car
>bon dioxide stream will be represented by the 15 ture of water and a foam stabilizing agent in
such a manner that air, or some other gas, will
circle A-B of Fig. 5. The circle C--D of this
be mixed therewith and the air will be entrapped
iigure represents the outer margin of the snow
in the stable bubbles of the resultant foam.
.core and the inner margin of the vapor en
Chemical foam is produced by the reaction of
velope. If we now consider that the generat
ing nozzle portion l2 is discharging all by itself; -20 two chemicals, stored either in dry or solution
form, Water and a stabilizing agent. The reac
i. e., without any carbon dioxide discharge taking
tion produces a mass of carbon dioxide bubbles
place, the outer ring F of Fig. 5 designates the
which are toughened, or rendered long-lasting
outer projection margin of the Water fog or water
by the stabilizing agent.
Y
fog foam pattern on plane a-a. The center
Heretofore, mechanical air foam has been dis
dot E’ of Fig. 5 indicates where the inner pro 25
charged as a solid stream of air foam bubbles
jected margins` of the water fog or water fog
transverse plane that is represented by the line
ready for application onto fire because the water,
the stabilizing agent and the air, or other gas,
are mixed and the foam produced upstream of
Let us now consider that we have a composite
discharge of carbon dioxide and water fog or 30 the zone of discharge, or the discharge oriñce.
The “water fog foam” referred to above is of
water fog foam. It has been determined that
the mechanical air foam type but is produced in
.the high velocity of discharge of the carbon di
foam discharges intersect. These inner margins
are represented by the dotted lines E of Fig. 4.
oxide vapor, which occurs between the lines or
circles A-C and B-D, deiiects and entrains the
portion of the water fog or water fog foam dis
charge that overlaps or coincides with the car
bon dioxide discharge with the result that the
water fog or ?water fog foam does not penetrate
the carbon dioxide stream beyond the inner
margin C-D of the carbon dioxide vapor. The
an unconventional manner. A mixture of water
and a stabilizing agent is brought to a zone of
discharge and released under pressure to the at
mosphere as two, or more, impinging streams.
The impingement breaks up the mixture into a
fog and air is entrained or entrapped in each
water particle to produce the water fog foam.
Tank l1 of the apparatus disclosed in Fig. l
has been described as containing water which
is expelled by means of carbon dioxide vapor
which is delivered thereto by the pipe line 20. If
Awater fog foam.
y
the carbon dioxide vapor is delivered to this
In the introductory portion of this speciñca
tion, it has been stated that the aspirating action .45 tank I'l at the time the water is to be discharged
deñected line G, therefore, is employed to desig
nate the new inner margin of the water fog> or
of the carbon dioxide discharge stream will func
through the pipe I6, the carbon dioxide vapor
merely functions as the expelling or propelling
medium for the Water. If the carbon dioxide
rounding and encircling the carbon dioxide
vapor is delivered to the water tank I1 a con
stream, the ñne droplets of the water fog or
the fine bubbles of the water fog foam that are 50 siderable time in advance of the discharge of
the water from this tank so that the water will
properly associated with the periphery of the
be maintained under carbon dioxide vapor pres
carbon dioxide stream. This aspirating action
sure for,.a substantial length of time, the water
produced by the carbon dioxide stream, there
will be carbonated. If the apparatus of Fig. l is
fore, causes the outer margin F-F of the water
tion to carry with the stream, in a zone sur
mounted on a vehicle that is moved some dis
fog or water fog foam discharge to be drawn in
tanice from a fire station to the scene of a fire
to parallelism with the outer margin A-~B of
and the carbon dioxide vapor is delivered to the
the carbon dioxide stream. This defiection of
water tank Il prior to making the “run” to the
the outer margin of the water fog or water fog
fire, the agitation produced by the travel of the
foam discharge is represented by the lines H.
These lines are curved in Fig. 4 axially of the .60 vehicle will assist in bringing about carbonation
of the water in tank I1.
composite discharge and take the form of aV
It has been determined that by employing
circle in Fig. 5. The water fog or water fog
carbonated water, either with a suitable sta
yfoam lying between the circles VH--I-I and A-B
bilizing agent mixed therewith in the tank l1 or
of the pattern disclosure of Fig. 5 will be carried
65 with a stabilizing agent added thereto so as to
along the scene or zone of the ñre by the aspirat
become mixed therewith while flowing through
ing action of' the carbon dioxide stream. Of
the pipe line I3, a new type of foam is produced.
course, this inward deflection of the water fog
This new foam can best be described as a chem»
or water fog foam discharge is accompanied by
ical-mechanical air foam because the bubbles of
entrainment of some of the fog or fog foam by 70 the foam have entrapped therein both carbon
the carbon dioxide vapor portion of the com
dioxide vapor and air. That is to say, the carbon
posite discharge. Such peripheral entrainment
dioxide vapor comes out of solution when the
by the carbon dioxide discharge stream is a nor
mal, inherent function and it will be noted that
carbonated water and foam stabilizer mixture is '
formed and this released carbon dioxide vapor
_if water fog or water fog foam were not being 75 with the air that is entrained at the time of im~
seam
.
,
r13
pingement -Aa?e -entrapped ~ in the "water ” particles
of theV fog.
y
4
'Figure 6 discloses a water tank structure I‘Ia
which> may be4 substituted for the'watertank Il
of the apparatus disclosed in Fig. l when it is
desired to use carbonated water >u-nderall con
ditions'of‘ operation >of this apparatus. This
Chemical tank 69 provides a suitablesource of
supply or bicarbonate of soda and a foamv stabiliz
ingffagent dissolved in water. Tank "Iû'provides
asuitablesource off-supply of aluminum sulphate
dissolveld’i'n water. Thereaction ofthese two
chemicals is ‘wellkno‘wn in the art. The proper
tank I'la is supplied with carbon dioxide vapor
mixture-'of' these two chemicals, withthe stabiliz
fromthe carbon dioxide storage tank ll'ì‘fthrbugh
thef'pipeline 2D and lthe control valve‘Zßo. In 150 ing‘agent; will be vconducted to the foam discharge
adjacentA its bottom so that the'lcarbón dioxide
vapor'w'ill be required to bubble up through the
ring I’2'a by the pipe line I3a. The manner -i-n
which this foam discharge ring I2a functions -to
deliver ïa'plu'rality of -solid streams of the carbon
dioxide bubble type ofv` foam will be explained at
waterstored in` this tank. The’bubbling of the
a» later point.
this arrangement, however, the `pipe line `2f9
extends inwardly ofthe tank >Ila to'a point
fç'arbîon dioxide vapor through `the water will as
sist' i'n effecting carbonation of the latter. >Addi
tional *mean‘s to effect complete v`carbonation Yof
the water byagitating the same is provided' and
The two chemicalïsolutions stored` in thetanks
59 andlß are expelled by carbon dioxide vapor
wh‘ichfis delivered by the pipeline “29 from the
carb'cnfdioxi'de storage tank 6. 'This pipe line -20
takesy the form of the stirring or agitating blades ~` is -provided‘with the same ilow controlling-Tand
pressureg regulating valve‘2íla referred to >in con
G5 'which aremounted on the s-l'iaíttâ that ¿ex
nectionïwith'the disclosure of Fig. 1. The delivery
tends through one end wallïof‘ the tank I'Iar ’for
end of’ this pipe line 20 is formed into two branch
.being- driven by the electric motor, or >other prime
mover.
s1..
A
`
n
y
y
lines "I3 ‘an'd‘ïl4 which are illustratedas extend
,
i‘ -It will be appreciated that this tank I'Ia can
‘be employed in the apparatus of Fig. l, in place
ing into the tanks 69 and'lß to points located
near"the"bott`oms thereof. «When these branch
lines T3=fand T4 are 'arranged in the manner il
bf-the-ill'ustratedtank I'I, either when the appa~
ratus ‘ of Fig. 1 >is ’employed withY the foam
lustrated, the'carbon idi‘oxidevapor discharged in
stabiliàingchemical supply tank I9 operating'as
a> result of` having’ valves .22" and l2,3> open or' when
the foam stabilizer is premixed with the water
up through the chemical solution stored in'these
tanks. The‘agitation of the solutions resulting
inthe tank Ila and the chemical supply tank
I9 `is rendered inoperative by closing valves >22
and 23.
-
¿ Fig. _"I' illustrates apparatus that is designed for
generating chemical foam that is to be discharged
with or independently of the carbon dioxide dis~
charge. This apparatus includes the insulated
storage tank `I5 for liquid-carbon dioxide which,
preferably, isl maintained at a desired `subat
mos'pheric temperature,'and its corresponding
low vapor pressure, by thefcooling coil l thatfis
to the tanks 69 and 'IIJ will be caused tofbubble `
from this- upward movementy of the carbon'ïdiox~
ide> Vapor will help to carbonate the water of
the‘ two solutions. To further aid in carbonat
ing this water, stirring blades 'I‘5 and'lß are lo»
cated'i‘n the tanks-‘69y and'lll respectively and are
_mounted on Shafts 'I1 .and 'I8 which 4extend
through‘the tops'of 'the tanks tof be driven by
e'lectric'motors, or vother prime movers, 'I9 and
80 respectively.
l
tankr'â through the pipe line'B that extends 'to
Thisïuse of carbonated water in preparing'the
chemical solutions stored in the ltanks- 69 and
1t `has been found to produce a chemical foam
which is’` richer in'carb'on dioxide gas; i. e'.,`-vliberates more' of vsuch gas, than chemical foam that
is produced from solutions'prepa'red with un
the carbon idioxide discharge portion’lg ofthe
carbonated water.
-included as apart of a'y mechanical refrigerating
cycle.
~`Ijiquid carbon dioxide Íis withdrawn from the -
discharge apparatus- or nozzle that Vis designated
in its entirely by the reference characterv II. A
'controlr‘valve IÍl is provided inthe pipeline3 so
vadjacent the tank 6. This valve operates‘in 'the
Sarne'manner as the valve bearing the 'same ref
erence character -in the apparatus of Fig. 1. v
lThe discharge nozzle or `apparatus I I, also,
includes the l‘chemical fog `discl‘iarge ring £2.11
which> encircles the carbon dioxide Adischarge
4nozzle portion9. vA pipe line I3a, which may be
either rigid or flexible depending upon the char
acter of the carbon dioxide pipe line 8, is suit- ,
'
Fig. '8‘ 'discloses ’nre extinguishing apparatus
which'~ diners' from the disclosure of Figj’l `only
by the means' for producîngthe chemical foam.
The apparatus of Fig. 8 operates with aI stored
supply of dry foam producing chemical, or chemi
cals, as distinguished from a supply oftwo' foam
producing‘solutions. ‘For that reason, the salme
reference characters will be -applied kto the corre
spendingl structural elements of Fig. Sand these
'elements ‘will not lbe ' specifically referred lto.
' yIn’this apparatus'of‘Fig. 8, the foam delivery '
pipe line" I3a,*has connected thereto a suitable
storage hoppèrl-BI ‘which functions to deliver at
ably attached at itsouter end to the fog discharge a O theV
desired 'rate the‘dry powder chemical or ehem
ring I2a` and extends along a -suitable portion of
icals for producing the. foam. The hopper type
the pipe line 8 to be attached thereto by clamps,
bands, or the like, I4a. If the pipe lines Ill and
`If3a are ñexible for manual manipulation-suit»
-elble'con'trol valves, not shown, yshouldy be inter
posed inboth of these pipe lines adjacentithe
made to villustrate in detail the aspi'rating mech
discharge'nozzle vassembly I l.
v:The pipe line I‘3a’extends' to and communi
stream of water. Conventional hoppertype‘foa'm
generators> are' of two-different styles. One'style
cates with the "manifold pipe 68 -which has its
t'wobranches connected to the^botton1s or“ the
'chemical solution tanks' It9 and 'It respectively.
¿Control valvesi‘II and 'I2 varegprovi'ded' inthe
braincljlesl of ktliiemanifold pipe 88 "for controlling
and ïpropO/r'tíoning'the delivery of fthebhémícal
of foam generating apparatus lis well known `rin
the art and for that reason no attempt has been
anism, etc., by-'ineans of'which the _dryïpowder
îisldeliv'ered to Aand is mixedv with the flowing
uses a single foam producing powdered dry chem
'ica'l‘wliich contains" all'of the necessary ingre
dients to »initiate the chemical reaction for pro
ducing thel desired foam. The other style'uses
two separate powdere'd‘dry chemicals which pro
duce V'solutions ‘at the- generator, these `solutions
acoja-14s
subsequently being brought together, usually at
ciñc'description of these elements will not be
the discharge outlet, so as to mix at that point
to produce foam.
The illustration provided by Fig. 8 is of the
single powder hopper type. It is to be under
repeated.
stood, however, that a two-powder type of hop
The water and foam stabilizer mixture pro
vided by the system of Fig. 1 will be delivered to
the discharge ring 88 by means of the pipe line
I3. This mixture is discharged under the desired
pressure through the series of openings or aper
tures 89. These discharged streams ñow through
per may be substituted without changing the
principle or function of the apparatus as a‘whole.
The dry powder chemical or chemicals used
the air gap 90 and are delivered to the foam dis
in this type of foam generating system are well
charge tubes 9|. While passing through the air
known in the art and need not be specifically
gaps 90, air is entrained and mixes with the water
identified.
and foam stabilizer in the tubes 9| so that solid
Suitable controls 82 are merely diagrammati
streams of mechanical air foam will be dis
cally illustrated and function in a conventional
charged from the outer ends of the tubes 9|.
manner to determine the rate of feed of the 15 This broad idea of entraining air in a mixture
of water and a stabilizing agent to produce
foam producing powder or powders to the water
stream flowing through the pipe line |3a.
mechanical air foam is well known in the art and
The water required to produce the foaming
for that reason a more detailed description will
`not be provided.
.
.
,
solution, when mixed with the powder, or pow
ders, supplied by hopper 8|, is stored in the water
The disclosure of Figs. 11 and 12 illustrates the
mixture discharge openings or apertures 89 and
tank 83. The water in this tank is expelled by
the foam generating and delivering tubes 9| as
carbon dioxide vapor pressure and the vapor pipe
being arranged with respect to the axis of the
line 2U, with its control valve 20a., is illustrated
carbon dioxide discharge nozzle portion 9 so that
for this purpose. Fig. 8, however, illustrates the
pipe line 20 as extending to a point adjacent the 25 the solid foam streams will be discharged in par
allelism with the carbon dioxide discharge. It
bottom of tank 83 so that the liberated vapor
will bubble up through the water to assist in
will be understood, however, that the apertures
carbonating the same. Agitation of this water
89 and tubes 9| >may be so arranged that the solid
foam streams willbe discharged at any desired
to increase the degree and rate of carbonation is
obtained by the stirring blades 84 mounted on 30 angles with respect to the carbon dioxide stream.
Let us now consider the methods of extinguish
the drive shaft 85 which extends outwardly of
ing the various classes of fires that can be per
the tank 83 to be driven by the electric motor,
formed by the apparatusembodying this inven
or other prime mover, 86.
tion.
The combined carbon dioxide and foam dis
charge nozzle or apparatus disclosed in Figs. 9 35
Class "A” fires-Eœtz’nguished by cooling and
and 10 is primarily intended for use in connec
quenching
'
tion with the apparatus illustrated in Figs. 7
and 8. This discharge apparatus of Figs. 9 and
One of the best methods of extinguishing this
10, however, can be incorporated in or used with
class of fires has been determined to consist of
the apparatus of Fig. 1 when the water for the 40 ñrst attacking the ñre with a combined discharge
foam is carbonated in accordance with the dis
of carbon dioxide and water fog to “knock down”
closure of Fig. 6.
_
or extinguish the iiame and partially cool the
The carbon dioxide discharge portion of the
burning material and associated masses of heat
nozzle assembly shown in Figs. 9 and _1,0 is the
absorbing materials or objects, and then follow
same as the carbon dioxide nozzle portion 9 vdis- i, . -up with a discharge of the water fog all by itself.
closed and described in detail in connection with
By so directing the initial discharge of carbon
Figs. 2 and 3. For that reason, the same refer
.dioxide and water fog that the carbon dioxide
ence characters will be applied to identical struc
portion of the composite stream will strike the
tural elements and no further description of this
heart or combustion'zone of the ñre, the encir
carbon dioxide discharge nozzle portion will be 1.5o cling discharge of free water fog will start cool
given at this time.
'
ing down the associated heat absorbing masses
The foam discharging ring 12a is supplied with
because of its wetting action. If the ñre zone is
the desired foam producing solution by the pipe
so large that its combustion zone will take up the
entire discharge of the carbon dioxide and
line |3a. This ring |211 is of hollow construction
and merely includes a desired number of open
water fog, the heat of the ñre will convert the free
Water fog to steam and this conversion will help
ings or orifices 81 through which solid streams
of the chemical foam are discharged. These
to cool the burning material. After the name has
been destroyed and the discharge of carbon di
streams are arranged in parallelism with the
axis of the carbon dioxide discharge nozzle por
oxideÄv has ben stopped, the water fog discharge
tion 9 in the showing provided by Figs. 9 and 10. -60 willv cover a considerably larger area, although
its range has been reduced substantially because
It will be understood, however, that the foam
it cannot rely on the high Velocity carbon
streams may be discharged at any desired angle
dioxide discharge as a carrier. The water fog
with respect to the axis of the carbon dioxide
discharge.
discharge will be employed to thoroughly wet
The discharge apparatus of Figs. 11 and 12 65 down the surfaces of the burnt material and the
can be used to effect independent discharges, or
associated heat absorbing masses with the result
that all glowing embers will be extinguished.
a combined discharge, of carbon dioxide and
mechanical air foam when substituted for the
Of course, the initial attack on the fire may
be performed with only a carbon dioxide dis
discharge apparatus of the system illustratedin
Fig. 1.
70 charge and the water fog discharge not be em
ployed until the final stages of the extinguish
Because the carbon dioxide discharge nozzle
portion of the apparatus shown in Figs. l1 and
ment, or until after the name has disappeared.
12 is the same as the nozzle portion 9 of Figs. 2
This method, however, is not as desirable be
and 3, the same reference characters will be
cause the combined carbon dioxide and water
applied to like structural elements and the spe~ 75 fog discharge possesses a higher total heat ab»
2,502,143*
17
i8
sorbing valuev thandoes the` carbon dioxide when
discharged by‘ itself. Consequently, more carbon
dioxide must be employed in carrying out this
Class "C” fires-_Requiring cooling and frequent
second method and, of course, carbon dioxide is
more expensive .than water.
Because allof the above referred to foams are
composed largely of water which has a pro
nounced coolngand wetting effect that is very
eifective in the. extinguishment .of glowing ern
bers, any one of the described foam discharges
may be substituted for the water fog discharges
in effecting extinguishment of Class “A.” It
will be obvious, however, that the foam produc
ing chemicals will be wasted unless the hazard
Fires involving electrical equipment can often
times be completely extinguished by the use of
carbon dioxide all by itself. However, if a sub
ly quenching
stantial amount of combustible insulating mate
rial is involved, glowing or smoldering portions
of this material can best be quickly extinguished
by quenching. Therefore, this class of fires can
best be handled by ñrst attacking the ñre with
a discharge of carbon dioxideby itself and this
discharge is continued until the flame has been
destroyed and the associated masses of metal that
is of suchv a size or character that the building 15 constitute theframework, casing, or the like, of
the electrical equipment is thoroughly cooled.
up of a foam blanket to .prevent reiiash or re
kindling is deemed necessary.
Class “B” fires-Requiring cooling and
smother'ing
`It has been determined that >the best method
of extinguishing this. classof ñres is by initially
attacking the same 'with a combined discharge
The Yglowing embers of smoldering insulating ma
terial can then be quickly extinguished by a very
short discharge of water fog.
This method of
20 extinguishment results in the saving of a sub
stantial amount of carbon dioxide and the final
wetting down step can be accomplished with such
a small volume of water that it effects very little
if any permanent damage to the equipment.
of carbon dioxide andfoarn. This composite dis
1t is to be understood that I do not desire to
charge is continued .until `the iiame has disap 25
be limited to the exact sequence of method steps
pearedand the associated heat absorbing masses
described above nor to the speciiic form of the
have been cooled to a. temperature. below that at
apparatus that has been disclosed as the method
which’the combustibleyapors »rising from the
steps and apparatus that have been shown and
surface of> the: flammablek liquid willreignite. On
extendediires `which Aarezlarger than the area 30 described are to be taken as preferred examples
only, and that various changes in the method
covered bythe discharge stream >when the dis
steps and in the shape, size, and arrangement of
charge apparatus isheldstationary, it is neces
structural parts may be resorted to without de
sary to begin the attack on onesideand sweep
parting from the spirit of the invention or the
the discharge slowlytover vthe'surface of the burn
scopeof the subjoined claims.
ing material so >astolsweepthe lire from one side
Having thus described the invention, I claim:
to the other. During this action the combined
1. A method of extinguishing a ñre, compris
discharge stream of carbon dioxide and foam is
ing conducting liquid carbon dioxide to a re
manipulated soas `to form >`and maintain a con
gion of release, permitting sudden expansion of
tinuous curtain‘between .the ñre and the flam
the liquid to produce snow and vapor, projecting
mable material which is no longer burning. A
composite discharge will quickly extinguish the
flame in the area whichit covers and will also
leave behind onïthe surface of the ñammable fluid
a thin film of foam `containing particles of car
the snow and vapor into the atmosphere in the
form of a stream, separately generating foam,
projecting the foam in an associated relation with
respect to the carbon dioxide stream, and attack
bon dioxidesnow. ’ Thissurface ñlm will prevent 45 ing the ñre with a combined discharge of the
any sudden reflash which Iwould ordinarily occur
if .the operator allows the discharge stream to
Waver for an instantso that a complete curtain is
carbon dioxide and foam to extinguish the flame
and form a cooling and smothering foam blanket
on the involved material.
2. A method of extinguishing a fire, compris
not maintainedbetween the ñre and the material
that is not burning. Therefore, with this type of 50 ing conducting liquid carbon dioxide to a region
of release, permitting sudden expansion of the liq
composite dischargethe operator will: have nodiî
uid to produce snow and vapor, projecting the
ficulty in :extinguishing relatively large ñres
snow and vapor into the atmosphere in the form
which might otherwise’be impossible to control.
of a stream, separately generating foam by the
After the >iî'nal portion has been extinguished, the
impingement of streams of a mixture of water
foam is discharged by itself for the purpose of in
and a foam stabilizing material, so associating the
creasing the thickness of thefoarn blanket. If
generated foam with the carbon dioxide stream
any of the flammable fluid has spilled over and
that »the carbon dioxide and foam will be simulta
remains on the . surface of the surrounding
neously applied,.and-attacking the iire with a
ground, or the like, the final foam discharge is
employed for blanketing down this free fluid. 60 combined discharge of the carbon dioxide and
foam to extinguish the flamev and form a cooling
The foam yblanket that is thus formed’ on the sur
and smothering foam blanket on the involved
face of Ithe flammable iiuid that still remains in
material.
its original confining tank, pool, or the like, and
3. A methodof extinguishing a fire, compris
on the surface fof the iiammable fluid that is ly
ing conducting liquid carbon dioxide to a region
ing on the surrounding territory, prevents
of release, permitting sudden expansion of the
reignition by accidentally created sparks, or the
liquidto produce snow and vapor, projecting the
like. This blanketing'of?all of the freeñammable
snow and vapor into the atmosphere in the form
fluid is avery important method-step in han
of a stream, separately generating foam, project
dling airplane crash ñres because such 'lires are
almost always accompanied by spilling of a sub 70 ing the foam in‘such a relation to the carbon
dioxide stream that a‘portion of the foam will
stantial‘quantity of lhigh octane aviation gaso
line. This free gasolineis very readily reignited
be entrained by the `carbon dioxide stream for
delivery to the point of application while the re
because ’all that'is'required is `Vfora lspark to be
struck or createdby a wrecking tool: or the heel
mainder of the foam will be carried to the point
of a person engaged in rescue or`salvage work.
75 of application as an encircling envelope by the
2,502,143
i9
20
aspirating action of the carbon dioxide stream,
ing the steps of first attacking the fire with a
combined discharge of carbon dioxide and chemi
cal foam to quickly extinguish the flame, par
tially cool down the combustible material and
and attacking the íire With a combined discharge
of the carbon dioxide and foam to extinguish the
flame and form a cooling and smothering foam
associated heat absorbing masses, and form a
thin cooling and smothering foam blanket on
blanket on the involved material.
4. A method of extinguishing a fire, compris
ing conducting liquid carbon dioxide to a region
said material and masses; and then continuing
of release, permitting sudden expansion of the
liquid to produce snow and vapor, projecting
the discharge of the foam by itself to increase
the depth of the foam blanket until it is suñicient
the snow and vapor into the atmosphere in the
form of a stream, separately generating foam
at one or more points in close proximity to the
to prevent rehash.
periphery of the formed carbon dioxide stream,
projecting the foam in such an associated rela
tion with respect to the carbon dioxide stream
that the carbon dioxide and foam will be simul
taneously applied to the same general area of
the ñre, and attacking the fire With a combined
discharge of the carbon dioxide and foam to
extinguish the flame and form a cooling and
smothering foam blanket on the involved ma
terial.
5. A method of extinguishing a rire, compris
discharge of carbon dioxide to quickly extinguish
10. A method of extinguishing a ñre, compris
ing the steps of ñrst attacking the fire with a
the name and partially cool down the com
bustible material and the associated heat ab
sorbing masses, and While the combustible ma
terial and associated heat absorbing masses are
still partially cooled applying to their surfaces a
cooling and smothering blanket of foam to pre
vent reignition or reflash.
11. In the method for extinguishing a íire in
volving flammable liquid conñned in a tank, or
the like, and spilled over a surrounding area, the
improvement which comprises first attacking the
ing effecting sudden release of liquid carbon
dioxide to lower its pressure sufficiently to form
na mixture of snow and vapor, eiîecting separa
tion of the snow and vapor from each other,
forming the separated snow and vapor into a
, nre with a combined discharge of carbon dioxide
and foam to quickly extinguish the flame, to
lower the temperature of the liquid and the
associated'tank and other adjacent heat absorb
composite discharge stream, separately generat
ing masses to a value below the reignition tem
perature of the liquid vapors, and to leave a
foam deposit on the surfaces of the confined and
spilled liquid; and then delivering to the sur
faces of the conñned and spilled liquid addi
tional foam to build up a foam deposit on said
ing foam, so projecting the foam that it will be _
carried to the point of application by the carbon
dioxide stream, and attacking the nre with a
combined discharge of the carbon dioxide and
foam to extinguish the flame and form a cooling
and smothering foam blanket on the involved
surfaces that will prevent reflash.
12. A method of extinguishing a fire, compris
ing conducting liquid carbon dioxide to a region
of release, permitting sudden expansion of the
liquid to produce snow and vapor, projecting the
material.
6. A method of extinguishing a fire, compris
ing eiîecting sudden release of liquid carbon
dioxide to lower its pressure suñîciently to form
a mixture of snow and vapor, effecting separation
of the snow and vapor from each other, forming
the separated snow and vapor into a composite
stream in which the vapor surrounds the snow,
, snow and vapor into the atmosphere in the form
of a stream, separately generating Water fog
foam, so associating the generated Water fog
foam with the carbon dioxide stream that the
water fog foam will be carried to the point of
1 application by the carbon dioxide stream, and
attacking the fire With a combined discharge of
the carbon dioxide and water fog foam to ex
tinguish the flame and form a cooling and
separately generating foam, so» projecting the
foam that it Will carry to the point of applica.
tion of the carbon dioxide in closely associated
relation with the surrounding vapor `portion of
the carbon dioxide stream, and attacking the
smothering foam blanket on the involved ma
iire With a combined discharge of the carbon
dioxide and foam to extinguish the ñame and all terial.
13. A method of extinguishing a fire, com
form a cooling and smothering foam blanket on
prising conducting liquid carbon dioxide to a re
the involved material.
gion of release, permitting sudden expansion of
7. A method of extinguishing a lire, compris
the liquid toproduce snow and vapor, projecting
ing the steps of first attacking the ñre with a
combined discharge o'f carbon dioxide and foam „ the snow and vapor into the atmosphere in the
form of a stream, separately generating Water
to quickly extinguish the flame, partially cool
fog foam, projecting the water fog foam in such
down the combustible material and associated
a relation to the carbon dioxide stream that a
heat absorbing masses, and form a thin cooling
portion of the water fog foam will be entrained
and smothering foam blanket on said material
V*and masses; and then continuing the discharge Gil by the carbon dioxide stream for delivery to the
point of application While the remainder of the
of the foam by itself to increase the depth of the
water fog foam will be carried to the point of
foam blanket until it is suiiicient to prevent re
application as an encircling envelope by the as
flash.
pirating action of the carbon dioxide stream, and
8. A method of extinguishing a ñre, compris
attacking the ñre with a combined discharge of
ing the steps of ñrst attacking the fire with a
the carbon dioxide and Water fog foam to ex
combined discharge of carbon dioxide and me
tinguish the flame and form a cooling and
chanical air foam to quickly extinguish the flame,
smothering foam blanket on the involved ma
partially cool down the combustible material and
terial.
associated heat absorbing masses, and form a
14. A method of extinguishing a fire, com
thin cooling and smothering foam blanket on 70
prising conducting liquid carbon dioxide to a
said material and masses; and then continuing
region of release, permitting sudden expansion
the discharge of the foam by itself to increase the
of the liquid to produce snow and vapor, pro
depth of the foam blanket until it is sufñcient
jecting the snow and vapor into the atmosphere
to prevent reflash.
9. A method of extinguishing a fire, compris 75 in the form of a stream, separately generating
f'
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